|Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species .||Novara expedition comes to an end.|
Battle of Solferino decides the Sardinian War
and leads to the creation of the Red Cross.
|1859 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1307/08 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1851/52 (September 11-12)|
|Baha'i calendar||15/16 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1264/65 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2402/03 (southern Buddhism); 2401/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1221/22 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4192/93 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1237/38 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1275/76 (July 30/31)|
|Jewish calendar||5619/20 (September 28/29)|
|Coptic calendar||1575/76 (September 11-12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1274/75 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2169/70 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2170/71 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1915/16 (April)|
Politics and world events
- April 29th : With the invasion of Austrian troops, the Sardinian War begins between the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont and its ally France for the Italian possessions of the Habsburgs .
- May 20 : In the Battle of Montebello, the Italo-French troops fight for victory against an Austrian army.
- May 26th : Italian voluntary organizations under Giuseppe Garibaldi defeat Austrian troops under the leadership of Karl von Urban in the Battle of Varese . The troops from Sardinia-Piedmont can then advance to Como .
- May 26th / 27th : Garibaldi defeated Urban troops in the Battle of San Fermo .
- May 31st : France and Sardinia win the Battle of Palestro .
- June 3rd : The French Emperor Napoleon III. defeated the Austrians in the Battle of Boffalora . At the same time, the French also win the Battle of Turbigo .
- June 4th : In the Battle of Magenta Austria suffers a defeat in the Sardinian War. The Duke of Modena , allied with Austria , Francis V , has to leave his country after the battle. Even Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois , regent of Parma , leaving the Duchy on June 9 .
- June 15 : The Austrians win the Battle of Treponti .
- June 24th : The defeat of the Austrians in the Battle of Solferino decides the Sardinian War. The Battle of San Martino also takes place on the same day .
- July 11 : France and Austria sign the preliminary peace at Villafranca .
- July 21 : Grand Duke Leopold II of Toscana from the House of Habsburg , who left his country on April 27 before the war broke out, abdicates in favor of his son Ferdinand IV .
- August 22 : Agenor Gołuchowski is appointed to succeed the Austrian Minister of State Alexander von Bach , who resigned due to the military defeat .
- November 10 : Austria, France and Sardinia-Piedmont sign the Peace of Zurich , ending the Sardinian War . Austria ceded its rights in Lombardy to France, albeit without the fortresses of Peschiera del Garda and Mantua , which were located on the Mincio , the river border with Veneto . Veneto and the northern Italian fortress square remain under Austrian rule. France transfers the rights to Lombardy to Sardinia. Sardinia, on the other hand, assumes 60% of the debt of the Lombard-Venetian pawnshop and 40 million guilders of the national loan of 1854 . The return of the Grand Duke of Toscana, the Duke of Modena and the Duke of Parma , which was negotiated in the preliminary peace of Villafranca, is no longer mentioned in this treaty.
- January 1 : Jakob Stämpfli becomes President of Switzerland for the second time .
- June 27 : The Basel Grand Council resolves to demolish the Basel city wall with its city expansion law .
- July 30th : Rice walking is prohibited by law.
Other events in Europe
- January 17 / February 5 : Under Alexandru Ioan Cuza , the two principalities of Moldova and Wallachia are united in personal union. This forms the basis for the Principality of Romania, founded in 1861 .
- April / May: The Liberal Party wins the UK elections . Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby , is replaced as Prime Minister by Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston , after just one year .
- May 22 : Franz II , who married Duchess Marie in Bavaria on February 3 , succeeds his late father Ferdinand II as the new king in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies .
- June 4 : Austria joins the Dresden Convention , thereby enabling German citizens to enter the country without a passport or visa .
- July 8 : Charles XV. succeeds his late father Oskar I on the throne as King of Sweden . As Charles IV, he also becomes King of Norway , which is linked to Sweden in personal union. The new king is a supporter of Scandinavianism .
- August 25 : Imam Shamil , religious-political leader of the Muslim mountain peoples of Dagestan and Chechnya , surrenders to the Russian troops in the Caucasus War in his hometown of Gunib . He was brought to Saint Petersburg and then sent into exile in Kaluga . The Russian campaign of conquest then concentrated on the Circassian territories .
- 15 / September 16 : the text of the second Eisenacher declaration on August 14 , the official formation takes place of the small German solution to the German Question incoming German National Association in Frankfurt.
Spain / Morocco
- Sidi Muhammad IV becomes Sultan of the Alawids in Morocco after the death of his father Mulai Abd ar-Rahman .
- October 22 : Spain declares Morocco to war after Rif -Bewohner previously repeatedly invaded the Spanish possessions.
Colonies in Asia
- April 20 : The Treaty of Lisbon agrees on the division and exchange of Portuguese and Dutch possessions in the Solor and Timor archipelago between Portugal and the Netherlands . It is the first official agreement between the two colonial powers on the division of territory in Southeast Asia .
- April 29th : Afonso de Castro , appointed last year, takes office as governor of Portuguese Timor . He replaces Luís Augusto de Almeida Macedo .
- The so-called Ansei purges under Ii Naosuke will continue. He is trying to eliminate his political opponents and to preserve the Tokugawa shogunate .
- December 10 : By proclamation of Queen Victoria is Queensland as a separate colony of New South Wales separated.
- February 14th : Oregon is separated from the Oregon Territory within its current borders and admitted to the United States as the 33rd state . The first governor is John Whiteaker , who replaces the previous territorial governor, George Law Curry . The eastern part of the territory is added to the Washington Territory .
- February 28 : In New Mexico Territory , on the territory of today's Arizona , is the first Indian reservation established, the Gila River Indian Community .
- June 15 : The American farmer Lyman Cutlar shoots a pig in the San Juan Islands that is feasting on his potatoes. The animal, owned by an employee of the British Hudson's Bay Company , is the only victim in the ensuing pig conflict between the United States and Great Britain. The conflict over the border between the Washington Territory and British Columbia was not settled until October 21, 1872 through an arbitration ruling by the German Emperor Wilhelm I.
- October 16 : John Brown begins an armed slave liberation riot in Harpers Ferry , Virginia , which fails after just two days.
- October 24th : Jefferson Territory is established. It includes parts of the Kansas Territory , Nebraska Territory , New Mexico Territory , Utah Territory, and Washington Territory , but is not recognized by the US federal government.
- December 2 : John Brown , a leader of the anti-slavery guerrillas in the United States , dies on the gallows in Charles Town, West Virginia , convicted of murder, instigating a slave rebellion, and treason . The march John Brown's Body , composed after his execution, became a popular battle song of the Union troops during the Civil War .
- One year after the founding of the Irish Republican Brotherhood in Dublin, the Fenian Brotherhood was founded in New York with the same goals.
- February 20 : Federal War breaks out in Venezuela . Lieutenant Colonel Tirso Salaverría occupies the military base in Coro in a single coup , giving the signal for the federalists to revolt. The first major battle took place on September 2nd at Maiquetía , then on December 10th at Barinas . The federalists, led by General Ezequiel Zamora, are victorious . Zamora can consolidate his control of the Llanos and prepare for the advance of the Liberals north.
- In Mexico , under the leadership of the reactionary General Leonardo Márquez, the liberal stronghold of Tacubaya is taken and the prisoners and doctors who treated liberals are massacred. Márquez is promoted to division general by Miguel Miramón on April 11th .
- October 23 : The Battle of Cepeda takes place in Cañada de Cepeda (Santa Fe, Argentina ) after the province of Buenos Aires breaks away from the Argentine Confederation to form its own independent state. The Confederates, led by Justo José de Urquiza , defeat the provincial troops under Bartolomé Miter . On November 11th , Buenos Aires and the Confederation, after mediation by the Paraguayan War Minister Francisco Solano López , sign the San José de Flores Pact , through which Buenos Aires de iure becomes a member of the Confederation again. However, the province is granted certain privileges.
The Suez Canal
- April 25th : The construction of the Suez Canal begins - still without a permit - with the groundbreaking ceremony near today's Port Said by Ferdinand Vicomte de Lesseps .
Gold rush, silver rush and oil boom
- January 15 : The first gold vein is discovered in the Nebraska Territory in what will later become the US state of Colorado . The Gold Hill region is becoming attractive for miners to settle .
- May 6th : The first gold vein is found by gold prospector John H. Gregory at Pike's Peak in western Kansas Territory , which gives a new boost to an already established Colorado gold rush in the American Midwest . On June 16 , the city is Golden founded.
- August 27 : Edwin L. Drake comes across the coveted raw material while drilling near Titusville , Pennsylvania , where crude oil suddenly seeped from the ground in 1857 . The age of the petroleum industry begins with the now possible industrial promotion .
- The Comstock Lode silver ore vein is discovered near the capital, Carson City, in the Nevada Territory . In the ensuing silver rush, the city of Virginia City emerges .
- Mathias Salcher founds the Mathias Salcher & Sons iron yarn factory in Harland . His son Josef Salcher becomes the head of this factory .
- The Südbahngesellschaft is founded in Austria . As the successor to the Imperial and Royal Southern State Railway , the company operates the Vienna-Trieste railway line, which also includes the Semmering Railway . Most of the capital comes from French investors.
- George Huntington Hartford and George Gilman found The Great American Tea Company .
- May 17th : With the opening of the section from Trento to Bolzano , the route of the future Brenner Railway through the Adige Valley is completed.
- August 18 : The Rhine bridge Waldshut – Koblenz , built by the Grand Ducal Baden State Railways together with the Swiss Northeast Railway , is put into operation. The completed Turgi – Koblenz – Waldshut line is the first connection between the Baden main line and the Swiss railway network.
- December 20th : In Austria, a new trade regulation is issued, with which the freedom of trade is introduced. It comes into force on May 1, 1860.
- The sixth and last trade exhibition in the Kingdom of Hanover is organized by the Trade Association for the Kingdom of Hanover .
science and technology
The Novara expedition
- January 2nd : The Novara expedition , an Austrian research expedition that began in 1857 , leaves New Zealand .
- February 2nd to 23rd : stay in Tahiti
- April 24th : stay in front of Valparaíso
- August 1st : The expedition reaches Gibraltar .
- August 26 : The Novara expedition comes to an end after more than two years of voyage with the return of the frigate SMS Novara to Trieste .
- September 16 : Lake Nyasa is sighted by David Livingstone and his companions as the first Europeans.
- November 24 : Charles Darwin 's On the Origin of Species , the foundational work in his evolutionary theory , is published. The first edition is sold out after a short time.
- Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen find out that different chemical elements color the flame of a gas burner in a characteristic way and thus lay the basis for spectroscopy . In the course of this research Kirchhoff established his law of thermal radiation, which became known as Kirchhoff's law of radiation .
- The Austrian doctor and botanist Friedrich Welwitsch discovered the Welwitschia plant in the Portuguese colony of Angola .
- George Engelmann's extensively illustrated work Cactaceae of the Boundary is published, which gives an overview of all North American cactus species known to date .
- The British botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker leading the first description of the pitcher plant Nepenthes rajah through.
Philosophy / Political Science / Economics
- November 24 : The by French naval architect de Henri Dupuy Lome designed steam frigate La Gloire , the world's first ocean-going ironclad , has in the dockyard of Toulon their launch . It represents a turning point in warship building.
Theology and history
- February 7th : The Codex Sinaiticus is found by Konstantin von Tischendorf in the Katharinenkloster on Mount Sinai (Egypt).
Culture and society
- On behalf of the impresario Rudolf Cerf , the architect Eduard Titz built the Berlin Victoria-Theater based on plans by Carl Ferdinand Langhans , a unique architectural experiment that includes a summer and a winter theater , i.e. an auditorium open on the sides and a closed auditorium in between lying common stage united in itself.
- Édouard Manet is offering his work The Absinthe Drinker, which he began last year, to the biennial Salon de Paris . The jury rejected the picture, however, only Eugène Delacroix was in favor of inclusion in the exhibition.
- Eastman Johnson paints his most famous work, Negro Life at the South .
Music and theater
- January 22nd : At the world premiere of the 1st Piano Concerto by Johannes Brahms at the Royal Court Theater in Hanover under the direction of Joseph Joachim , the composer himself sits at the piano. Another performance will take place on January 27 at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig. The reviews are devastating.
- February 17th : The opera Un ballo in maschera (A masked ball) by Giuseppe Verdi is premiered with triumphant success at the Teatro Apollo in Rome.
- March 19 : The world premiere of the opera Faust by Charles Gounod takes place at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris. The work with the libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré based on Goethe's Faust I was a great success from the start.
- March 31 : The play Lohengrin by Johann Nestroy and Carl Binder has its world premiere at the Carltheater in Vienna. The piece parodies the opera Lohengrin by Richard Wagner , Nestroy's second such piece after the Tannhauser travesty . In contrast to the latter, the audience and critics reacted disappointed this time.
- April 4 : The first version of the Opéra-comique Dinorah ou Le pardon de Ploërmel by Giacomo Meyerbeer has its world premiere at the Opéra-Comique in Paris. The libretto is by Jules Barbier with the collaboration of Michel Carré on the basis of his story Les chercheurs de trésor . At the end of the year there will also be a German-language premiere at the ducal court theater in Coburg.
- March: Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostoyewski writes the novel Uncle's Dream in the Siberian exile , which is published in the magazine Russisches Wort .
- April the 30th bis 26. November : Charles Dickens published in several parts of his novel A Tale of Two Cities ( A Tale of Two Cities ) in the magazine he founded in All the Year Round . The book then printed becomes the most printed original English-language book of all time, with over 200 million copies sold.
- Summer: Joseph Victor von Scheffel writes the Frankenlied .
- May 31st : Big Ben sounds for the first time with the strike of Westminster from the clock tower of the Palace of Westminster .
- June 28th : The world's first dog show takes place in Newcastle upon Tyne , UK .
- September 20th : The first Danish zoo opens its doors to visitors in Copenhagen .
- October: Four years after its founding in 1855 , the German Schiller Foundation is constituted on the poet's 100th birthday .
- 8. bis 10. November : On the occasion of the 100th birthday of Friedrich Schiller is at all German colleges and universities Schiller hard committed.
- November 12th : Jules Léotard is the first person to perform a somersault from the trapeze at the Cirque Napoléon in Paris . The aerial rope act flying trapeze is born.
- The Free German Hochstift is founded.
- Under the direction of the private scholar Carl Schiller , Die Ehrlichen Kleiderseller zu Braunschweig was founded with the aim of setting up a local museum. The first members include Wilhelm Brandes and Ludwig Hänselmann .
- August 29 : Giuseppe Verdi marries his longtime partner, the former singer Giuseppina Strepponi .
- September 17 : Joshua Norton , a businessman from San Francisco who went bankrupt the previous year, declares himself "Emperor of this United States" in letters to the local media . On October 12, he issued a decree ordering the dissolution of Congress in Washington.
- October 10 : The Schlaraffia Men's Association , a worldwide German-speaking association for the cultivation of friendship, art and humor, is founded in Prague.
- April 27th : Pope Pius IX. publishes the encyclical Cum Sancta Mater Ecclesiae , with which he calls for public prayer for the victims of the Italian wars of unification .
- May 20 : The foundation stone is laid in Berlin for the New Synagogue designed by Eduard Knoblauch and Friedrich August Stüler .
- June 18 : In the encyclical Quinuper , Pope Pius IX criticizes. the Italian unification movement and comments on the position of the " papal state ".
- December 18 : In Turin the priest Johannes Bosco founds a religious community known as the Salesians of Don Bosco .
nature and environment
In the night from September 1st to September 2nd, the solar storm of 1859 took place as the most powerful solar storm to date . The telegraph network , which was still in its infancy at this point in time, is being massively damaged, and northern lights are seen far to the south, for example in Rome, Havana and Hawaii . The English astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington observed solar flares for the first time on this occasion .
- October 26th : The British clipper Royal Charter gets caught in a severe storm off Anglesey . The ship is thrown against the rocks, breaks apart and sinks. 449 people die, including all women and children on board. The sinking of the Royal Charter is the worst shipping disaster on the coast of Wales to this day . The storm, later known as the Royal Charter storm, reached the coasts of Wales, England and Scotland a little later and wreaked havoc. 133 ships and boats are sunk, and the storm kills around 800 people.
- November 5th : During the great fire in Rodenberg , the Rodenberg Castle burns down, among other things .
- December 17th : In Frederiksborg Castle , the Danish royal residence, a major fire raged the day before and destroyed the furnishings in the entire main building.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
- June 18 : The English alpinist Francis Fox Tuckett completes the first ascent of the Aletschhorn in the Bernese Alps with the Swiss mountain guides Johann Josef Benet , Peter Bohren and V. Tairraz .
- July 30th : A rope team led by Charles Joseph Sainte-Claire Deville succeeds in the first ascent of the Combin de Grafeneire , the highest peak in the Grand Combin in the Valais Alps .
- 9 September : Melchior Anderegg and Leslie Stephen are the first to climb the 4,199 m high Rimpfischhorn in the Valais Alps.
- November 15th : The first Olympics take place in Athens . The model for the event organized by the merchant Evangelos Zappas is the ancient Olympic Games .
Historical maps and views
- January 1 : Honorio Alarcón , Colombian pianist and music teacher († 1920 )
- January 2 : Fritz Riemann , German chess player († 1932 )
- January 6 : Samuel Alexander , British philosopher († 1938 )
- January 6 : Alfred-Henri-Marie Baudrillart , French Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1942 )
- January 6 : Duncan U. Fletcher , American politician († 1936 )
- January 9 : Fredrik Pijper , Dutch Reformed theologian and church historian († 1926 )
- January 10 : Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia , Spanish educator († 1909 )
- January 11 : Francisco d'Andrade , Portuguese opera singer († 1921 )
- January 11 : George Nathaniel Curzon , British politician († 1925 )
- January 12 : Henry Heitfeld , American politician († 1938 )
- January 12 : Dietrich Behrens , German Romanist († 1929 )
- January 13 : Karl Bleibtreu , German writer († 1928 )
- January 15 : Nathaniel Lord Britton , American geologist and botanist († 1934 )
- January 16 : Jón Magnússon , Icelandic Prime Minister († 1926 )
- January 17 : Archibald Gracie , American historian, businessman and writer († 1912 )
- January 18 : Gonzalo Carrasco Espinosa , Mexican clergyman and religious painter († 1936 )
- January 22nd : Paul Gilbert , German judge, local politician, homeland researcher, club and association functionary († 1925 )
- January 26 : Richard Wossidlo , German ethnologist († 1939 )
- January 27 : Émery Lavigne , Canadian pianist, organist and music teacher († 1902 )
- January 27 : Wilhelm II , Prussian King and last German Emperor († 1941 )
- January 29 : Heinrich Schenkl , Austrian classical philologist († 1919 )
- February 3 : Hugo Junkers , German engineer and entrepreneur († 1935 )
- February 4 : Justus Strandes , German businessman and politician († 1930 )
- February 5 : Carl Georg Friedrich Baur , German entrepreneur († 1935 )
- February 5 : Louis Cheikhô , Iraqi orientalist and theologian († 1927 )
- February 6 : Wilhelm Cohn , German chess player († 1913 )
- February 6 : Jakob Julius David , Austrian journalist and writer († 1906 )
- February 8 : Gabriele Reuter , German writer († 1941 )
- February 9 : Yoshifuru Akiyama , Japanese general († 1930 )
- February 9 : Robert Hope-Jones , British organ builder († 1914 )
- February 10 : Georg Ferdinand Dümmler , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1896 )
- February 10 : Alexandre Millerand , French statesman and politician († 1943 )
- February 14 : Bernhard Ankermann , German ethnologist and Africa researcher († 1943 )
- February 14 : Charles Fletcher Johnson , American lawyer and politician († 1930 )
- February 15 : Louis-Joseph Maurin , French clergyman, Archbishop of Lyon and Cardinal († 1936 )
- February 17 : Peter Dybwad , German architect of Norwegian origin († 1921 )
- February 19 : Svante Arrhenius , Swedish physicist and chemist († 1927 )
- February 22 : Samuel D. Nicholson , American politician († 1923 )
- February 24 : Wilhelm Schmid , German classical philologist († 1951 )
- February 25 : Leonid Konstantinowitsch Artamonow , Russian engineer, explorer and officer († 1932 )
- February 25 : John Burke , American politician († 1937 )
- February 26 : Karl Maria Alexander von Auersperg , Austrian landowner and politician († 1927 )
- February 27 : Bertha Pappenheim , German women's rights activist and social worker († 1936 )
- March 1 : Georg Arnhold , German banker and pacifist († 1926 )
- March 2 : Sholem Alejchem , Yiddish writer († 1916 )
- March 4 : Carl Prüssing , German chemist († 1912 )
- March 6 : Louis Boutan , French biologist († 1934 )
- March 9 : Peter Altenberg , Austrian writer († 1919 )
- March 14 : Adolf Bertram , Bishop of Hildesheim and Archbishop of Breslau († 1945 )
- March 16 : Alexander Stepanowitsch Popow , Russian physicist († 1906 )
- March 17 : Albert Vater , German politician and co-founder of the KPD in Magdeburg († 1923 )
- March 20 : Ludwig Auspitz , German theater actor and opera singer († 1917 )
- March 21 : Daria Karađorđević , American golfer and Princess of Serbia († 1938 )
- March 24 : Rudolf Jung , German historian and archivist († 1922 )
- March 25 : Johanna Naber , Dutch feminist († 1941 )
- March 26 : Adolf Hurwitz , German mathematician († 1919 )
- March 27 : Niels Pedersen Mols , Danish animal and landscape painter († 1921 )
- March 28 : Edmund Musgrave Barttelot , British officer († 1888 )
- March 29 : Eugen Oberhummer , German geographer († 1944 )
- April 3 : Maximilian Eugen Graf von Attems-Gilleis , Austrian Imperial Count († 1939 )
- April 3 : Reginald De Koven , American composer († 1920 )
- April 3 : Arthur Salomonsohn , German banker († 1930 )
- April 5 : Anton Aicher , Austrian sculptor († 1930 )
- April 5 : Friedrich Lutzmann , German inventor, designer and entrepreneur († 1930 )
- April 5 : Bartholomeus van Ommeren , Dutch editor and anarchist († 1907 )
- April 7 : Carl Pauen , German modern pentathlon († 1935 )
- April 7 : Jacques Loeb , German-American biologist († 1924 )
- April 8 : Edmund Husserl , Czech philosopher, founder of phenomenology († 1938 )
- April 9 : Julius Hart , German poet and literary critic of naturalism († 1930 )
- April 9 : Henri Lavedan , French writer and journalist († 1940 )
- April 16 : Friedrich Traugott Helbig , Saxon sculptor († 1886 )
- April 16 : Samuel D. Felker , American politician († 1932 )
- April 18 : Viktor Apfelbeck , Austrian-Yugoslav entomologist and museum curator († 1934 )
- April 18 : Kurt von Schleinitz , German officer († 1928 )
- April 20 : Vincenzo Cerulli , Italian astronomer († 1927 )
- April 22nd : August Friedrich Ferdinand Asmus , German homeland researcher and genealogist († 1945 )
- April 22nd : Hermann Bendix , German teacher, cantor and composer († 1935 )
- April 22 : Friedrich Marx , German classical philologist († 1941 )
- April 22 : Filip Rězak , Sorbian pastor, translator and dictionary author († 1921 )
- April 24 : Hans Bennecke , German legal scholar († 1898 )
- May 1 : Bohuslav Jeremiáš , Czech composer, organist, conductor and music teacher († 1918 )
- May 2 : Jerome K. Jerome , English author († 1927 )
- May 3 : Andy Adams , American writer († 1935 )
- May 3 : José Gallegos y Arnosa , Spanish painter, sculptor and architect († 1917 )
- May 4 : Albert Grühn , German-Baltic theologian and Protestant martyr († 1906 )
- May 5 : Gustav Roethe , German Old Germanist († 1926 )
- May 8 : Johann Ludwig Jensen , Danish mathematician († 1925 )
- May 9 : Richard Mandl , Austrian composer († 1918 )
- May 12 : Rudolf von Bennigsen , German colonial official and governor of German New Guinea († 1912 )
- May 12 : August von Brandis , German impressionist painter († 1947 )
- May 13 : Kate Marsden , British nurse and leprosy researcher († 1931 )
- May 15 : Pierre Curie , French physicist and Nobel Prize winner († 1906 )
- May 16 : Frieda Schanz , German author, editor and teacher († 1944 )
- May 19 : Stanislaw Eksner , Russian pianist and music teacher († after 1921)
- May 19 : Eugène Py , Franco-Argentine film pioneer († 1924 )
- May 19 : Paul Staudinger , German explorer and private scholar († 1933 )
- May 20 : Jakob Degen (administrative officer) , Bavarian administrative officer and district administrator / district administrator in Kronach († 1947 )
- May 21 : Otto Hupp , German graphic artist († 1949 )
- May 22 : Arthur Conan Doyle , British doctor and writer († 1930 )
- May 23 : Otto Pniower , German literary scholar († 1932 )
- May 24th : Emil Thormählen , German architect († 1941 )
- May 26 : Felipe Agoncillo , Filipino lawyer and diplomat († 1941 )
- May 29 : Konrad Burdach , German Germanist († 1936 )
- May 29 : Hugo Hergesell , German meteorologist and geophysicist († 1938 )
- June 5 : Eduard Anthes , German archaeologist († 1922 )
- June 8 : Smith Wigglesworth , British craftsman, evangelist and Pentecostal preacher († 1947 )
- June 11 : Johannes Oscar Schubert , German mathematician, physicist, geodesist and meteorologist († 1947 )
- June 12 : Thomas J. Walsh , American politician († 1933 )
- June 13 : Howard MacNutt , American Bahai and disciple of Abdu'l Bahas († 1926 )
- June 15 : Karl Peucker , Austrian geographer and cartographer († 1940 )
- June 15 : Friedrich Schirmer , Mayor of Bunzlau and Lord Mayor of Wittenberg († 1945 )
- June 17 : John Wilbur Chapman , American Presbyterian pastor, author, church leader, and evangelist († 1918 )
- June 17 : Georg Wissowa , German philologist († 1931 )
- June 19 : Moltke Moe , Norwegian folklorist († 1913 )
- June 19 : Heinrich Sohnrey , German folk writer and publicist († 1948 )
- June 20 : Christian von Ehrenfels , Austrian philosopher († 1932 )
- June 22nd : Frank Damrosch , German-American conductor and music educator († 1937 )
- June 23 : Emanuel Nobel , Swedish-Russian oil magnate († 1932 )
- June 23 : Tsubouchi Shōyō , Japanese playwright, narrator and translator († 1935 )
- June 30th : Paul Cinquevalli , German juggler († 1918 )
- July 1st : Edouard Alfred Martel , French cave explorer († 1938 )
- July 2 : Otto Böckel , German librarian, folk song researcher and anti-Semitic politician († 1923 )
- July 6 : Verner von Heidenstam , Swedish poet († 1940 )
- July 9 : Wilhelm Hallwachs , German physicist († 1922 )
- July 13 : Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield , British social scientist and politician († 1947 )
- July 14 : Willy Hess , German violin virtuoso and teacher († 1939 )
- July 17th : Emanuel Hugo Eugen Ottokar von Aderkas , Russian administrative lawyer, Privy Councilor and landowner († 1921 )
- July 17 : Karl Albert Asal , German lawyer († 1929 )
- July 17 : Jakob Christoph Heer , Swiss writer († 1925 )
- July 19 : Carl Ludwig Schleich , German doctor and writer († 1922 )
- July 22 : Maria Janitschek , Austrian writer († 1927 )
- July 28 : Mary Antoinette Anderson , American stage actress († 1940 )
- July 28 : Léon César Autonne , French engineer and mathematician († 1916 )
- July 28 : Franz Eugen Schlachter , Swiss revival preacher and translator of the Schlachter Bible († 1911 )
- July 29 : Georg Ziegler , German missionary in China († 1923 )
- August 4 : Knut Hamsun , Norwegian writer († 1952 )
- August 6 : Arthur Berson , German meteorologist († 1942 )
- August 6 : Alfred Hettner , German geographer († 1941 )
- August 6 : Carl Schuchhardt , German prehistorian († 1943 )
- August 8 : Kathinka Hedwig Agerskov , Danish genre painter († 1890 )
- August 10 : Georg Alexander Pick , Austrian mathematician († 1942 )
- August 12 : Ludwig Ausserwinkler , German chemist and photographer († 1933 )
- August 13 : John Grenfell Maxwell , British general († 1929 )
- August 15 : Richard Irvine Manning III , American politician († 1931 )
- August 17 : Helene Anton , German writer († 1931 )
- August 18 : Anna Ancher , Danish impressionist painter († 1935 )
- August 21 : Westmoreland Davis , American politician († 1942 )
- August 23 : Franz Porten , German opera singer (baritone) and film director († 1932 )
- August 26 : James Willard Schultz , American writer († 1947)
- August 27 : Ferdinand Schirnböck , Austrian academic painter and engraver († 1930 )
- September 3 : Alfred Aubert , Swiss politician († 1923 )
- September 3 : Jean Jaurès , French politician († 1914 )
- September 3 : Hugo Türpe , German cornet virtuoso and composer († 1891 )
- September 5 : Borys Jakowytsch Bukrejew , Ukrainian mathematician († 1962 )
- September 9 : William Reed , Canadian organist and composer († 1945 )
- September 12 : Curt von Hagen , German colonial official († 1897 )
- September 13 : Charles D. Kimball , American politician († 1930 )
- September 14 : Hans von Arnim , German classical philologist († 1931 )
- September 16 : Yuan Shikai , Chinese army leader, president and self-proclaimed emperor († 1916 )
- September 17 : Frank Dawson Adams , Canadian geologist († 1942 )
- September 22 : Rudolph Bergh , Danish composer († 1924 )
- September 23 : Archie Hunter , Scottish football player († 1894 )
- September 24 : Julius Klengel , German cellist († 1933 )
- September 25 : Johannes Kirchner , German classical philologist († 1940 )
- September 26 : Ernst Anemüller , German philologist, high school professor and librarian († 1943 )
- September 28 : Fritz Milkau , German librarian and library scientist († 1934 )
- September 30 : Gustav Kampmann , German painter and graphic artist († 1917 )
- October 6 : Elsa von Blumen : American cyclist († 1935 )
- October 9 : Alfred Dreyfus , French officer († 1935 )
- October 9 : Ludwig Noster , German court portrait painter († 1910 )
- October 10 : Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Alexander Adolf Maurer , German doctor († 1936 )
- October 14 : Alfred Bock , German manufacturer and writer († 1932 )
- October 14 : Camille Chevillard , French composer and conductor († 1923 )
- October 14 : Ravachol , French terrorist († 1892 )
- October 16 : Karl Blodig , Austrian mountaineer, ophthalmologist and publicist († 1956 )
- October 17 : Buck Ewing , American baseball player († 1906 )
- October 17 : Paolo Orsi , Italian archaeologist († 1935 )
- October 17 : Miguel Antonio Otero , American politician († 1944 )
- October 18 : Henri Bergson , French philosopher and Nobel Prize winner († 1941 )
- October 19 : Georg Knorr , German engineer and entrepreneur († 1911 )
- October 20 : John Dewey , American philosopher and educator († 1952 )
- October 20 : Guglielmo Zuelli , Italian composer, conductor and music teacher († 1941 )
- October 22 : Karl Muck , German conductor († 1940 )
- October 26 : Arthur Friedheim , Russian-German pianist and composer († 1932 )
- November 1 : George WP Hunt , first governor of Arizona († 1934 )
- November 1 : Gerbrandus Jelgersma , Dutch psychiatrist and neurologist († 1942 )
- November 4 : Stanisław Niewiadomski , Polish composer, conductor, music teacher and critic († 1936 )
- November 5 : Walter Wislicenus , initiator of the annual astronomical reports († 1905 )
- November 6th : Máximo Arrates Boza , Panamanian composer († 1936 )
- November 7th : Johannes Mayerhofer , Austrian artist and author († 1925 )
- November 9 : Håkon Løken , Norwegian lawyer, journalist and politician († 1923 )
- November 10th : Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen , Swiss-French painter and graphic artist († 1923 )
- November 14 : Philipp Victor Achilles Andreae , German geologist and paleontologist († 1905 )
- November 14 : Alexander Wassiljewitsch Samsonow , Russian general († 1914 )
- November 15 : Christopher Hornsrud , Norwegian politician of the Social Democratic Labor Party († 1960 )
- November 17 : Edmund Hauler , Austrian classical philologist († 1941 )
- November 19 : Olga Arendt , German writer and actress († 1902 )
- November 19 : Michail Michailowitsch Ippolitow-Iwanow , Russian composer and conductor († 1935 )
- November 22nd : Paul Desjardins , French philosopher and philologist († 1940 )
- November 23 : Billy the Kid , American gunslinger and outlaw from the Wild West († 1881 )
- November 30 : Hermann Hepp , German farmer, politician and member of the German Reichstag († 1919 )
- November 30 : Jefferson De Angelis , American actor and singer († 1933 )
- November 30 : Sergei Mikhailovich Lyapunov , Russian composer and pianist († 1924 )
- December 2 : Georges Seurat , French inventor and painter († 1891 )
- December 2 : Ludwig Knorr , German chemist († 1921 )
- December 3 : Josef Cyrill Sychra , Czech composer, organist, choir director and music teacher († 1935 )
- December 4 : Ludwig Ahlmann , German banker and politician († 1942 )
- December 5 : John Jellicoe , British admiral († 1935 )
- December 6 : Nicolás León , Mexican medic, archaeologist and anthropologist († 1929 )
- December 7th : Octaviano Larrazolo , American politician († 1930 )
- December 7th : Martin Möbius , German botanist († 1946 )
- December 8 : William Henry O'Connell , Archbishop of Boston and Cardinal († 1944 )
- December 12 : Hans Georg Wilhelm von Schubert , German Protestant theologian and historian († 1931 )
- December 13 : Edwin F. Ladd , American politician († 1925 )
- December 13 : Joseph Turmel , French theologian and historian († 1943 )
- December 14 : Nikolai Bezhanitsky , Russian Orthodox priest and martyr in Estonia († 1919 )
- December 15 : Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof , Polish ophthalmologist, Esperanto founder († 1917 )
- December 21 : Gustave Kahn , French writer († 1936 )
- December 22nd : Otto Hölder , German mathematician († 1937 )
- December 23 : Richard Bartmuß , German composer († 1910 )
- December 24 : Samuel Fischer , German publisher († 1934 )
- December 24th : Roman Statkowski , Polish composer and music teacher († 1925 )
- December 24th : Ludwig von Estorff , German infantry general († 1943 )
- December 26 : William Stephens , American politician († 1944 )
- December 26th : Johan Frans van Bemmelen , Dutch paleontologist and zoologist († 1956 )
- December 28 : Karl Eckstein , forest scientist and entomologist († 1939 )
- December 29th : Venustiano Carranza , Mexican president and revolutionary († 1920 )
- December 29 : Elizabeth Adela Forbes , Canadian late Impressionist painter († 1912 )
- December 30th : Josef Bohuslav Foerster , Czech composer († 1951 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Auguste Adib Pacha , Lebanese politician († 1936 )
- Paul Aichele , German sculptor († 1920 )
- Sara Louisa Blomfield , Anglo-Irish Bahai and author († 1939 )
- Rudolf Rempel , German chemist († 1893 )
- Flaviano Khoury , Syrian Archbishop († 1920 )
January to April
- January 6th : Bernhard Baader , German collector of Baden sagas (* 1790 )
- January 18 : Alfred Vail , American engineer and inventor (* 1807 )
- January 18 : William Slade , American politician (* 1786 )
- January 20 : Bettina von Arnim , German socially critical writer (* 1785 )
- January 22nd : Joseph Ludwig Raabe , Swiss mathematician (* 1801 )
- January 26 : Lodewijk Gerard Visscher , Dutch literary scholar and historian (* 1797 )
- January 28 : Carl Adolph Agardh , Swedish botanist (* 1785 )
- January 28 : Eugen von Maucler , German politician (* 1783 )
- January 29 : William Cranch Bond , American astronomer (* 1789 )
- January 29 : William Hickling Prescott , American historian (* 1796 )
- February 9 : Karl Caesar Antz , German doctor and botanist (* 1805 )
- February 10 : Anna Maria Maximiliane Stephania Karoline Johanna Luisa Xaveria Nepomucena Aloysia Benedicta , Hereditary Grand Duchess of Tuscany (* 1836 )
- February 13th : Eliza Acton , English cook, cookbook author and poet (* 1799 )
- February 25 : Edward A. Hannegan , American politician (* 1807 )
- February 26 : Ferdinand Schubert , Austrian composer (* 1794 )
- March 3 : Johann Günther Friedrich Cannabich , German geographer, pastor and educator (* 1777 )
- March 5 : Henry S. Geyer , American politician (* 1790 )
- March 6 : Vincenz von Augustin , Austrian Feldzeugmeister (* 1780 )
- March 8 : Aaron V. Brown , American politician (* 1795 )
- March 15 : Adelaide Tosi , Italian opera singer (* 1800 )
- March 19 : Oliver H. Smith , American politician (* 1794 )
- March 19 : Jacob van Hall , Dutch legal scholar (* 1799 )
- March 28 : Carl C. Ackermann , German publisher (* 1790 )
- March 30th : Charles C. Stratton , American politician (* 1796 )
- April 1 : Amalie Sieveking , German philanthropist (* 1794 )
- April 5 : Basile Kfoury , Lebanese bishop in Egypt (* 1794 )
- April 12 : Francis M. Dimond , American politician (* 1796 )
- April 16 : Alexis de Tocqueville , French publicist and politician (* 1805 )
- April 18 : Heinrich Friedrich von Arnim-Heinrichsdorff-Werbelow , Prussian statesman (* 1791 )
- April 21 : Karl Friedrich Nägelsbach , German classical philologist (* 1806 )
- April 21 : Otto Sendtner , German botanist and university professor (* 1813 )
- April 30th : Johann Melchior Schuler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and local researcher (* 1779 )
May to August
- May 6 : Alexander von Humboldt , German researcher and explorer (* 1769 )
- May 8 : José de Madrazo y Agudo , Spanish painter (* 1781 )
- May 10 : Bertha Arndts , German writer (* 1809 )
- May 12 : Sergei Timofejewitsch Aksakow , Russian writer (* 1791 )
- May 22nd : Ferdinand II , King of Naples and the Two Sicilies (* 1810 )
- June 11 : Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich , Austrian statesman (* 1773 )
- June 17 : Albert August Wilhelm Deetz , Prussian soldier, member of the Frankfurt National Assembly (* 1798 )
- June 22nd : Cornelis Adriaan Bergsma , Dutch chemist, botanist and agricultural scientist (* 1798 )
- June 23 : Maria Pawlowna , Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (* 1786 )
- June 29 : Kamilo Mašek , Czech composer (* 1831 )
- July 3 : August Wilhelm Bullrich , German pharmacist (* 1802 )
- July 8 : Oskar I , King of Sweden and Norway (* 1799 )
- July 17th : Stephanie von Hohenzollern , Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Queen of Portugal (* 1837 )
- August 1st : Stefan Bogoridi , Phanariot of Bulgarian origin, adviser to Ottoman sultans (* 1775 )
- August 6 : Karl Otto von Raumer , Prussian statesman (* 1805 )
- August 22nd : John Wesley Davis , American politician (* 1799 )
- August 24 : Johann Friedrich Ruthe , German botanist (* 1788 )
- August 29 : Hans Caspar Escher , Swiss architect and industrial pioneer (* 1775 )
September to December
- September 2 : Johann Friedrich Schilling , German court mason (* 1765 )
- September 3 : Carl August von Abel , Bavarian politician (* 1788 )
- September 4 : Wilhelm Pfeil , German forestry practitioner, teacher and scientist (* 1783 )
- September 5 : Friedrich Olivier , German painter (* 1791 )
- September 10th : Thomas Nuttall , English botanist and zoologist (* 1786 )
- September 13 : Cornelis Jacobus van Assen , Dutch legal scholar (* 1788 )
- September 15 : Isambard Kingdom Brunel , British engineer (* 1806 )
- September 20 : Adolf Bäuerle , Austrian writer (* 1786 )
- September 21 : Muhammad II. Al-Husain , Bey of Tunis (* 1810 )
- September 28 : Carl Ritter , German founder of scientific geography (* 1779 )
- October 3 : John Y. Mason , American lawyer and politician (* 1799 )
- October 4 : Karl Baedeker , German publisher (* 1801 )
- October 12 : Robert Stephenson , British engineer (* 1803 )
- October 13 : Rudolf Oeser , German pastor and folk writer (* 1807 )
- October 22 : Louis Spohr , German composer, conductor, violinist (* 1784 )
- October 27 : Ernst Friedrich Apelt , German writer (* 1812 )
- October 29 : James C. Jones , American politician (* 1809 )
- November 3 : Maximilian von Lerchenfeld-Köfering , German diplomat (* 1799 )
- November 7th : Carl Gottlieb Reissiger , German composer and court conductor (* 1798 )
- November 21 : Antonio Arcioni , Swiss officer and general (* 1811 )
- November 16 : George Gilmer , American politician (* 1790 )
- November 21 : Yoshida Shōin , Japanese intellectual and revolutionary (* 1830 )
- November 23 : James Ward , British painter (* 1769 )
- November 28 : Washington Irving , American writer (* 1783 )
- November 30th : Jacobus Cornelis Swijghuijsen Groenewoud , Dutch Reformed theologian and orientalist (* 1784 )
- December 1 : John Austin , English lawyer and legal philosopher (* 1790 )
- December 1 : Alfred Rethel , German history painter (* 1816 )
- December 2 : John Brown , American opponent of slavery (* 1800 )
- December 6th : Hermann Martin Asmuss , German zoologist and paleontologist (* 1812 )
- December 8 : Thomas De Quincey , British writer (* 1785 )
- December 16 : Wilhelm Grimm , German linguist and writer (Grimms Märchen) (* 1786 )
- December 19 : Mirabeau B. Lamar , American politician, ambassador and President of the Republic of Texas (* 1798 )
- December 28th : Thomas Babington Macaulay , English historian (* 1800 )