|The Young Turks under Ismail Enver take power in the Ottoman Empire .||In the Second Balkan War , the territory conquered in the First Balkan War is redistributed.|
In Australia , construction of Canberra
as the new capital begins.
|1913 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1361/62 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1905/06 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||69/70 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1318/19 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2456/57 (southern Buddhism); 2455/56 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chuch'e ideology (North Korea)||Chuch'e 2|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1275/76 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4246/47 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1291/92 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1331/32 (November 29/30)|
Taishō 2 (
大 正 元年 );
|Jewish calendar||5673/74 (October 1-2)|
|Coptic calendar||1629/30 (10/11 September)|
|Minguo calendar (China)||Year 2 of the Republic|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1328/29 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2223/24 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2224/25 (turn of the year October)
|Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar)||2455/56 (April 1)|
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1969/70 (April)|
The year 1913 brings further crises and wars in the Balkans . After a three-month armistice, the fighting in the First Balkan War between several Balkan states and the Ottoman Empire flares up again. The war finally ends with the mediation of Great Britain , France , Germany , Russia , Austria-Hungary and Italy with the London Treaty . The Ottoman Empire has to accept extensive territorial losses in Europe.
A few weeks later, the Second Balkan War begins between the victors to divide up the booty. Bulgaria , which succeeded in conquering the impregnable city of Adrianople in the first war , attacks the former allies Serbia and Greece , overestimating its own strength , but soon sees itself confronted with Romania as an enemy, which within a few days up to advance into the suburbs of Sofia . And the Ottoman Empire is also using the opportunity to regain recently lost territories, including Adrianople. In the Treaty of Bucharest , Bulgaria has to surrender practically all of the territories it has won, although the Treaty of Constantinople with Russian support gives it at least access to the Aegean Sea, which causes a simmering conflict with Greece.
Austria-Hungary is experiencing a crisis in the countries of the Bohemian crown over the Austro-Czech settlement demanded by the Czech majority and the espionage scandal surrounding Colonel Alfred Redl , which will have serious military consequences.
Politics and world events
- January 23 : In the Ottoman Empire , the Young Turks take power through a coup. They interrupt a meeting of the Sublime Porte , shoot the Minister of War Nazım Pasha and depose the Grand Vizier Kıbrıslı Kâmil Pasha . Mahmud Şevket Pasha is appointed by the Sultan as the new Grand Vizier, Foreign Minister and War Minister.
- February 2 : After a nearly three-month ceasefire, fighting begins again between Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War .
- March 18 : George I , King of Greece , is murdered by Alexander Schinas in Thessaloniki . His successor is his son Constantine I. The assassin is declared insane and dies after being tortured by the police.
- March 26th : After four months of siege, Bulgarian troops capture the impregnable city of Adrianople after two Serbian divisions come to their aid. During the siege, planes were used for strategic bombing for the first time in history.
- May 19 : Serbia and Greece form a defensive alliance against Bulgaria.
- May 30th : After the Ottomans had already reached an armistice on May 1st, the First Balkan War ended with the Treaty of London through the mediation of Great Britain , France , Germany , Russia , Austria-Hungary and Italy . Contracting states are Serbia , Greece , Bulgaria and Montenegro on the one hand and their war opponents the Ottoman Empire on the other. The Ottomans renounce all European areas west of the line between Midia on the Black Sea and Enez on the Aegean coast , the island of Crete officially unites with Greece. The independence of Albania is recognized by the European powers and the approximate borders of the new principality are determined. As Serbia's allies, Russia and Italy can assert that a large part of the Albanian settlement area is assigned to the Serbian state, including Kosovo . However, no solution can be found for the Epirus region , it remains under Greek occupation and is administered by the former Greek Foreign Minister Georgios Christakis-Zografos , who remains in office as Governor General for Northern Epirus until the end of the year.
- June 11 : Despite extensive security measures, the Ottoman Grand Vizier Mahmud Şevket Pasha is assassinated. An informal triumvirate consisting of Enver Pascha , Cemal Pascha and Talât Pascha takes over power in the empire.
- June 29th : The Second Balkan War begins with a simultaneous offensive by Bulgaria against Greece and Serbia . The defenders prepared for the attack can repel the Bulgarian units.
- July 8 : Serbia and Greece declare war on Bulgaria.
- July 9 : Romania declares war on Bulgaria. Within a few days the Armata Română reached the suburbs of Sofia without significant resistance .
- July 11th : The Ottoman Empire declares war on Bulgaria and can regain parts of the territories lost in the First Balkan War in the next few days. On July 21 Adrian Opel is recaptured.
- July 25. bis 31 July : The Serbian army fails in the siege of the Bulgarian town of Vidin .
- August 10 : The Bucharest peace seals the defeat of Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War. Most of the region of Macedonia , the so-called Aegean Macedonia , falls to Greece, Serbia receives the so-called Vardar-Macedonia , the south of the Dobruja goes to Romania and Eastern Thrace with Adrianople back to the Ottoman Empire.
- August 31 / September 1 : The Republic of Western Thrace is proclaimed.
- September 29 : Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Constantinople , the last of the Bulgarian peace treaties , in which the Ottoman Empire recognizes Bulgaria's sovereignty over western Thrace and thus its access to the Aegean.
- September: The Ohrid-Debar uprising against the Serbian occupiers, organized by the Bulgarian Macedonia-Adrianople Revolutionary Committee together with Albanian revolutionaries, is crushed by Serbian units after two weeks.
- October 19 : Bulgarian troops invade western Thrace with Ottoman support and eliminate the republic by October 29 .
- December: Liman von Sanders crisis
German Empire / Austria-Hungary / Italy
- April 18 : Karl Liebknecht publishes secret information in the Reichstag that leads to the Kornwalzer scandal .
- May 25 : After his exposure as a spy for Russia, the Austrian General Staff Officer Alfred Redl shoots himself .
- June 30 : The German Reichstag passes a defense bill that provides for a gradual increase in the army .
- July 26 : The Bohemian Landtag , paralyzed due to the confrontation between German speakers and Czechs , is dissolved by an imperial patent, the last Supreme Marshal Ferdinand von Lobkowitz removed from his office. Instead of the previous state committee , a state administrative commission for Bohemia appointed by the emperor will be set up, which consists of five Czech and three German members and is chaired by Count Adalbert Schönborn.
- July 29 : The Slovak People's Party is founded in Austria-Hungary under the leadership of Andrej Hlinka .
- October 26th and November 2nd : In the Kingdom of Italy , elections with “ universal suffrage ” ('suffragio universale') are held for the first time . The electoral law , introduced on May 25, 1912, gives all men over the age of 21 who can read and write and all male illiterates over the age of 30 the right to vote, that is 27% of the population.
- November 1st : Naval Convention between the German Reich , Austria-Hungary and Italy . (Uniform use of naval forces in the Mediterranean.)
- November 5th : Ludwig III. is proclaimed King of Bavaria after a constitutional amendment . The country temporarily has two kings, because his mentally ill predecessor Otto I of Bavaria also nominally remains ruler until his death.
- November 6th : Zabern affair : After the discriminatory statements made by German officers against the population in the Alsatian garrison town of Zabern , there were public protests.
- January 17 : Raymond Poincaré is elected President of France on the basis of a center-right alliance . He will take up the post on February 18 , after having resigned the post of Prime Minister on January 21, which Aristide Briand will take over on an interim basis.
- March 22 : Louis Barthou becomes the new French Prime Minister .
- August 7 : Compulsory military service in France is extended to three years.
- December 9th : The radical socialist Gaston Doumergue becomes the new Prime Minister.
Other events in Europe
- January 9th : The Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva government in Portugal resigns after just over half a year in office. Afonso Augusto da Costa becomes Prime Minister for the first time . During his one-year reign, despite a wave of strikes in June, he succeeded in stabilizing the politically and financially chronically unstable First Republic for a short time . On November 16 , he won the parliamentary elections with the Democratic Party .
- April 3 : Suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst is sentenced to three years in prison for a bomb attack on the country house of British Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George .
- June 4 : At the horse race in Epsom, the English suffragette Emily Davison runs on the racetrack, presumably to demonstrate for women's suffrage . She collides with the horse King George V and suffers such severe head injuries that she dies four days later.
- June 11 : Norway becomes the first sovereign state in Europe to introduce women's suffrage .
- August 28 : In The Hague , the Andrew Carnegie sponsored Peace Palace, which today houses the International Court of Justice, is ceremoniously opened .
- from July / August: Dublin Lockout
United States of America
- February 3 : The 16th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States , of the collection of income taxes allowed in its current form, is adopted.
- March 3 : The first national suffragette parade for women's suffrage in Washington, organized by Alice Paul , Lucy Burns and Inez Milholland , among others , is attacked by an angry mob . Many women in the National Woman's Party are injured in the presence of idle police. The incident brought the movement the attention of the national press for the first time.
- March 4 : The previous Governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson , is introduced as the 28th US President. The first Democrat in this post since Grover Cleveland replaces Republican William Howard Taft . The Wilson cabinet, sworn in on the following day, includes Thomas Riley Marshall as Vice President, William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State and Lindley Miller Garrison as Secretary of War.
- Woodrow Wilson is the first President of the United States since George Washington to hold the State of the Union Address personally again.
- April 8 : The 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution on direct election of Senators is passed.
- December 23rd : With the signature of the President, the Federal Reserve Act comes into force, which establishes the Federal Reserve System .
- February 18 : In Mexico , General Victoriano Huerta (with the help of the US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, among others) overturns Francisco Madero's regime . He was "shot while trying to escape" on February 22nd while he was waiting for his trial. This is the end of the first phase of the Mexican Revolution . A coalition of almost all revolutionary forces opposes the de facto dictatorial new president. Its political leader is Venustiano Carranza , the governor of Coahuila, who denies Huerta the right to the presidency and calls the people to arms.
- March 6 : The revolutionary leader Pancho Villa returns to Mexico from exile and starts a guerrilla war against General Huertes in the state of Chihuahua . Initially, he met with skepticism from the numerous other revolutionary leaders. His rapid military successes, but above all his "acts of social justice" in which he executes the administrators of rich haciendas and distributes the food to the poor rural population, lead to the fact that the local peasant leaders overflow to him in droves.
- September 26 : At a meeting in Jimenéz, several Mexican revolutionary leaders decide to attack the Torreón railway junction . Pancho Villa is given the command of the revolutionary contingents.
- September 29th : The Battle of Torreón begins with attacks on the artillery units of the government forces. It ends with the capture of the place by Pancho Villas troops on October 1st .
- On the night of 15 to 16 November , the units Pancho Villas conquer the city of Ciudad Juarez .
- December 1 : Pancho Villa and his followers conquer Chihuahua City and Villa takes over the office of governor of the state. One of his first measures is the expropriation of the previously ruling oligarchs.
- February 20 : Construction of Canberra , the planned capital of Australia in the Australian Capital Territory created in 1910 , begins according to plans by architect Walter Burley Griffin .
- March 12 : Canberra is baptized with a ceremony on Kurrajong Hill by Lady Gertrude Denman, wife of Governor General Thomas Denman . The construction of the city laid out in the triangle is temporarily limited to South Canberra and North Canberra .
- February 20 : The conservative Katsura Taro , who was only appointed Prime Minister of Japan in December of the previous year, loses the vote in the first successful motion of no confidence in the history of Japan . He is succeeded by Yamamoto Gonnohyōe , a representative of Taishō democracy , into the office of Prime Minister. The Yamamoto I cabinet ruled for a little over a year.
- June 11 : When a Moro uprising is put down in the Philippines, 2000 of them, including many women and children, are killed in Bud Bagsak by the Americans under General John J. Pershing .
- November 6 : The Indian freedom fighter Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi protests in South Africa with more than 2,200 Satyagrahis against the policy of racial discrimination against Indian immigrants. In particular, they protest against a new marriage law, according to which only Christian marriages are recognized as valid.
- December 12 : The Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II dies of a stroke. He will be succeeded as negus negest by his grandson Iyasu V.
Money economy and taxes
- February 3 : The 16th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States to introduce a is federal income tax possible.
- December 23rd : In the United States , a Congressional resolution establishes the Federal Reserve System .
- April 26th : The 1913 World's Fair, recognized by the Bureau International des Expositions , opens in Ghent , Belgium . Flowers and colonies are the themes of this world exhibition, which lasts until November 3rd and is visited by around 3.5 million people. Numerous colonies, including the Belgian Congo , have their own pavilion and are particularly intended to show Belgian imperialism in the best light.
- May 3. bis 5. October : In the Vienna Prater is Adriatic Exhibition of 1913 carried out by the economic and cultural links with the Adriatic coast should be promoted. More than 2 million people visit the exhibition.
- May 3 to October: In the presence of King Friedrich August III. International Building Exhibition, opened by Saxony in 1913 in Leipzig, attracts around four million interested people, but leaves behind half a million marks in debt. The Saxon government did not participate in the financing of the exhibition, the design concept of which comes from the Leipzig architects Georg Weidenbach and Richard Tschammer .
- May 20th to October 26th : The exhibition of the century is held in the Prussian town of Breslau on the occasion of the centenary of the wars of freedom against Napoleon. The architecture of the exhibition comes from Hans Poelzig .
- May 20 : The first Chelsea Flower Show , hosted by the Royal Horticultural Society , opens in London under the name RHS Great Spring Flower Show by Queen Alexandra . With a few exceptions, the exhibition takes place annually to this day.
- June 14 : The first rose and horticultural exhibition in Forst , the origin of the East German rose garden , opens on the 25th anniversary of the throne of Kaiser Wilhelm II . As the organizer, the Association of Gardeners and Gardening Friends of Forest draws with the participation of the Association of German Rose Friends . The rose and dahlia show is accompanied by 18 special exhibitions and many events with a folk festival character. One of the special attractions is the landing of the DELAG airship LZ 13 Hansa on August 24th on the edge of the exhibition grounds. The exhibition, which was visited by around 350,000 people, closes on October 5th.
- April 29th : The number switch for self-dial telephones developed by Siemens & Halske is registered for a patent in Berlin .
- October 7th : Henry Ford introduces assembly line production for the production of the Ford Model T, initially in trial operation .
- April 21 : The Swiss railway company Langenthal-Melchnau-Bahn is founded in the Gasthof Löwen in Melchnau . It is based in Langenthal .
- The baker Karl Albrecht senior, who had to give up his job for health reasons, started his own business as a bread trader. His wife Anna founds a mom and pop shop under his name in Schonnebeck . Under their sons Karl and Theo , the Aldi company became a trading empire in the course of the 20th century.
- Karl Rapp founds Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH in Munich , predecessor of Bavarian Motor Works ( BMW ).
- Arthur Andersen and Clarence DeLany found the accounting firm Andersen, DeLany & Co in Chicago, Illinois, which grew to become one of the largest accounting firms in the world .
- The first factory for ammonia production for artificial fertilizers according to the Haber-Bosch process developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch is put into operation by BASF in Oppau near Ludwigshafen .
- January 18 : The second and last section of the cable car to the Sugar Loaf Mountain , built by Julius Pohlig based on an idea by Augusto Ferreira Ramos , is opened. It leads from Rio de Janeiro over the Morro da Urca to the Sugar Loaf .
- February 2 : New York's Grand Central Terminal is inaugurated. It has been the largest train station in the world ever since.
- March 19 : The military airship LZ 15 is destroyed by storms after an emergency landing near Karlsruhe.
- April 1 : The Deutschherrnbrücke over the Main is opened.
- April 21 : The RMS Aquitania of the Cunard Line is launched .
- July 15 : The first scheduled train runs through the 15-kilometer Lötschberg tunnel , which connects the city of Bern with the Simplon Railway and Italy .
- August 16 : The Merkurbergbahn , a funicular from Baden-Baden up to the Merkur , opens.
- December 1 : The first line of the Subterráneos de Buenos Aires , the first subway in South America and the entire southern hemisphere , built by the Compañía de Tranvías Anglo Argentina , opens.
science and technology
- May 13th : Igor Ivanovich Sikorski's four-engine Russki Vitjas , the world's first four-engine aircraft and the first purely passenger aircraft , takes off on its first flight with pilots Sikorsky and Aleknowitsch. Due to the size of the aircraft, experts and the press previously speculated that it could never fly.
- July 13 : On the way from Bern to Milan, the Swiss Oskar Bider is the first airplane pilot to cross the central alpine massif. At Christmas he also sets a new record with the direct Paris-Bern flight by staying in the air for four hours and 20 minutes without a stopover.
- August 19 : As the first pilot, the Frenchman jumps Adolphe Pégoud with a parachute successfully from an airplane.
- September 9 : The Russian military pilot Pyotr Nikolajewitsch Nesterow flies the first loop in history in a Nieuport IV near Kiev . His supervisor punishes him disciplinary. A short time later, the Frenchman Adolphe Pégoud was the second to succeed in this maneuver .
- September 23 : Roland Garros is the first to cross the Mediterranean in an airplane on a route that takes him from Fréjus in the south of France to Bizerta in Tunisia in less than eight hours .
- November 23 : The first flight of the first version of the Lee-Richards Annular Monoplane at the Shoreham Aerodrome ends in disaster. Fortunately, the pilot Gordon England is only slightly injured in the crash on approach, but the aircraft is totaled.
- December 8th : The Swiss aviation pioneer Theodor Borrer makes the first flight from Dübendorf to Avenches and back.
Physics and astronomy
- Niels Bohr postulates his atomic model with the quantization of the atomic radii .
- William Henry Bragg publishes the reflection condition named after him for X-ray interference in solids (in: Proc. Roy. Soc. London (A) 88 (1913), 428 ).
- Kasimir Fajans and Frederick Soddy set up the radioactive displacement theorems .
- With the Franck-Hertz experiment, James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz demonstrate for the first time the quantification of the energy released by atoms.
- Henry Moseley sets up the law named after him for the characteristic radiation of the elements, taking into account Bohr's atomic model .
- Building on the work of Ejnar Hertzsprung , Henry Norris Russell developed the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the evolution distribution of the stars .
- February 8 : After going solo over 160 km, Douglas Mawson returns to the Mawson's Huts base camp of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition as the only survivor of a failed sleigh ride . His companion, Belgrave Edward Sutton Ninnis , perished in a crevasse at the end of last year, while Xavier Mertz probably died at the beginning of the year of hypervitaminosis as a result of eating sled dog meat. Mawson only meets a six-person rescue team, the crew of the expedition ship Aurora left the camp just a few hours earlier. The seven men have to spend another unplanned winter in Antarctica . You will not be picked up by the Aurora until December .
- September 2 : The hydrographic expedition of the Northern Arctic Sea , led by Boris Wilkizki , discovered the Small Taimyr Island as the first of the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago .
- December 29 : Golden Age of Antarctic Research : The Irish-British polar explorer Ernest Shackleton publishes plans for a new Antarctic expedition in The Times .
- April 24 : The Woolworth Building in Manhattan , New York City, which was built by architect Cass Gilbert over a period of three years and at that time the tallest skyscraper in the world , is inaugurated in the presence of US President Woodrow Wilson and 800 other invited guests.
- July 12 : The Möhnetalsperre built by Franz Brantzky in North Rhine-Westphalia, at that time the largest dam in Europe, is inaugurated after five years of construction.
- October 1 : After a two-year construction period, the Rendsburg high bridge is opened. Around two months later, on December 2nd, the transporter bridge for pedestrians and vehicles will also be put into operation under the high bridge.
- December 13 : After around one and a half years of construction, the Colorado Street Bridge in Pasadena , California is ceremoniously opened. It is now on the American list of Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks .
- April 3 : The turbine steamer Vaterland is launched in Hamburg as the largest passenger ship in the world.
- June 11th : The Imperator , at that time the largest passenger ship in the world operated by the Hapag shipping company , leaves Steubenhöft near Cuxhaven on its maiden voyage towards New York. It is the first ship to exceed the 50,000 GRT mark.
- April 20 : The Danish Greenland crossing in 1913 under the direction of Johan Peter Koch , in which Alfred Wegener also takes part, begins. It will be successfully completed on June 15th .
- August 13 : Harry Brearley invents by adding chrome to stainless steel .
- The French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson discovered the ozone layer when they were able to detect ozone in higher layers of the atmosphere for the first time using UV spectroscopic studies .
- Sigmund Freud publishes Totem and Tabu , in which he deals with the prohibition of incest .
- The German veterinarian Oskar Röder developed the Röder knot and describes it in his work Surgical Technique for Vets and Students .
- February 17 to March 15 : The Armory in New York hosts the International Exhibition of Modern Art , an exhibition of modern art known as the Armory Show .
- August 23 : The Little Mermaid , created by Edvard Eriksen and the symbol of the city, is unveiled in Copenhagen .
- October 18 : For the centenary of the battle is the Battle Monument opened in Leipzig. The foundation stone had been laid 15 years earlier. Kaiser Wilhelm II and King Friedrich August III. take part in the event.
- Foundation of the Linz artists' association MAERZ
- Foundation of the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Havana
- First edition of Art in America , the world's first art magazine
- July 1 : In Radebeul is Karl May Verlag , founded the Karl May's Collected Works publishes.
- Stefan Zweig publishes his novella Burning Secret .
Music and theater
- February 23 : The world premiere of the Gurre-Lieder by Arnold Schönberg by the Tonkünstler-Orchester in the Great Musikvereinssaal in Vienna under the direction of Franz Schreker is an overwhelming success. But the composer, hurt by the earlier conservative attitude of the Viennese audience, refuses to accept the applause. This takes revenge at the scandal concert on March 31st.
- March 31 : An orchestra conducted by Arnold Schönberg plays pieces by contemporary composers in the Musikvereinssaal, most of whom belong to Expressionism and the Second Viennese School . The audience reacts to the unusual music with tumults and riots. The concert finally has to be canceled.
- May 29 : The world premiere of the ballet music Le sacre du printemps, composed by Igor Stravinsky for the Ballets Russes Sergei Djagilews in Paris, causes a scandal . It is only thanks to the stoic calm of the conductor Pierre Monteux that the performance can be played to the end. The scandal finally made Stravinsky famous, but the reactions also hurt him a lot and he primarily blames Vaslav Nijinsky, who, in his opinion , was unable to cope with the work choreographically .
- 31 May : The festival in German rhymes of Gerhart Hauptmann has its world premiere as part of the Centennial Exhibition in the Centennial Hall in Wroclaw. Due to protests against the war criticism of the play, it will be canceled on June 18 .
- September 13 : The New Royal Theater in Dresden opens after around two years of construction with the jubilee overture by Carl Maria von Weber , the Robert Giuskard fragment by Heinrich von Kleist and the one-act play Die Torgauer Heide by Otto Ludwig . Numerous directors from all over the German Empire, dignitaries of the city and authors associated with the court theater such as Gerhart Hauptmann , Stefan Zweig and Hugo von Hofmannsthal appear at the opening .
- September 24th : With the world premiere of the work Introduction, Passacaglia and Fugue for Organ in E minor op. 127 by Max Reger , played by Karl Straube , the organ of the Centennial Hall , at that time the largest organ in the world, is inaugurated.
- October 4 : At the Berliner Theater in Berlin, the operetta As once in May is premiered by Walter Kollo with the libretto by Rudolf Bernauer and Rudolph Schanzer .
- October 11th : World premiere of the operetta The Ideal Wife of Franz Lehár in the Theater an der Wien , Vienna. The work is a new version of the operetta Der Göttergatte from 1904.
- October 16 : At the Vienna Burgtheater is George Bernard Shaw's comedy Pygmalion premiered. The fate of Elise Egloff could have served the author as material .
- October 25 : The operetta Polenblut by Oskar Nedbal with the libretto by Leo Stein based on a story by Alexander Sergejewitsch Pushkin is premiered at the Vienna Carltheater .
- November 4 : At the Royal Court Theater Stuttgart is Walter Braunfels ' opera Ulenspiegel premiered.
- December 4th : The world premiere of the comic opera L'amore medico ( The Lover as a Doctor) by Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari takes place at the Dresden Court Opera .
- December 15 : The Opera Parisina of Pietro Mascagni has its premiere at the Teatro alla Scala di Milano in Milan. It receives negative reviews mainly because of its length.
- May 13th : The Central Mineral Bath opens in Sofia .
- May 16 : During excavation work in the brass works settlement of Eberswalde , a worker discovers the largest prehistoric gold treasure in Germany, the treasure of Eberswalde .
- October 11th : First Free German Youth Day of the youth movement on the Hoher Meissner
- December 21 : The world's first crossword puzzle appears in the weekend supplement of New York World , invented by Arthur Wynne .
- In Babylon, the temple complex Ziggurat (the "Tower of Babel") is rediscovered.
- The Bibliotheca Hertziana is founded in Rome .
- The American Academy in Rome is founded in Rome .
- The Deutsche Akademie Rome Villa Massimo is donated to the Prussian state by Eduard Arnhold .
- February 3 : The constituent general assembly of the Anthroposophical Society is held in Berlin under the leadership of Rudolf Steiner . It replaces the German section of the Theosophical Society , which dissolved in the same year due to serious differences. On September 20, the foundation stone for the first Goetheanum , designed by Rudolf Steiner as the future center of the Anthroposophical Society , was laid in Dornach near Basel , after the originally planned Johannesbau in Munich could not be implemented due to serious structural requirements and restrictions.
- March 21 : Shortly after obtaining a license to practice his doctoral thesis in medicine, Albert Schweitzer and his wife Helene set out on his first trip to Africa to set up a hospital in French Equatorial Africa . The two drive up the Ogooué and arrive in Lambaréné on April 16 .
- May 24th : Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia , seventh and youngest child and only daughter of Empress Auguste Viktorias and Kaiser Wilhelm II , marries Duke Ernst August of Hanover . Russian Tsar Nicholas II and British King George V come to Berlin for the wedding celebration .
- June 20 : Five girls are killed in the Bremen rampage .
- September 4 : Ernst August Wagner kills a total of 17 people in a rampage .
- October 19 : As a consequence of a serious accident in Binz on Rügen, the German Life Saving Society is founded in Leipzig . The main goal of society is to keep people from drowning .
- 19 / October 20 : In the " Leipziger Lion Hunt " are in Leipzig six from a circus killed escaped lion.
- January 16 : The combined ship Veronese runs aground off Leixões with over 230 people on board. Between 16 and 23 people are killed trying to swim ashore.
- January 27th : After a collision in the English Channel, the ship Pangani sinks in just five minutes. Only four men of the crew can be saved.
- February 5 : The Erzsébetváros railway accident leads to a major fire and kills three people. Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia , the second son of Kaiser Wilhelm II , who was traveling on the train , was unharmed.
- July 26th : 15 people are killed in the Bramming railway accident.
- August 17 : In Gambier Bay on the coast of Alaska, the State of California passenger steamer rams an unknown underwater rock and sinks within three minutes. 32 people drown.
- October 9 : In the middle of the North Atlantic, the British ocean liner Volturno burns down because of a discarded cigarette of a passenger and goes down, 136 passengers and crew members die. Ships called by wireless telegraph can save over 400 people and prevent an even greater disaster.
- October 14th : The worst mining accident in Great Britain to date occurs in Wales . 439 miners died in the explosion at the Universal colliery in Senghenydd . It is likely that there will be a methane gas explosion , immediately followed by a coal dust explosion .
- October 17 : The entire crew is killed in the fire and subsequent crash of the German Zeppelin LZ 18 .
- October 22nd : 14 people are killed in the Waldenburg railway accident.
- November 4 : The railway accident in the station of Melun 40 people are killed and another 50 injured.
- November 9 : The most momentous natural disaster in the Great Lakes region , known as the Great Lakes Storm of 1913 , reaches its most intense phase. A blizzard with high wind speeds causes severe damage, causes multiple ship sinks and costs a large number of lives.
- December 14 : At the south portal of the Zschopautal tunnel on the Roßwein – Niederwiesa railway line near Braunsdorf in Saxony, ten people die in a rail accident as a result of a landslide .
nature and environment
- July 10 : In Death Valley , California, a temperature of 56.7 ° C is measured, the highest value recorded worldwide up to this point in time .
- May 26th : The International Olympic Committee (IOC) disqualifies Olympic champion James Thorpe for violating the strict amateur rules and bans him for life.
- June 7th : Hudson Stuck succeeds in the first ascent of the 6,194 m high Denali in Alaska , the highest mountain on the North American continent.
- June 8 : The German Stadium in Berlin is inaugurated.
- July 3 : The new horse racing track is opened in Dortmund, replacing a former horse racing track that has given way to the expansion of an ironworks.
- August 2nd : The main summit of Mount Olympus , the highest mountain in Greece, is climbed for the first time.
- August 18 : The first international motorcycle racing competition organized by the Fédération Internationale des Clubs Motocyclistes ( FICM ) starts in Carlisle with the 1st International Six-Day Race .
- November 1 : With the Clube de Futebol União , one of the oldest football clubs in Portugal is founded in Funchal on Madeira .
For entries of athletics world records, see under the respective discipline under athletics .
|price||person||country||Reason for awarding the prize||image|
|Nobel Price for physics||
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
|Netherlands||"On the occasion of his investigations into the properties of bodies at low temperatures , which among other things led to the representation of liquid helium "|
|Nobel Prize in Chemistry||
|Switzerland (born in Mulhouse , then Germany)||"On the basis of his work on the bonding relationships of the atoms in the molecule, which has clarified older research areas and opened up new ones, especially in the field of inorganic chemistry "|
|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine||
|France||"For his work on anaphylaxis "|
|Nobel Prize in literature||
|British India||"Due to the deep and high relationship as well as the beauty and freshness of his poems, which in a brilliant way incorporates his poetic work in his peculiar English garb of the beautiful literature of the West"|
|Nobel Peace Prize (awarded in 1913)||
Henri La Fontaine
|Belgium||President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau|
- January 1 : Ara Masahito , Japanese literary scholar and critic († 1979 )
- January 1 : Hans Lutz Merkle , German manager († 2000 )
- January 1 : Norman Rosten , American writer († 1995 )
- January 2 : Gardner Read , American composer († 2005 )
- January 2 : Johnny Simone , French entrepreneur and racing car driver († 1967 )
- January 4 : Tanumafili II , Samoan head of state († 2007 )
- January 5 : César Marcelak , French cyclist († 2005 )
- January 5 : Pierre Veuillot , Archbishop of Paris and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1968 )
- January 6th : Georg Angermaier , German lawyer, political scientist and resistance fighter († 1945 )
- January 6 : Loretta Young , American actress († 2000 )
- January 7th : Francis De Wolff , British actor († 1984 )
- January 7th : Anton Mader , Austrian general († 1984 )
- January 8 : Berthold Bahnsen , Frisian-German politician († 1971 )
- January 9 : Richard Nixon , American politician, 37th President of the USA († 1994 )
- January 10 : Gustáv Husák , Slovak politician and President of Czechoslovakia († 1991 )
- January 10 : Mehmet Shehu , Albanian politician and Prime Minister († 1981 )
- January 11th : Franz Aschenwald , Austrian skier († 1945 )
- January 11 : Eduard Buess , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 2003 )
- January 12 : Willi Birkelbach , German politician († 2008 )
- January 13 : Toni Kurz , German mountaineer († 1936 )
- January 15 : Lloyd Bridges , American actor († 1998 )
- January 15 : Hans Caninenberg , German actor († 2008 )
- January 15 : Alexandr Marinesko , submarine commander of the S-13 in World War II († 1963 )
- January 17th : Lotte Berk , German-British dancer, gymnastics and dance teacher († 2003 )
- January 20 : Karl Bewerunge , German politician, Member of the Bundestag († 1993 )
- January 22 : William Conway , Archbishop of Armagh and Cardinal († 1977 )
- January 23 : Jean-Michel Atlan , French artist († 1960 )
- January 24th : Norman Dello Joio , American composer and professor († 2008 )
- January 24th : Wolf von Niebelschütz , German writer and historian († 1960 )
- January 25 : Jürgen Aschoff , German biologist († 1998 )
- January 25 : Witold Lutosławski , Polish composer and conductor († 1994 )
- January 26 : Jimmy Van Heusen , American composer († 1990 )
- January 27 : Mary Frizzell , Canadian athlete († 1972 )
- January 28 : Ernst Cramer , German journalist, board member of the Axel Springer Foundation († 2010 )
- January 28 : Bernie Scherer , American football player († 2004 )
- January 29 : Victor Mature , American film actor († 1999 )
- January 29 : Peter von Zahn , German radio and television journalist († 2001 )
- January 30th : Forrest Howard Anderson , American lawyer and politician († 1989 )
- January 30th : Reinhold Bäßler , German lawyer, NS student functionary and insurance manager († 1969 )
- January 30th : Amrita Sher-Gil , Indian-Hungarian artist († 1941 )
- January 31 : Don Hutson , American football player and coach († 1997 )
- January 31 : Wayne Millner , American football player and coach († 1976 )
- January 31 : Gustav Sichelschmidt , German writer († 1996 )
- February 1 : Erich Schulze , German association official, former board member and general director of GEMA († 2017 )
- February 1 : Gaynell Tinsley , American football player and coach († 2002 )
- February 2 : Fred Apostoli , American middleweight boxer († 1973 )
- February 2 : Fukuoka Masanobu , Japanese microbiologist and farmer († 2008 )
- February 3 : Paula Acker , SED functionary († 1989 )
- February 4th : Gerhard Mendelson , German music producer in Vienna († 1976 )
- February 4 : Ady Berber , Austrian actor († 1966 )
- February 4 : Rosa Parks , American civil rights activist († 2005 )
- February 4 : Richard Seaman , British racing car driver († 1939 )
- February 4 : Birgitta Wolf , Swedish publicist († 2009 )
- February 5 : Ilse Arndt , Jewish contemporary witness of the persecution of Jews († 2003 )
- February 6 : Mary Leakey , British archaeologist († 1996 )
- February 7th : Lydia Eberhardt , German javelin thrower and pentathlete († 1997 )
- February 7 : Ramón Mercader , Spanish communist and assassin of Leon Trotsky († 1978 )
- February 8 : Antal Apró , Hungarian politician († 1994 )
- February 9 : Günter Herlitz , German entrepreneur († 2010 )
- February 9 : Astrid Krebsbach , German table tennis player († 1995 )
- February 10 : Douglas Slocombe , British cameraman († 2016 )
- February 11 : Clyde Robert Cameron , Australian politician († 2008 )
- February 11 : Vladimir Sak , Ukrainian chess player († 1994 )
- February 11 : Yevgeny Ivanovich Umnow , Russian chess problem composer († 1989 )
- February 12 : John R. Barrows , American bugler († 1974 )
- February 12 : Anni Steuer , German athlete and Olympian († between 1996 and 1999 )
- February 14 : Bayliss Levrett , American racing car driver († 2002 )
- February 15 : Erich Eliskases , Austrian and Argentine chess master († 1997 )
- February 15 : Willy Vandersteen , Belgian comic artist († 1990 )
- February 16 : Richard Jaeger , German lawyer and CSU politician († 1998 )
- February 16 : Hermann Schild , German racing cyclist († 2006 )
- February 17th : René Leibowitz , French composer, conductor and writer († 1972 )
- February 18 : Artur Axmann , Reich Youth Leader during the National Socialist era († 1996 )
- February 18 : Devery Freeman , American screenwriter († 2005 )
- February 19 : Wolf Schmidt , German journalist, cabaret artist and actor († 1977 )
- February 19 : Dick Weisgerber , American football player († 1984 )
- February 19 : Max Worthley , Australian singer (tenor) and vocal teacher († 1999 )
- February 20 : Abd ar-Rahman al-Bazzaz , Iraqi politician († 1973 )
- February 20 : Rolf Italiaander , German writer and art collector († 1991 )
- February 21 : Glenn Malcolm Anderson , American politician († 1994 )
- February 21 : Benjamin Bloom , American university professor († 1999 )
- February 21 : Roger Laurent , Belgian motorcycle and automobile racing driver († 1997 )
- February 22 : Hugh Garner , Canadian writer († 1979 )
- February 22nd : Gregorio Walerstein , Mexican film producer and screenwriter († 2002 )
- February 23 : Salvador Artigas , Spanish football player and coach († 1997 )
- February 25 : Habib Achour , Tunisian trade unionist († 1999 )
- February 25 : Leslie Harry Ernest Bury , Australian politician († 1986 )
- February 25 : Gert Fröbe , German actor († 1988 )
- February 25 : Stephan László , Austrian bishop († 1995 )
- February 25 : Victor-Emanuel Preusker , German politician and banker († 1991 )
- February 26 : Otto Eisenmann , German politician († 2002 )
- February 26 : Hermann Lenz , German writer († 1998 )
- February 27 : Paul Ricœur , French philosopher († 2005 )
- February 27 : Kazimierz Sabbat , Polish lawyer, entrepreneur and politician († 1989 )
- February 27 : Irwin Shaw , American writer. († 1984 )
- March 1 : Hans Schwartz , German football player († 1991 )
- March 2 : Herbert Ansbach , German politician († 1988 )
- March 2 : Falk Harnack , German director, resistance fighter against National Socialism († 1991 )
- March 2 : Duke Nalon , American racing car driver († 2001 )
- March 3 : Margaret Bonds , American composer and pianist († 1976 )
- March 3rd : August Tiedtke , German carom player, world champion, European champion and German champion († 1972 )
- March 4 : John Garfield , American actor († 1952 )
- March 4 : Leo Trepp , German-American rabbi and theology professor († 2010 )
- March 5 : Karl Ewald Böhm , German writer and head of the GDR censorship authority († 1977 )
- March 5 : Hans Gutzwiller , Swiss philologist and Germanist († 1988 )
- March 5 : Josef Stroh , German and Austrian football player († 1991 )
- March 7 : Harry Andersson , Swedish football player († 1996 )
- March 8 : Mouloud Feraoun , Algerian writer († 1962 )
- March 11 : John Weinzweig , Canadian composer († 2006 )
- March 12 : Teobaldo Depetrini , Italian football player and coach († 1996 )
- March 12 : Loulie Jean Norman , American soprano († 2005 )
- March 13 : George Maybee , Canadian organist, choir director and music teacher († 1973 )
- March 13 : Sergei Michalkow , Russian writer († 2009 )
- March 13 : Irène Joachim , French soprano († 2001 )
- March 13 : Lightnin 'Slim , American blues musician († 1974 )
- March 13 : Renate Niethammer , German graphic artist († 2017 )
- March 14 : Witold Rudziński , Polish composer († 2004 )
- March 15 : Jack Fairman , British racing car driver († 2002 )
- March 15 : Paul Grice , English philosopher († 1988 )
- March 15 : Franz Ronneberger , communication scientist († 1999 )
- March 16 : Carmelo Heriberto Alves , Uruguayan artist († 2010 )
- March 16 : Rudi Schuricke , German singer and actor († 1973 )
- March 18 : Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe , UN politician and diplomat from Sri Lanka († 1980 )
- March 18 : Ishida Hakyō , Japanese poet († 1969 )
- March 18 : René Clément , French film director († 1996 )
- March 18 : Reinhard Hardegen , German submarine commander († 2018 )
- March 18 : Werner Mölders , German Air Force officer († 1941 )
- March 19 : Alexander Ivanovich Pokryschkin , Soviet pilot († 1985 )
- March 19 : Günter Neumann , German composer, author and cabaret artist († 1972 )
- March 19 : José Villanueva , Filipino boxer († 1983 )
- March 21 : George Abecassis , British racing driver († 1991 )
- March 21 : Rodney Arismendi , Uruguayan politician and Marxist theorist († 1989 )
- March 21 : Paul Fröhlich , member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the SED († 1970 )
- March 21 : Werner Höfer , German journalist († 1997 )
- March 21 : Erwin Vosseler , German soccer player
- March 22nd : Sabiha Gökçen , the first Turkish female pilot and the first female fighter pilot in the world († 2001 )
- March 22 : George Svendsen , American football player († 1995 )
- March 23 : Piero Chiara , Italian writer († 1986 )
- March 23 : Heinz Linge , SS officer, valet of Adolf Hitler († 1980 )
- March 25 : Josef Siedler , German politician († 2005 )
- March 26 : Paul Erdős , mathematician of Hungarian origin († 1996 )
- March 26 : Bruce Low , Dutch hit and gospel singer († 1990 )
- March 26 : Jacqueline de Romilly , French classical philologist, member of the Académie Française († 2010 )
- March 27 : Klaus Mahnert , Austrian politician († 2005 )
- March 27 : Chombo Silva , Cuban violinist and saxophonist († 1995 )
- March 28 : Kurt Dossin , German handball player († 2004 )
- March 30th : Marc Davis , American animator († 2000 )
- March 30th : Rudolf Noack , German football player († 1947 )
- March 31 : Nils Erik Åkerlindh , Swedish wrestler († 1992 )
- March 31 : Etta Baker , American blues singer and guitarist († 2006 )
- April 3 : Per Borten , Norwegian politician and minister of state († 2005 )
- April 4 : Cecil Gant , American blues singer and pianist († 1951 )
- April 4 : Frances Langford , American singer and actress († 2005 )
- April 4 : Muddy Waters , (McKinley Morganfield), American blues singer and guitarist († 1983 )
- April 5 : Antoni Clavé , Spanish painter and sculptor († 2005 )
- April 5 : Nicolas Grunitzky , Togolese politician († 1969 )
- April 5 : Ruth Smith , Faroese painter and graphic artist († 1958 )
- April 6 : Otto Schmitt , American biophysicist and inventor († 1998 )
- April 7 : Herbert Gadsch , German church musician and composer († 2011 )
- April 8 : Sourou-Migan Apithy , President of Benin († 1989 )
- April 10 : Jan Arvan , American actor († 1979 )
- April 10 : Duke Dinsmore , American racing driver († 1985 )
- April 10 : Stefan Heym , German writer († 2001 )
- April 11 : Egon Franke , German politician († 1995 )
- April 12 : Fritz Fromm , German handball player († 2001 )
- April 12 : Keiko Fukuda , American judoka of Japanese origin († 2013 )
- April 14 : Jean Fournet , French conductor († 2008 )
- April 14 : Werner Wolf Glaser , Swedish composer and professor († 2006 )
- April 14 : John Howard , American actor († 1995 )
- April 15 : Hans Egon Holthusen , German poet († 1997 )
- April 15 : Bärbel Inhelder , Swiss developmental psychologist († 1997 )
- April 15 : Johannes Overath , German Catholic theologian and priest († 2002 )
- April 15 : Manfred Schmidt , German comic artist and humorous travel writer († 1999 )
- April 15 : Lotte Strauss , German pathologist († 1985 )
- April 16 : Don Fedderson , American television producer († 1994 )
- April 17 : Miss Read , English writer († 2012 )
- April 18 : Werner Steinberg , German writer († 1992 )
- April 19 : Karl Rawer , German physicist († 2018 )
- April 20 : Willi Hennig , German zoologist, phylogenetic († 1976 )
- April 21 : Milivoj Ašner , Croatian police chief in Požega († 2011 )
- April 21 : Norbert Frýd , writer and publicist († 1976 )
- April 21 : Kai-Uwe von Hassel , German politician († 1997 )
- April 21 : Charles Martin , British racing car driver († 1998 )
- April 21 : Josef Meinrad , Austrian chamber actor († 1996 )
- April 22 : Bruno Tesch , German communist, Nazi victim († 1933 )
- April 24 : Violet Archer , Canadian composer († 2000 )
- April 24 : Hermann Gramlich , German football player († 1942 )
- April 24 : Josef Stierli , Swiss Jesuit and church historian († 1999 )
- April 25 : Earl Bostic , American alto saxophonist and composer († 1965 )
- April 26 : Sigrid Hunke , German religious scholar and Germanist († 1999 )
- April 27 : Philip Hauge Abelson , American physicist and chemist († 2004 )
- April 27 : Luz Long , German athlete († 1943 )
- April 27 : Werner Sanß , theologian, peace activist († 2004 )
- April 27 : Willy Schürmann , painter and graphic artist († 2008 )
- April 28 : Yang Shuo , Chinese poet and essayist († 1968 )
- April 29 : Edgar Allen Ablowich , American hurdler and sprinter († 1998 )
- April 30th : Américo Belloto Varoni , Argentine violinist and conductor († 1965 )
- April 30 : Christian Maurer , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1992 )
- May 1 : Paul D. MacLean , American brain researcher († 2007 )
- May 1 : Louis Nye , American comedian and actor († 2005 )
- May 1 : Walter Susskind , English conductor († 1980 )
- May 2 : Pietro Frua , Italian automobile designer († 1983 )
- May 2 : Florian Dąbrowski , Polish composer and music teacher († 2002 )
- May 2 : Nigel Patrick , British actor († 1981 )
- May 3 : William Inge , American playwright († 1973 )
- May 3 : Lothar Malskat , painter and art forger († 1988 )
- May 4 : Agnelo Rossi , Archbishop of São Paulo and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1995 )
- May 5 : Duane Carter , American racing driver († 1993 )
- May 5 : Pug Manders , American football player († 1985 )
- May 6 : Carmen Cavallaro , American musician and film actor († 1989 )
- May 6 : Gyula Dávid , Hungarian composer († 1977 )
- May 6 : Stewart Granger , English actor († 1993 )
- May 7 : Kurt Kauter , German writer († 2002 )
- May 7 : Simon Ramo , American physicist, engineer and entrepreneur († 2016 )
- May 8 : Sidney James , South African actor († 1976 )
- May 11 : Hellmut Brunner , German Egyptologist († 1997 )
- May 11 : Robert Jungk , publicist, journalist and futurologist († 1994 )
- May 13 : Götz von Houwald , German diplomat, ethnologist and historian († 2001 )
- May 13 : William R. Tolbert junior , Liberian President († 1980 )
- May 13 : Helmut Weiß , German writer († 2000 )
- May 14 : Paul Arndt , German communist and resistance fighter († 1939 )
- May 14th : Herbert Aust , German SS-Sturmbannführer
- May 14 : Erika Richter , German table tennis player († 2000 )
- May 15 : Heinz Haber , German astrophysicist († 1990 )
- May 15 : Herbert Stockmann , German painter and graphic artist († 1947 )
- May 16 : Gheorghe Apostol , Romanian politician and diplomat († 2010 )
- May 16 : Sebastiano Baggio , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1993 )
- May 16 : Woody Herman , American jazz musician and band leader († 1987 )
- May 17 : Waldemar de Brito , Brazilian soccer player († 1979 )
- May 17th : Hans Ruesch , Swiss racing car driver, publicist and writer († 2007 )
- May 18 : Nicolás Gómez Dávila , Colombian philosopher († 1994 )
- May 18 : Eugen Ewig , German historian († 2006 )
- May 18 : Jean de Montrémy , French racing driver († 1998 )
- May 18 : Charles Trenet , French singer, composer, poet and painter († 2001 )
- May 19 : Pierre Boncompagni , French racing car driver († 1953 )
- May 20 : Philip Matthew Hannan , Archbishop of New Orleans († 2011 )
- May 20 : William Hewlett , founder of Hewlett-Packard († 2001 )
- May 20 : Isolde Oschmann , SED functionary in the GDR
- May 20 : Isaak Jakowlewitsch Pomerantschuk , Russian physicist († 1966 )
- May 24th : Willi Daume , NOK President († 1996 )
- May 24 : Peter Ellenshaw , English painter († 2007 )
- May 24th : Roland Kohlsaat , German comic artist, illustrator and author († 1978 )
- May 25 : Donald Maclean , British spy († 1983 )
- May 26 : Annemarie Ackermann , German politician († 1994 )
- May 26 : Erich Bautz , German cyclist († 1986 )
- May 26 : Peter Cushing , British actor († 1994 )
- May 26 : Pierre Daninos , French journalist and writer († 2005 )
- May 26 : Androniqi Zengo Antoniu , Albanian painter († 2000 )
- May 27th : Wols , German painter, draftsman, graphic artist († 1951 )
- May 28 : Marko Feingold , President of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Salzburg († 2019 )
- May 28 : Peter Mitchell-Thomson, 2nd Baron Selsdon , British racing car driver († 1963 )
- May 29 : Oskar Steinbach , German motorcycle racer († 1937 )
- May 31 : Peter Frankenfeld , actor, showmaster, singer († 1979 )
- June 1 : Patrick Dalzel job , British naval officer († 2003 )
- June 2 : Barbara Pym , British writer († 1980 )
- June 4th : Arved Deringer , German politician († 2011 )
- June 5 : Theodor Wieland , German chemist († 1995 )
- June 6 : Herbert Aschmann , German painter († 1975 )
- June 6 : Arno Behrisch , German politician (SPD, DFU) († 1989 )
- June 6 : Francis Preston , British regatta sailor († 1975 )
- June 7 : Roberto Porta , Uruguayan-Italian football player and coach († 1984 )
- June 10 : Edward Abraham , British biochemist († 1999 )
- June 10 : Shōjirō Asahina , Japanese entomologist († 2010 )
- June 10 : Annemarie Auer , German writer († 2002 )
- June 10 : Tikhon Nikolajewitsch Chrennikow , Russian composer († 2007 )
- June 11 : Vince Lombardi , American football coach († 1970 )
- June 12 : Heinrich Keimig , German handball player († 1966 )
- June 13 : Humberto Mariles Cortés , Mexican colonel and show jumping and eventing rider († 1972 )
- June 13 : Friedrich Huber , Austrian entrepreneur and racing car driver († 2010 )
- June 13 : Manfred Lehmbruck , German architect († 1992 )
- June 14 : Henry Banks , American racing car driver († 1994 )
- June 15 : Harry Voigt , German athlete († 1986 )
- June 17 : Felix Hartlaub , German writer († 1945 )
- June 18 : Clifford Coffin , American photographer († 1972 )
- June 18 : Stanisław Marusarz , Polish skier († 1993 )
- June 18 : Hermann Müller , German politician († 1991 )
- June 18 : Oswald Teichmüller , German mathematician († 1943 )
- June 20 : Juan Carlos Teresa Silverio Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg , Infanta of Spain and Count of Barcelona († 1993 )
- June 20 : Laure Wyss , Swiss writer († 2002 )
- June 21 : Josef Brinkhues , Bishop of the Old Catholic Church in Germany († 1995 )
- June 22 : Hans Bay , German politician († 2009 )
- June 22nd : Heinrich Hogrebe , German forester and officer in World War II († 1998 )
- June 23 : Lillian Palmer , Canadian sprinter († 2001 )
- June 23 : William P. Rogers , US Secretary of State († 2001 )
- June 24 : Elisa Huezo Paredes , Salvadoran writer and painter († 1995 )
- June 25 : Eberhard Cronshagen , German actor and dubbing director
- June 25 : Wilhelm Sandfuchs , German church journalist († 1999 )
- June 26 : Aimé Césaire , Afro-Caribbean-French poet, writer and politician († 2008 )
- June 26 : Harold F. Kress , American film editor († 1999 )
- June 26 : Maurice V. Wilkes , British computer scientist († 2010 )
- June 27th : Nathan Abshire , American accordionist († 1981 )
- June 27 : Elton Britt , American country musician († 1972 )
- June 27 : William Joseph "Willie" Mosconi , American pool player († 1993 )
- June 28 : Franz Antel , Austrian film director, producer, screenwriter († 2007 )
- June 28 : George Lloyd , English composer († 1998 )
- June 28 : Paul Tröger , German chess master († 1992 )
- June 30th : Herta Heuwer , inventor of a spicy sauce ( chill-up ) for currywurst († 1999 )
- July 3 : Dorothy Kilgallen , American television presenter and actress († 1965 )
- July 5 : Hanuš Bonn , Czech poet, literary critic and translator († 1941 )
- July 5 : Smiley Lewis , American blues and R&B singer († 1966 )
- July 6 : J. Carson Mark , American mathematician and physicist († 1997 )
- July 7th : Pinetop Perkins , American blues musician († 2011 )
- July 9 : Hubert Claessen , DFB functionary, Bundesliga co-founder and lawyer († 2005 )
- July 9 : Georg Picht , religious philosopher and educator († 1982 )
- July 10 : Helmut Eschwege , German historian and documentarist († 1992 )
- July 11 : Artur Gelbrun , Israeli violinist, violist, music teacher, conductor and composer of Polish origin († 1985 )
- July 11 : Paul Linebarger , American psychologist and writer († 1966 )
- July 11 : Harry Williamson , American middle-distance runner († 2000 )
- July 12 : Willis E. Lamb , American physicist († 2008 )
- July 12 : André Lavagne , French composer († 2014 )
- July 13 : Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller , Danish shipowner and industrialist († 2012 )
- July 14 : Fritz Erler , German SPD politician († 1967 )
- July 14 : Gerald Ford , American politician, 38th President of the United States († 2006 )
- July 14 : Mary Henle , American psychologist († 2007 )
- July 15 : Cowboy Copas , American country musician († 1963 )
- July 16 : Peter van Eyck , German actor († 1969 )
- July 16 : Woodrow Stanley Lloyd , Canadian politician († 1972 )
- July 16 : Friedrich von Stülpnagel , German athlete († 1996 )
- July 17 : Herman Felhoelter , American Franciscan priest and "war hero" († 1950 )
- July 17 : Wilhelm Nils Fresenius , German chemist († 2004 )
- July 17 : Roger Garaudy , French writer and philosopher († 2012 )
- July 18 : Eric Pohlmann , Austro-British actor and voice actor († 1979 )
- July 18 : Red Skelton , American actor and comedian († 1997 )
- July 19 : Laure Gatet , French Resistance fighter († 1943 )
- July 19 : Ernst Scholz , Minister for Construction of the GDR († 1986 )
- July 20 : Shalom Ben-Chorin , journalist, religious scholar († 1999 )
- July 20 : Weniamin Iossifowitsch Fleischmann , Soviet composer († 1941 )
- July 20 : Guillermo Leaden , Argentine Bishop († 2014 )
- July 22nd : Klaus Schmid-Burgk , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 1984 )
- July 23 : Coral Browne , Australian-American theater and film actress († 1991 )
- July 23 : Ernest van der Eyken , Belgian composer and conductor († 2010 )
- July 23 : Michael Foot , British politician, leader of the Labor Party (1980–1983) († 2010 )
- July 24th : Hermann Scheipers , Roman Catholic priest and concentration camp survivor († 2016 )
- July 25 : John Cairncross , British spy († 1995 )
- July 27 : Lucy Ackerknecht , German psychotherapist and author († 1997 )
- July 27 : José Maria Antunes Juniór , Portuguese football player and coach († 1991 )
- July 27 : Hermann Gablenz , German motorcycle racer († 2000 )
- July 29 : Hermann Barche , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 2001 )
- July 29th : Gale Page , American actress († 1983 )
- July 29 : Erich Priebke , SS officer in World War II and convicted war criminal († 2013 )
- July 31 : Alphonso Ainsworth , English football player († 1975 )
- July 31 : Heinrich Treichl , Austrian banker († 2014 )
- August 1 : Furusawa Taiho , Japanese haiku poet († 2000 )
- August 1 : Heinz Ellenberg , German biologist, botanist, landscape ecology († 1997 )
- August 1 : Hajo Herrmann , German military and lawyer († 2010 )
- August 1 : Rudolf Wöhrl , German entrepreneur († 2010 )
- August 4th : Noboru Nakamura , Japanese director and screenwriter († 1981 )
- August 4th : Adrian Quist , Australian tennis player († 1991 )
- August 5 : Manfred Bues , German athlete († 2012 )
- August 8 : Boris Afanassjew , Russian ice hockey goalkeeper and coach and soccer player († 1983 )
- August 9 : Johann Ferbach , co-convicted in the trial against Vera Brühne († 1970 )
- August 9 : Herman Talmadge , American politician († 2002 )
- August 10 : Wolfgang Paul , German physicist and Nobel Prize winner († 1993 )
- August 12 : Raphael Armattoe , Ghanaian doctor, author and poet († 1953 )
- August 12 : Ajahn Maha Bua Nanasampanno , Thai monk and abbot of Wat Pa Ban Tat († 2011 )
- August 12 : Narciso Jubany , Archbishop of Barcelona and Cardinal († 1996 )
- August 12 : Alexander Kotow , Russian chess player and author († 1981 )
- August 13 : Hulda Autenrieth-Gander , Swiss pioneer of women's rights († 2006 )
- August 13 : Fred Davis , English snooker player († 1998 )
- August 13 : Makarios III. , Cypriot clergyman and politician († 1977 )
- August 15 : Heinz Trökes , German painter and graphic artist († 1997 )
- August 16 : Menachem Begin , Israeli politician († 1992 )
- August 17 : Mark Felt , FBI agent, informant in the Watergate affair († 2008 )
- August 17 : Oscar Gálvez , Argentine Formula 1 racing driver († 1989 )
- August 17 : Siegfried Zoglmann , German politician († 2007 )
- August 18 : Gaetano Kanizsa , Italian psychologist († 1993 )
- August 19 : John Argyris , professor and founder of the institute († 2004 )
- August 19 : Philipp von Bismarck , German politician and Member of the Bundestag († 2006 )
- August 19 : Armido Gasparini , Catholic religious, priest and missionary bishop († 2004 )
- August 20 : Karl Heinz Robrahn , German Catholic poet († 1987 )
- August 20 : Roger Sperry , American neurobiologist († 1994 )
- August 21 : Fred Agabashian , American racing driver († 1989 )
- August 21 : Ralph E. Haines , American officer, general in the US Army († 2011 )
- August 21 : Viktor Rosow , Russian playwright († 2004 )
- August 21 : Karl Storch , German athlete († 1992 )
- August 22 : Bruno Pontecorvo , Italian-Russian physicist († 1993 )
- August 22 : Robert Schollum , Austrian composer and conductor († 1987 )
- August 23 : Bob Crosby , American singer and big band leader († 1993 )
- August 25 : Alexej von Assaulenko , Russian-Ukrainian painter († 1989 )
- August 25 : Walt Kelly , American animator and comic book artist († 1973 )
- August 26 : Julius Döpfner , German cardinal († 1976 )
- August 26 : Boris Pahor , Slovenian writer
- August 27 : Herbert Fechner , German politician († 1998 )
- August 28 : Yoshio Atoji , Japanese sociologist († 1997 )
- August 28 : Otto Greis , German informal art painter († 2001 )
- August 29 : Jan Ekier , Polish pianist, composer and music teacher († 2014 )
- August 29 : Georges Houot , French naval officer and marine researcher († 1977 )
- August 30 : Richard Stone , British economist, Nobel Prize Winner († 1991 )
- August 31 : Zbigniew Bieńkowski , Polish literary critic, essayist and translator († 1994 )
- August 31 : Jacques Foccart , French politician († 1997 )
- August 31 : Helen Levitt , American photographer and filmmaker († 2009 )
- August 31 : Bernard Lovell , British astronomer and pioneer of radio astronomy († 2012 )
- September 1 : Ludwig Merwart , Austrian painter and graphic artist († 1979 )
- September 2 : Adolf-Henning Frucht , German doctor and physiologist († 1993 )
- September 2 : Agnes-Marie Grisebach , German writer († 2011 )
- September 3 : Alan Ladd , American film actor († 1964 )
- September 4 : Stanford Moore , American biochemist and Nobel Prize winner († 1982 )
- September 4th : Joseph Anthony De Palma , Bishop of De Aar († 2005 )
- September 4 : Kenzō Tange , Japanese architect († 2005 )
- September 6 : Leônidas da Silva , Brazilian soccer player († 2004 )
- September 8 : Zvi Asaria , Yugoslav-Israeli rabbi and author († 2002 )
- September 9 : Josef Marx , American oboist and musicologist († 1978 )
- September 12 : Ettore Cella , Swiss actor and director († 2004 )
- September 12 : Jesse Owens , American athlete († 1980 )
- September 13 : John Gordon Bennett , American racing driver († 1988 )
- September 13 : Friedrich Schiedel , German entrepreneur and patron († 2001 )
- September 14 : Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán , Guatemalan President († 1971 )
- September 14 : Severino Varela , Uruguayan football player († 1995 )
- September 15 : Henry Brant , American composer († 2008 )
- September 15 : Hans Filbinger , Nazi naval judge, German politician († 2007 )
- September 15 : John N. Mitchell , US Attorney General († 1988 )
- September 15 : Paul-Heinz Schubert , German businessman and politician († 1991 )
- September 17 : Ludwig Acker , German chemist and food chemist († 1998 )
- September 17 : Heinz Kapelle , leader of the KJVD (Communist Youth Association of Germany) († 1941 )
- September 17 : Robert Lembke , German journalist and television presenter († 1989 )
- September 17 : Mira Lobe , Austrian children's book author († 1995 )
- September 18 : Dietrich Bahner senior , German entrepreneur and politician († 1987 )
- September 18 : Karl Reinthaler , German mayor and member of the state parliament († 2000 )
- September 18 : Edward Sagarin , American sociologist († 1986 )
- September 19 : Anton Donhauser , German politician († 1987 )
- September 19 : Frances Farmer , American actress († 1970 )
- September 19 : Manfred Kersch , German athlete and Olympic participant († 1995 )
- September 21 : Georges Aeby , Swiss football player († 1999 )
- September 23 : Aleksi Matschawariani , Georgian composer († 1995 )
- September 23 : Carl-Henning Pedersen , Danish painter († 2007 )
- September 25 : Martin Aku , Togolese-French doctor, author and politician († 1970 )
- September 25 : Hermann Krings , German philosopher († 2004 )
- September 25 : Maria Tănase , Romanian singer and chansonnière († 1963 )
- September 26 : Berthold Beitz , German entrepreneur († 2013 )
- September 26 : Frank Brimsek , American ice hockey player († 1998 )
- September 26 : Ernst Schnabel , German writer († 1986 )
- September 27 : Albert Ellis , American psychologist and psychotherapist († 2007 )
- September 27 : Kurt Honolka , German music writer, musicologist, journalist, music and theater critic († 1988 )
- September 28 : Alice Marble , American tennis player († 1990 )
- September 28th : Edith Pargeter , English crime novelist († 1995 )
- September 28 : Helmut Hermann Wittler , Bishop of Osnabrück († 1987 )
- September 29 : Ramón de Garciasol , Spanish writer († 1994 )
- September 29th : Trevor Howard , English theater and film actor († 1988 )
- September 29 : Silvio Piola , Italian football player († 1996 )
- September 29 : Stanley Kramer , American director and film producer († 2001 )
- September 30 : Samuel Eilenberg , Polish mathematician († 1998 )
- October 2 : Annette Rogers , American athlete and Olympic champion († 2006 )
- October 3 : Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero , Archbishop of Turin and Cardinal († 1998 )
- October 5 : Russ Letlow , American football player († 1987 )
- October 6 : Meret Oppenheim , Swiss surrealist artist and poet († 1985 )
- October 8 : Franz Stadler , German association official († 2000 )
- October 9 : Liselotte Malkowsky , German pop singer († 1965 )
- October 9 : Karl Waldemar Schütz , German publisher and editor († 1999 )
- October 10 : Claude Simon , French writer († 2005 )
- October 11 : Jack Nethercutt , American entrepreneur and racing car driver († 2004 )
- October 12 : Josefine Hawelka , founder and operator of Café Hawelka († 2005 )
- October 15 : Wolfgang Lüth , submarine commander in World War II († 1945 )
- October 16 : Cesar Bresgen , Austrian composer († 1988 )
- October 17th : Edi Bär , Swiss conductor and composer († 2008 )
- October 18 : Margrit Aust , Austrian actress
- October 18 : Wilhelm Schröder , Minister for Agriculture and Forestry of the GDR († 1967 )
- October 19 : Haxhi Lleshi , Albanian military and politician († 1998 )
- October 19 : Vinícius de Moraes , Brazilian poet and songwriter († 1980 )
- October 20 : Grandpa Jones , American country musician († 1998 )
- October 20 : Johann Kurz , priest, rector of the Hollabrunn boys' seminary († 1985 )
- October 21 : Barrington Moore, Jr. , American sociologist and historian († 2005 )
- October 22 : Robert Capa , American photographer of Hungarian origin († 1954 )
- October 22 : Bảo Đại , last emperor of Vietnam († 1997 )
- October 22 : Hans-Peter Tschudi , Swiss politician († 2002 )
- October 25 : Klaus Barbie , National Socialist, "Butcher of Lyon" († 1991 )
- October 25 : Ruth Dirx , German author († 1994 )
- October 26 : Hans Jönsson , German film, television and radio play composer († 1993 )
- October 26 : Oda Sakunosuke , Japanese writer († 1947 )
- October 26 : Netty Simons , American composer († 1994 )
- October 27 : Rolf Geschäftsling , German gallery owner and architect († 1991 )
- October 27 : Luigi Piotti , Italian racing car driver († 1971 )
- October 27 : Otto Wichterle , Czech chemist († 1998 )
- November 2nd : Carmen Amaya , Spanish flamenco dancer, singer and actress († 1963 )
- November 2 : Erik Asmussen , Danish architect († 1998 )
- November 2 : Alexander Borell , author of numerous entertainment and serial novels († 1998 )
- November 2 : Burt Lancaster , American actor († 1994 )
- November 3 : Albert Cossery , Egyptian Francophone writer († 2008 )
- November 3 : Marika Rökk , Hungarian actress († 2004 )
- November 4 : Gig Young , American film actor († 1978 )
- November 5 : Gisela Andersch , German painter, graphic artist and collage artist († 1987 )
- November 5 : Guy Jonson , English pianist and music teacher († 2009 )
- November 5th : Vivien Leigh , British film and stage actress († 1967 )
- November 6th : Gisela Kühler-Balcke , German sculptor († 1983 )
- November 7th : Albert Camus , French writer and member of the French Resistance († 1960 )
- November 8 : Lou Ambers , American boxer († 1995 )
- November 8th : Ludwig Elsbett , inventor of the Elsbett engine († 2003 )
- November 8 : Rudolf Harbig , German athlete († 1944 )
- November 9th : Sepp Kerschbaumer , South Tyrolean activist and head of the Liberation Committee South Tyrol († 1964 )
- November 9th : Günter von Roden , historian and archivist and city archive director in Duisburg († 1999 )
- November 9 : Hartwig Schlegelberger , German politician († 1997 )
- November 10 : Álvaro Cunhal , Portuguese politician († 2005 )
- November 10 : Heinz Mellmann , German graphic artist and fairy tale illustrator († 1945 )
- November 11th : Käthe Braun , German actress († 1994 )
- November 13 : Bernhard Carl Hermann Aubin , German legal scholar († 2005 )
- November 13 : Jack Dyer , Australian soccer player († 2003 )
- November 13 : Lon Nol , President of Cambodia († 1985 )
- November 14 : Yelisaveta Ivanovna Bykowa , Soviet chess player († 1989 )
- November 14 : George Smathers , American Senator († 2007 )
- November 15 : Guy Green , British cameraman, director and screenwriter († 2005 )
- November 15 : Arthur Haulot , Belgian journalist, humanist and poet († 2005 )
- November 15 : Gus Johnson , American jazz bassist († 2000 )
- November 16 : Ellen Albertini Dow , American film and stage actress († 2015 )
- November 17 : Hellmut Kalbitzer , German politician († 2006 )
- November 17 : Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt , French Egyptologist († 2011 )
- November 20 : Charles Bettelheim , French economist († 2006 )
- November 20 : Libertas Schulze-Boysen , member of the resistance group "Rote Kapelle" († 1942 )
- November 21 : Volker von Collande , German actor, screenwriter and director († 1990 )
- November 21 : Max Sefrin , German politician (GDR) († 2000 )
- November 22 : Benjamin Britten , English composer († 1976 )
- November 22 : Cecilia Martínez , Venezuelan actress, broadcaster and television presenter († 2015 )
- November 23 : Christian Kautz , Swiss racing driver († 1948 )
- November 24 : Abd ul-Ilah , Iraqi prince († 1958 )
- November 24 : Geraldine Fitzgerald , Irish-American actress († 2005 )
- November 24 : Muriel Gantry , novelist († 2000 )
- November 24th : Gisela Mauermayer , German athlete († 1995 )
- November 25 : Petro Marko , Albanian writer († 1991 )
- November 26 : Gordon A. Craig , American historian and writer († 2005 )
- November 27 : Lewis Coser , American sociologist († 2003 )
- November 29 : John E. Struggles , American personnel consultant († 2005 )
- December 1 : Mary Dinsmore Salter Ainsworth , American developmental psychologist († 1999 )
- December 1 : Mary Martin , American actress († 1990 )
- December 1 : Hans Glinz , Swiss linguist and Germanist († 2008 )
- December 1 : Ludwig Waldleitner , German film producer († 1998 )
- December 2 : Erwin Förschler , German soccer player († 1984 )
- December 2 : Eugen Frey , German football player († 1998 )
- December 2 : Léo Rivest , Canadian actor († 1990 )
- December 3 : Gerry Healy , Irish Trotskyist politician († 1989 )
- December 4 : Robert Adler , American physicist, electronics technician and inventor († 2007 )
- December 4 : Johann Cilenšek , German composer and Vice President of the Academy of Arts of the GDR († 1998 )
- December 4 : Adolf Emile Cohen , Dutch historian († 2004 )
- December 4 : John Kitzmiller , American actor († 1965 )
- December 4th : Mark Robson , Canadian film director and producer († 1978 )
- December 6th : Nikolai Michailowitsch Amossow , Russian-Ukrainian cardiac surgeon, designer and author († 2002 )
- December 6th : Max G. Bollag , Swiss gallery owner († 2005 )
- December 6 : Eleanor Holm , American swimmer († 2004 )
- December 7th : John Davis , American blues pianist and singer († 1985 )
- December 9 : Friedrich Dickel , Minister of the Interior of the GDR († 1993 )
- December 9 : Fritz Graßhoff , German painter, draftsman, writer and songwriter († 1997 )
- December 10 : Morton Gould , American composer, conductor and pianist († 1996 )
- December 10th : Pannonica de Koenigswarter , jazz patron († 1988 )
- December 10 : Ray Nance , American jazz trumpeter and violinist († 1976 )
- December 11th : Jean Marais , French actor († 1998 )
- December 11th : Eduard Wallnöfer , Austrian politician and governor of Tyrol († 1989 )
- December 13 : Gerda Christian , private secretary of Adolf Hitler († 1997 )
- December 14 : Werner Stein , German politician († 1993 )
- December 15 : Walt Ader , American racing driver († 1982 )
- December 16 : Iwan David Herstatt , German banker († 1995 )
- December 16 : Buddy Parker , American football player and coach († 1982 )
- December 17 : Emilio Villoresi , Italian racing car driver († 1939 )
- December 18 : Alfred Bester , American science fiction author († 1987 )
- December 18 : Willy Brandt , German politician, Federal Chancellor 1969–1974 († 1992 )
- December 18 : Ray Meyer , American basketball coach († 2006 )
- December 19 : Inoue Kiyoshi , Japanese historian, social scientist and university professor († 2001 )
- December 19 : Juan Landázuri Ricketts , Archbishop of Lima and Cardinal († 1997 )
- December 19 : Annemarie Sörensen , German actress († 1993 )
- December 20 : Giorgio Ansoldi , Italian filmmaker († 1999 )
- December 20 : Carl Atwood Elliott , American politician († 1999 )
- December 21 : Rudolf Aschenauer , German lawyer († 1983 )
- December 21 : Heinz Conrads , Austrian actor and Wienerlied interpreter († 1986 )
- December 21 : Andor Foldes , American pianist of Hungarian origin († 1992 )
- December 22nd : Rudolf Krämer-Badoni , German writer († 1989 )
- December 23 : Anton Leader , American film director and film producer († 1988 )
- December 24th : Gerhard Wessel , President of the Federal Intelligence Service († 2002 )
- December 25 : Tony Martin , American actor and singer († 2012 )
- December 25th : Henri Nannen , German publisher and publicist († 1996 )
- December 25 : Joseph Elias Tawil , Syrian Archbishop of Newton (USA) († 1999 )
- December 28 : John William Brown , American politician († 1993 )
- December 28 : Lou Jacobi , Canadian film and stage actor († 2009 )
- December 28 : Paolo Silveri , Italian singer (baritone) and music teacher († 2001 )
- December 29th : Logan R. Frazee , American special effects artist († 1996 )
- December 29 : Pierre Werner , Luxembourg politician († 2002 )
- December 30th : Lucio Agostini , Canadian composer, arranger and conductor († 1995 )
- December 30th : Véra Clouzot , French-Brazilian actress († 1960 )
- December 30th : Svend S. Schultz , Danish composer and conductor († 1998 )
- December 31 : John N. Irwin , American politician († 2000 )
- December 31 : Peruchín , Cuban pianist, composer and arranger († 1977 )
- December 31 : René Schneider , Chilean general († 1970 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Alois Ammerschläger , German entrepreneur and patron († 1995 )
- Raúl Aparicio , Cuban journalist and writer († 1970 )
- Maurice Ascalon , Israeli sculptor and artist († 2003 )
- Fahri Atabey , Turkish doctor and politician († 1994 )
- Gertraud Evers-Boelter , German graphic artist († 2006 )
- Hyman Goodman , Canadian violinist and music teacher († 1994 )
- Hans Kellner , German local politician († 2008 )
- Renato Magi , Italian motorcycle racer († 1951 )
- Sayed Qassem Rishtya , Afghan writer, politician and diplomat († 1998 )
- January 2 : Julius Euting , German orientalist and librarian (* 1839 )
- January 2 : Léon-Philippe Teisserenc de Bort , French meteorologist and explorer of the stratosphere (* 1855 )
- January 4th : Alfred von Schlieffen , Prussian field marshal (* 1833 )
- January 4th : Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen , Norwegian polar explorer (* 1867 )
- January 5 : Louis Paul Cailletet , French physicist (* 1832 )
- January 6th : Ernesto Elorduy , Mexican composer and pianist (* 1855 )
- January 16 : Gottfried Friedrich Aly , German classical philologist and school politician (* 1852 )
- January 16 : Edwin Le Roy Antony , American politician (* 1852 )
- January 20 : Karl Wittgenstein , Austro-Hungarian entrepreneur (* 1847 )
- January 26th : Adolf Boettge , German military musician (* 1848 )
- February 1 : Karl Atz , Italian art historian and priest (* 1832 )
- February 4 : Franz Xaver Nagl , Austrian priest and theologian (* 1855 )
- February 5 : Lucius Frederick Hubbard , American politician (* 1836 )
- February 13 : Johann Josef Ammann , Austrian ethnographer and pedagogue (* 1852 )
- February 13 : Louis Aronstein , German physicist and chemist (* 1841 )
- February 17 : Joaquin Miller , American writer (* 1839 )
- February 20 : Robert von Lieben , Austrian physicist (* 1878 )
- February 22 : Ferdinand de Saussure , Swiss linguist (* 1857 )
- February 22nd : Francisco Madero , Mexican revolutionary and President of Mexico (* 1873 )
- February 24th : Wilhelm Kress , Austrian aviation pioneer and designer (* 1836 )
- February 26 : Felix Draeseke , German composer (* 1835 )
- February 27 : Oscar Oldberg , American pharmacologist (* 1846 )
- March 6 : Paul Friedrich August Ascherson , German botanist, historian, ethnographer and linguist (* 1834 )
- March 7th : Carl Diercke , German cartographer (* 1842 )
- March 7 : E. Pauline Johnson , Canadian poet and writer (* 1861 )
- March 10 : Harriet Tubman , American resistance fighter (* 1826 )
- March 11th : Carl Jatho , German Protestant pastor (* 1851 )
- March 13 : Ernst Ravenstein , German cartographer (* 1834 )
- March 13 : Thomas Peter Krag , Norwegian writer (* 1868 )
- March 16 : Tatyos Efendi , Turkish composer (* 1855 )
- March 18 : George I , King of Greece (* 1845 )
- March 18 : Louis Joseph Nicolas André , French general and minister of war (* 1838 )
- March 19 : John Thomas , Welsh harpist and composer (* 1826 )
- March 25 : József Hampel , Hungarian archaeologist and museum curator (* 1849 )
- March 25 : William Northen , American politician (* 1835 )
- March 30th : Hans Arnold , German sculptor (* 1860 )
- April 1 : Otto March , German architect (* 1845 )
- April 6 : Adolf Slaby , professor for electrical engineering at TH Berlin (* 1849 )
- April 14 : Carl Hagenbeck , German animal dealer and zoo director (* 1844 )
- April 18 : Lester Frank Ward , American sociologist (* 1841 )
- April 19 : Hugo Winckler , German archaeologist and linguist (* 1863 )
- April 24 : Vsevolod Michailowitsch Abramowitsch , Russian aviation pioneer and flight instructor (* 1890 )
- April 25 : Giovanni Battista Piamarta , Blessed, Italian priest and founder of the order (* 1841 )
- April 27 : Adolf Römer , German classical philologist (* 1843 )
- April 27 : Gabriel von Seidl , German architect and representative of historicism (* 1848 )
- April 28 : Franz Boluminski , German colonial administrator (* 1863 )
- April 29 : Andreas Flocken , German entrepreneur and inventor (* 1845 )
- April 29 : Victor Haderup , Danish dentist (* 1845 )
- April 29 : Erich Schmidt , German literary historian (* 1853 )
- May 1 : John Barclay Armstrong , American policeman and second lieutenant (* 1850 )
- May 3 : Jean Antoine Tancrède Auguste , Haitian general, politician and president (* 1856 )
- May 8 : Frank O. Briggs , American politician (* 1851 )
- May 9 : Evald Rygh , Norwegian Finance Minister (* 1842 )
- May 10 : Fredrik Ludvig Andreas Vibe Aubert , Norwegian art historian and art critic (* 1851 )
- May 12 : Friedrich Huch , German poet and writer (* 1873 )
- May 15 : Adolf Wahrmund , German orientalist and writer (* 1827 )
- May 16 : John Atherton , British explorer (* 1837 )
- May 16 : Louis Perrier , Swiss politician (* 1849 )
- May 22 : Karl von Arnim-Züsedom , German politician (* 1846 )
- May 22nd : Emil Pott , German animal breeding scientist (* 1851 )
- May 24th : Otto Dumke , German football player (* 1887 )
- May 25 : Alfred Redl , Colonel in the Austro-Hungarian Army and Russian spy (* 1864 )
- May 29 : Eduard Pechuel-Loesche , German geographer and Africa explorer (* 1840 )
- May 30th : Samuel Adrianus Naber , Dutch classical philologist (* 1828 )
- June 8 : Emily Davison , British suffragette (* 1872 )
- June 11th : Humfrey Anger , Canadian organist, composer, conductor and music teacher (* 1862 )
- June 11 : Mahmud Şevket Pasha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1856 )
- June 12 : Marshall Arnold , American politician (* 1845 )
- June 13 : Henri Rochefort , French journalist and writer (* 1830 )
- June 19 : Thomas Manson Norwood , American politician (* 1830 )
- June 20 : Sydenham Elnathan Ancona , American politician (* 1824 )
- June 26 : Jonathan Hutchinson , English surgeon and pathologist (* 1828 )
- June 28 : John L. Barstow , American politician (* 1832 )
- July 3 : Adolph Amberg , German sculptor (* 1874 )
- July 6 : James Cassius Williamson , Australian actor and impresario (* 1845 )
- July 8 : Louis Hémon , French writer (* 1880 )
- July 17th : Armes Beaumont , Australian singer (* 1842 )
- July 21 : Hermann Credner , German geoscientist (* 1841 )
- July 22nd : Johann Jakob Bernoulli , Swiss archaeologist (* 1831 )
- July 28 : Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Augst , German politician (* 1853 )
- July 29th : Tobias Asser , Dutch lawyer and politician (* 1838 )
- July 30th : August Sternickel , German murderer and arsonist (executed) (* 1866 )
- August 1st : Lesja Ukrajinka , Ukrainian poet, dramaturge and translator (* 1871 )
- August 3 : Josephine Cochrane , American inventor of the dishwasher (* 1839 )
- August 3 : Friedrich Wilhelm Putzger , German educator and textbook author (* 1849 )
- August 7th : Josef Ohrwalder , Austrian missionary and author (* 1856 )
- August 7th : David Popper , Czech cellist and composer (* 1843 )
- August 8 : Joseph F. Johnston , American politician (* 1843 )
- August 8 : Hermann Harry Schmitz , author of grotesque stories and one-act play as well as essayist (* 1880 )
- August 11 : Brasílio Itiberê da Cunha , Brazilian composer and diplomat (* 1846 )
- August 13 : Georg Arnould , German naval and army painter (* 1843 )
- August 13th : August Bebel , German Social Democrat (* 1840 )
- August 20 : Émile Ollivier , French politician (* 1825 )
- August 29 : Hermann Aron , German researcher in the field of electrical engineering (* 1845 )
- August 31 : Erwin Bälz , personal physician to the Imperial Family in Japan (* 1849 )
- September 3 : John Martin , American politician (* 1833 )
- September 5 : Willi Fick , German football player (* 1891 )
- September 18 : Richard Loening , German legal scholar (* 1848 )
- September 23 : Julius Anton Adam , German genre and animal painter and lithographer (* 1852 )
- September 25 : Herbert William Garratt , English locomotive designer (* 1864 )
- September 27 : Wilhelm Holtz , German physicist and inventor (* 1836 )
- October 5 : Heinrich Ludwig Oskar Ackermann , German theologian (* 1863 )
- October 6 : Hermann Riedel , German composer and conductor (* 1847 )
- October 10 : Gregorio María Aguirre y García , Archbishop of Toledo and Cardinal (* 1835 )
- October 14 : Norbert Hanrieder , Austrian dialect poet and priest (* 1842 )
- October 14 : Ferdinand Rüegg , Bishop of St. Gallen (* 1847 )
- October 16 : Ralph Rose , American athlete (* 1884 )
- October 18 : Dinuzulu , King of the Zulu (* 1868 )
- November 7th : Alfred Russel Wallace , British zoologist and naturalist (* 1823 )
- November 14 : Kıbrıslı Kâmil Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1833 )
- November 18 : Johannes Christoph Achelis , German businessman and entrepreneur (* 1836 )
- November 18 : John Foster McCreight , Canadian politician (* 1827 )
- November 21 : Francesco Acri , Italian philosopher and historian of philosophy (* 1834 )
- November 22nd : Tokugawa Yoshinobu , last Japanese Shogun (* 1837 )
- November 26 : Rufus W. Cobb , American politician (* 1829 )
- November 29 : Herbert W. Ladd , American politician (* 1843 )
- November 30th : Kaspar Eisenkolb , Romanian-German composer (* 1826 )
- December 3 : Friedrich Keller , German Vice Consul in the Templar Colony in Haifa (* 1838 )
- December 7th : Heinrich Ernst Göring , German lawyer and diplomat (* 1838 )
- December 8th : Camille Jenatzy , Belgian racing driver and designer (* 1868 )
- December 9 : Franz Kullak , German pianist and composer (* 1844 )
- December 12 : Menelik II , Ethiopian Emperor (* 1844 )
- December 15 : Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach , painter and social reformer (* 1851 )
- December 15 : Moltke Moe , Norwegian folklorist (* 1859 )
- December 16 : Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro , Cardinal Secretary of State during the pontificate of Leo XIII. (* 1843 )
- December 26 : Hans von Specht , German-American officer and farmer, carter and postmaster (* 1825 )
- December 27th : Antonia Maria of Portugal , Infanta of Portugal and Princess of Braganza, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (* 1845 )
- December 29 : Anderson Abbott , Canadian physician (* 1837 )
- December 31 : Seth Carlo Chandler , American astronomer (* 1846 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Max Arendt , German politician (* 1843 )
- Frank Lynes , American composer, organist and music teacher (* 1858 )
- 1913. Meanwhile, 2013 issue 02. Franz Walter (ed.), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-525-80003-4 .
- The year 1913. New beginnings and perceptions of crises on the eve of the First World War , ed. by Dieter Schott [u. a.]. Transcript, Bielefeld 2014, ISBN 978-3-8376-2787-9 .
- Florian Illies: 1913. The summer of the century. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2012, ISBN 978-3-10-036801-0 .