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Ismail Enver PashaThe Young Turks under Ismail Enver take power in the Ottoman Empire . Border changes due to the Balkan WarsIn the Second Balkan War , the territory conquered in the First Balkan War is redistributed.
Canberra's city baptismIn Australia , construction of Canberra
as the new capital begins.
1913 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1361/62 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1905/06 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 69/70 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1318/19 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2456/57 (southern Buddhism); 2455/56 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Water Ox 癸丑 ( since February 6 , before that Water Rat Wasser)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 2
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1275/76 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4246/47 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1291/92 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1331/32 (November 29/30)
Japanese calendar Taishō 2 ( 大 正 元年 );
Koki 2573
Jewish calendar 5673/74 (October 1-2)
Coptic calendar 1629/30 (10/11 September)
Malayalam calendar 1088/89
Minguo calendar (China) Year 2 of the Republic
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1328/29 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2223/24 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2224/25 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2455/56 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1659
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1969/70 (April)

The year 1913 brings further crises and wars in the Balkans . After a three-month armistice, the fighting in the First Balkan War between several Balkan states and the Ottoman Empire flares up again. The war finally ends with the mediation of Great Britain , France , Germany , Russia , Austria-Hungary and Italy with the London Treaty . The Ottoman Empire has to accept extensive territorial losses in Europe.

A few weeks later, the Second Balkan War begins between the victors to divide up the booty. Bulgaria , which succeeded in conquering the impregnable city of Adrianople in the first war , attacks the former allies Serbia and Greece , overestimating its own strength , but soon sees itself confronted with Romania as an enemy, which within a few days up to advance into the suburbs of Sofia . And the Ottoman Empire is also using the opportunity to regain recently lost territories, including Adrianople. In the Treaty of Bucharest , Bulgaria has to surrender practically all of the territories it has won, although the Treaty of Constantinople with Russian support gives it at least access to the Aegean Sea, which causes a simmering conflict with Greece.

Austria-Hungary is experiencing a crisis in the countries of the Bohemian crown over the Austro-Czech settlement demanded by the Czech majority and the espionage scandal surrounding Colonel Alfred Redl , which will have serious military consequences.


Politics and world events

Balkan Wars

Constantine I of Greece
Alexander Schinas after his arrest
Bulgarian troops during the siege of Adrianople
Mahmud Şevket Pasha
  • June 11 : Despite extensive security measures, the Ottoman Grand Vizier Mahmud Şevket Pasha is assassinated. An informal triumvirate consisting of Enver Pascha , Cemal Pascha and Talât Pascha takes over power in the empire.
  • June 29th : The Second Balkan War begins with a simultaneous offensive by Bulgaria against Greece and Serbia . The defenders prepared for the attack can repel the Bulgarian units.
  • July 8 : Serbia and Greece declare war on Bulgaria.
  • July 9 : Romania declares war on Bulgaria. Within a few days the Armata Română reached the suburbs of Sofia without significant resistance .
  • July 11th : The Ottoman Empire declares war on Bulgaria and can regain parts of the territories lost in the First Balkan War in the next few days. On July 21 Adrian Opel is recaptured.
  • July 25. bis 31 July : The Serbian army fails in the siege of the Bulgarian town of Vidin .
Bulgaria's borders after the London Conference and the Bucharest Peace Treaty

German Empire / Austria-Hungary / Italy

Alfred Redl
Military patrol in the streets of Zabern in early December 1913
  • November 6th : Zabern affair : After the discriminatory statements made by German officers against the population in the Alsatian garrison town of Zabern , there were public protests.


Raymond Poincaré

Other events in Europe

Afonso Costa
Davison colliding with the king's racehorse

United States of America

Suffragette parade in Washington DC
Woodrow Wilson's inauguration


Victoriano Huerta
Pancho Villa (3rd from right) 1913
  • March 6 : The revolutionary leader Pancho Villa returns to Mexico from exile and starts a guerrilla war against General Huertes in the state of Chihuahua . Initially, he met with skepticism from the numerous other revolutionary leaders. His rapid military successes, but above all his "acts of social justice" in which he executes the administrators of rich haciendas and distributes the food to the poor rural population, lead to the fact that the local peasant leaders overflow to him in droves.
  • September 26 : At a meeting in Jimenéz, several Mexican revolutionary leaders decide to attack the Torreón railway junction . Pancho Villa is given the command of the revolutionary contingents.
View of the National Palace in Mexico City after fighting during the Decena trágica in February 1913
  • September 29th : The Battle of Torreón begins with attacks on the artillery units of the government forces. It ends with the capture of the place by Pancho Villas troops on October 1st .
  • On the night of 15 to 16 November , the units Pancho Villas conquer the city of Ciudad Juarez .
  • December 1 : Pancho Villa and his followers conquer Chihuahua City and Villa takes over the office of governor of the state. One of his first measures is the expropriation of the previously ruling oligarchs.


Prime Minister King O'Malley breaks the first survey post



The protest march to the Transvaal


Money economy and taxes

International exhibitions

Panorama of the world exhibition in Ghent
Adriatic Exhibition Grounds
The main entrance to the building trade exhibition
The Centennial Hall in Wroclaw


Blue Portrait : Nikola Tesla 1913


Assembly line for the production of Tin Lizzie (1913)

Business start-ups


Original cable car from 1912/13
Leipzig train station under construction

science and technology


Sikorskis Russky Vitjas
Start of Biders overflight
  • July 13 : On the way from Bern to Milan, the Swiss Oskar Bider is the first airplane pilot to cross the central alpine massif. At Christmas he also sets a new record with the direct Paris-Bern flight by staying in the air for four hours and 20 minutes without a stopover.
Historic postcard from 1913

Physics and astronomy

Electron arrangement of
barium according to Bohr's atomic model
Schematic diagram of the Franck-Hertz experiment

Polar research


Woolworth Building
Bridge a few weeks before completion


Anonymous drawing of the emperor



Visual arts

The Little Mermaid in Copenhagen Harbor


Music and theater

Waddling concert , caricature in The time from April 6th
The New York Times reported on the world premiere of the ballet on June 8th
The organ of the Centennial Hall


The first crossword puzzle


The animals hunted down during the Leipzig lion hunt in front of the police station



The stranded Veronese
The burning Volturno
Contemporary artist impression of the crash
Positions of wrecks after the storm

nature and environment


The Denali

For entries of athletics world records, see under the respective discipline under athletics .

Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands "On the occasion of his investigations into the properties of bodies at low temperatures , which among other things led to the representation of liquid helium " Heike Kamerlingh Ones
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Alfred Werner
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland (born in Mulhouse , then Germany) "On the basis of his work on the bonding relationships of the atoms in the molecule, which has clarified older research areas and opened up new ones, especially in the field of inorganic chemistry " Alfred Werner
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Charles Richet
FranceFrance France "For his work on anaphylaxis " Charles Robert Richet
Nobel Prize in literature Rabindranath Tagore
Flag of British India British India "Due to the deep and high relationship as well as the beauty and freshness of his poems, which in a brilliant way incorporates his poetic work in his peculiar English garb of the beautiful literature of the West" Rabindranath Thakur
Nobel Peace Prize (awarded in 1913) Henri La Fontaine
BelgiumBelgium Belgium President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau Henri La Fontaine



Richard Nixon, 1971



August Tiedtke
Sergei Vladimirovich Michalkow
Paul Erdős, 1992


Stefan Heym, 1989


Heinz Haber (left) in conversation with Wernher von Braun



Gerald Ford, 1974


Menachem Begin, 1978


Berthold Beitz, 1986



Marika Rökk, 1940
Vivien Leigh, 1958
Albert Camus, 1957
Mstislav Rostropovich and Benjamin Britten (right), 1964


Willy Brandt, 1980

Exact date of birth unknown


First quarter

Alfred von Schlieffen's grave in the Invalidenfriedhof , Berlin
Honorary grave for Wilhelm Kress in the Vienna Central Cemetery
The assassination of George I, Greek lithograph
John Pierpont Morgan

Second quarter

Carl Hagenbeck's grave
Emily Wilding Davison's funeral

Third quarter

August Bebel (1898)
Rudolf Diesel (1883)

Fourth Quarter

Exact date of death unknown


  • 1913. Meanwhile, 2013 issue 02. Franz Walter (ed.), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2013, ISBN 978-3-525-80003-4 .
  • The year 1913. New beginnings and perceptions of crises on the eve of the First World War , ed. by Dieter Schott [u. a.]. Transcript, Bielefeld 2014, ISBN 978-3-8376-2787-9 .
  • Florian Illies: 1913. The summer of the century. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2012, ISBN 978-3-10-036801-0 .

Web links

Commons : 1913  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files