Theodor Wieland

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hermann Theodor Felix Wieland (born June 5, 1913 in Munich ; † November 24, 1995 in Heidelberg ) was a German chemist .


The son of Nobel Prize winner Heinrich Otto Wieland passed his Abitur in Munich in 1931. Wieland studied chemistry in Munich and Freiburg. In 1937 he was awarded a Dr. phil. PhD. He then switched to Richard Kuhn at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg . In 1942 he completed his habilitation on the subject of "The Biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid". In the winter semester of 1946/47 he received an extraordinary degree at the University of Mainz .

In 1951 he became a full professor and director at the Institute for Organic Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt am Main . In 1968 he returned to Heidelberg as director of the chemistry department, which has since been renamed the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research .

His most important research areas were analytical methods such as paper electrophoresis in the field of natural product chemistry and biochemistry. In the field of protein chemistry, he was mainly concerned with the toxins of the death cap mushroom (which are cyclic peptides ) and their mode of action and he developed antidotes ( antamanids ). Research into poisons began under his father Heinrich Wieland.

Wieland also developed a simple newsprint test for mushrooms containing amanitin - you pour the mushroom juice ( lignin- containing) newspaper, let it dry and add a drop of highly concentrated hydrochloric acid. In the case of mushrooms containing amanitin, such as the death cap mushroom (but also with other mushrooms), there is a blue color reaction within a quarter of an hour. It is based on the acid-catalyzed reaction of lignin with the hydroxylated indole contained in the Amanitin - the paper must therefore contain lignin.

He is one of the fathers of native chemical ligation (1953).


In 1964 he was elected a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina , and in 1986 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . Since 1973 he was a member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences . In 1979 he was accepted into the American Philosophical Society .

Publications (selection)

  • with Miklos Bodanszky: The world of peptides. A brief history of peptide chemistry , Springer Verlag 1991
  • The practice of organic chemists (adaptation of the new edition of the original by Ludwig Gattermann ), 43rd edition, De Gruyter 1982
  • Editor with Gerhard Pfleiderer : Molecular biology: building blocks of the living. 21 scientists report comprehensibly on the most important discoveries , Umschau Verlag, 3rd edition 1969 (preface by Max Perutz )
  • Editor with Alex N. Eberle, Rolf Geiger : Perspectives in Peptide Chemistry , Karger, Basel 1981
  • Peptides of poisonous Amanita mushrooms , Springer Verlag 1986 ( ISBN 978-3540166412 )
  • Amatoxine, Phallotoxine- die poisons of the caplet mushroom , chemistry in our time, Volume 13, 1979, No. 2, pp 56-63
  • with H. Faulstich: Amatoxins, phallotoxins, phallolysin, and antamanide: the biologically active components of poisonous Amanita mushrooms, CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem., Vol. 5, 1978, pp. 185-260. PMID 363352 .
  • Cyclic peptides as tools in molecular biology research, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1975.
  • with Otto Westphal and Heinrich Huebschmann: life regulator. Of hormones, vitamins, ferments and other active ingredients. Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1941 (= Frankfurt books. Research and life. Volume 1).


  • Leopold Horner : Obituary for Hermann Theodor Felix Wieland . In: Meeting reports of the Scientific Society at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main 36 No. 6 . Stuttgart 1999, p. 47-49 .
  • Bernhard Witkop , Manfred Eigen : Theodor Hermann Felix Wieland (June 5, 1913 - November 24, 1995) , in: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 142, No. 2 (Jun., 1998), pp. 316-319.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Ruth Seeger (Würzburg) found a positive reaction in around 20% of 335 examined lamellar fungus species from southern Germany, even though they did not contain amanitin. Seeger newspaper test for Amanitine false positive results , Zeitschrift für Mykologie, Volume 50, 1984, p. 353
  2. Wieland newspaper test for poison mushrooms , Umschau, Volume 78, 1978, p. 611
  3. ^ List of members Leopoldina, Theodor Wieland
  4. ^ Theodor Wieland in the membership directory of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences
  5. ^ Member History: Theodor Wieland. American Philosophical Society, accessed November 17, 2018 .
  6. Reading sample at