Calendar overview 1857
The Atlantic Monthly
appears for the first time.
Josef Graf Radetzky
In India, the Sepoy Rebellion
against the British colonizers begins .
|1857 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1305/06 (July turn of the year)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1849/50 (10/11 September)|
|Baha'i calendar||13/14 (20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1262/63 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)|
|Buddhist calendar||2400/01 (Southern Buddhism); 2399/2400 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1219/20 (April turn of the year)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4190/91 (October 2nd/3rd)|
|Iranian calendar||1235/36 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1273/74 (21/22 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5617/18 (September 18/19)|
|Coptic calendar||1573/74 (10/11 September)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1272/73 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2167/68 (April turn of the year)
Syria: 2168/69 (October turn of the year)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar)||1913/14 (April)|
politics and world affairs
The Indian Rebellion of 1857
- March 29 Discontent flares up among British auxiliaries in India . The sepoy Mangal Pandey shoots at a British officer of his regiment, Pandey's comrades refuse orders to help British officers. The sepoy mutiny in Bengal spread to other troops in British India within a few weeks and the situation came to a head.
- May 10: The great uprising of 1857 against the British colonial masters begins in British India .
- May 30 Indian troops stationed at Lucknow mutiny. The Siege of Lucknow begins.
- June 5: The siege of Kanpur by insurgent Indian troops under Nana Sahib begins, lasting until June 25.
- 27 June: Sati Chowra massacre in Kanpur during Indian Rebellion .
- September 20: The British recapture Delhi with loyal troops . This weakened the Indian uprising , especially since the nominal leader, Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II , was captured by British officer William Hodson after his hiding place had been betrayed. He is exiled to Burma.
- November 18 At the end of the Siege of Lucknow , the British garrison in the town is evacuated.
Other colonies of the British Empire
- March 4: A peace agreement is reached between Great Britain and Persia in Paris, which settles a war that had broken out between the two states on November 1, 1856 after Persian troops invaded Herat .
- 27 June: The Boer - founded Transvaal Republic in southern Africa declares independence from British Cape Colony . Marthinus Wessel Pretorius becomes the first president .
- December 31: Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa as the capital of Canada .
- December 28: British and French ships begin shelling from the Pearl River from Canton in Second Opium War .
- January 1: Liberal-radical Constant Fornerod becomes President of Switzerland .
- May 26: In the Treaty of Paris , Prussia renounces its rights to the Principality of Neuchâtel and the County of Valangin . The treaty ended the so-called Neuchâtel trade with Switzerland and meant a heavy diplomatic defeat for King Frederick William IV of Prussia . The eight-article treaty is signed and sealed in a six-power agreement by the plenipotentiaries of Austria, France, Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and the Confederation.
- 5 June: The Federal Town Hall in Bern , built by Jakob Friedrich Studer according to the original plans by Ferdinand Stadler , is ceremonially inaugurated after almost five years of construction.
Other events in Europe
- September 24: The meeting of two emperors in Stuttgart begins and lasts until September 29. King Wilhelm I of Württemberg is hosting the two opposing monarchs, Emperor Napoléon III. and Tsar Alexander for a Franco-Russian summit in the capital and royal seat of the Kingdom of Württemberg . The negotiations between Russia and France are conducted by the two foreign ministers, Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov and Alexandre Colonna-Walewski . The meeting enabled Russia to break out of the political isolation it has experienced as a result of the Crimean War that ended last year. In return, France obtained a promise of neutrality from Russia in the event of a conflict with Austria in Italy .
- September 25: In Sweden , Crown Prince Karl takes over the regency for his seriously ill father Oskar I.
United States of America
- March 4: James Buchanan is inaugurated as the 15th President of the United States , having won the election the previous year. He replaces Franklin Pierce . The Buchanan cabinet includes, among others, John C. Breckinridge , the youngest vice president in the history of the United States .
- March 6: The US Supreme Court , in its landmark decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford that blacks, whether kept as slaves or not, had no opportunity to obtain American citizenship. Furthermore, any restriction or ban on slave ownership by the US Congress is unconstitutional because it would dispossess slave owners without due process of law.
- September 11: The Mountain Meadows Massacre occurs during the Utah War .
monetary economy and economic crisis
- January 24: In the Vienna Mint Treaty , the Vereinstaler is agreed as a means of payment in Austria and most of the states of the German Customs Union . The Austrian currency is the guilder , divided into 100 kreuzers . Ducats are abolished in the countries of the German Customs Union .
- 14 March: The Copenhagen Convention abolishes the Sound Duty , a major source of Denmark's revenue for more than four centuries, in return for monetary compensation.
- August 24: The Depression of 1857 begins with the collapse of the Ohio Life Insurance Company .
- The Swiss trade and industry exhibition is held. It is mostly a performance show.
Entrepreneurship and Commerce
- January 3: Fletcher Harper publishes the first issue of Harper's Weekly .
- February 20: The shipping company Norddeutscher Lloyd is founded in Bremen.
- April 15: The brothers Abraham and Theodor Wertheim open their manufactured millinery shop in Stralsund .
- 1 May: The first Estonian edition of the weekly Postimees is published in Pärnu . The senior editor is Johann Voldemar Jannsen .
- May 7: Ernst Staengel and Karl Ziller set up a cocoa and chocolate factory in Stuttgart, producing goods under the Eszet brand name .
- The joint stock sugar factory Neuwerk near Hanover is founded. This marks the beginning of the production of sugar from sugar beets in the Kingdom of Hanover .
- The first in-house manufactured commercial toilet paper is produced in the USA.
- Oliver Winchester acquires the bankrupt Volcanic Repeating Arms Company and moves it from Norwich , Connecticut to New Haven .
- Smith & Wesson launches the Smith & Wesson No 1 , the first revolver designed to fire metal cartridges, unlike the percussion revolvers common at the time .
- May 7th: The first section of what will later become the Landau–Rohrbach railway line is opened. It runs from Homburg via Schwarzenacker and Einöd to Zweibrücken.
- August 29: In Argentina, the first railway runs on the line from Plaza del Parque station in Buenos Aires to Floresta .
- September 15: The first stagecoaches operate the Butterfield Overland Mail route between St. Louis and San Francisco .
- The Memphis and Charleston Railroad is completed, the first rail line connecting the Mississippi River to the Atlantic.
science and technology
voyages of discovery
- 30 April: The Novara Expedition , a research voyage around the world on the Austrian Navy frigate SMS Novara , starts in Trieste .
- August 26: The German explorer Adolf Schlagintweit is beheaded without trial in Kashgar as an alleged Chinese spy.
biology and anthropology
- February 4: Johann Carl Fuhlrott and Hermann Schaaffhausen report - after examining the fossil Neandertal 1 - about a previously unknown prehistoric human form, the Neanderthal , at a meeting of the Natural History Association of the Prussian Rhineland and Westphalia .
- March 23: Elisha Graves Otis completes the world's first fall arrest passenger elevator at the Haughwout Store at 488, Broadway in New York City .
- The French printer and bookseller Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville constructed the first known device for recording sounds and called it the phonautograph .
- Werner von Siemens formulates the countercurrent principle .
- Around 1857, an almost 4,000 km long sea cable was laid from America to England.
Teaching and Research
- February 23: Thirteen architects found the American Institute of Architects in New York City . Richard Upjohn is elected the first president .
- September 4: In Weimar , the Goethe-Schiller monument created by the Dresden sculptor Ernst Rietschel is inaugurated in front of the Weimar Court Theater .
- Swedish-British photographer Oscar Gustave Rejlander creates his best-known work, the collage The Two Ways of Life . Initial criticism of the work's "indecency" died down when Queen Victoria bought a copy for her husband.
- After an extensive revision, the French painter Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot is exhibiting his 1844 painting Rural Concert again.
- February 7: Gustave Flaubert is acquitted by a Paris court in a criminal trial of having violated morals and religion with descriptions in the novel Madame Bovary .
- June 25: The first edition of Charles Baudelaire 's collection of poems Les Fleurs du Mal is published. As early as July 7, the public prosecutor's office initiated criminal prosecution for blasphemy and insult to public morals.
- August 20: French poet Charles Baudelaire is fined 300 francs for “insulting public morals and good manners”.
- 1 November: The culture magazine The Atlantic Monthly appears for the first time.
music and theatre
- January 7: The Piano Concerto No. 2 in A major by Franz Liszt is premiered in Weimar.
- March 12: The opera Simon Boccanegra by Giuseppe Verdi to a libretto by Francesco Maria Piave has its premiere at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. The play Simón Bocanegra by Antonio García Gutiérrez serves as a template . The performance is a failure and soon disappears from the programmes, prompting Verdi to revise the material.
- March 26: The comedy The Affair Rue de Lourcine by Eugène Labiche has its world premiere in Paris.
- April 27: The first Teatro Colón , built by Charles Pellegrini , opens in Buenos Aires with Verdi's La traviata .
- April 30: The world premiere of Jacques Offenbach 's operetta Dragonette takes place at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- 16 August: Giuseppe Verdi's opera Aroldo , with the libretto by Francesco Maria Piave , has its successful premiere at the Teatro Nuovo in Rimini. It is the reworked and completely redesigned opera Stiffelio , which, under pressure from the censors, may only be performed in Italy in a distorted form.
- 5 September: On the occasion of the inauguration of the Goethe and Schiller memorial , Franz Liszt 's Faust symphony is premiered in Weimar . It is inspired by Goethe's drama Faust I and represents a symphonic poem close to the symphony form .
- 10 October: The world premiere of the one-act operetta Le Mariage aux Lanternes ( The Engagement by the Lantern ) by Jacques Offenbach to the libretto by Michel Carré takes place at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- 31 October: The farce with singing Tannhäuser by Johann Nestroy (lyrics) and Carl Binder (music) is premiered at the Carltheater in Leopoldstadt near Vienna. The play is based on the travesty Tannhäuser and the Wartburg Beatings by Hermann Wollheim and parodies the opera Tannhäuser and the Wartburg Singers ' War by Richard Wagner .
- February 22: In Munich , according to uncertain tradition, the first white sausages are said to have been served in the "Zum Eternal Light" inn. Sepp Moser accidentally invented the white sausage on Shrove Monday.
- February 28: After 72 years of service, Austrian Field Marshal Josef Graf Radetzky is retired.
- September 28: During the Stuttgart meeting of two emperors , the Russian Tsar Alexander II , the French Emperor Napoleon III. and King Wilhelm I of Württemberg took a trip to the Cannstatter Volksfest .
- The Savage Club is founded in London .
- January 3: The Paris Archbishop Auguste Sibour is assassinated in the parish church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont by the priest Jean-Louis Verger . After his criticism of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception , the perpetrator had previously been removed from office .
- The Austrian Hospice of the Holy Family , a pilgrim hostel of the Austrian Catholic Church in the Old City of Jerusalem , is founded.
- January 9: The powerful Fort Tejon earthquake shakes large parts of California . The tremor is comparable to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake . The epicenter is believed to be in the town of Parkfield . Due to the sparse population of the affected area, the result is less personal injury than property damage.
- February 13: After leaving New York, the British Anchor Line's passenger liner Tempest disappears without a trace on the North Atlantic with 150 people on board.
- August 20: At the entrance to Sydney Harbour, the British clipper Dunbar wrecked on the rocky shore in strong winds and heavy rain. Of the 122 people on board, only one survived.
- September 12: A hurricane causes the sinking of the US liner Central America en route from Havana to New York. 149 people can be rescued by two ships, 429 people die. It goes down with the cargo of over 13 tons of gold cargo from California, which will lead to a salvage operation in 1987.
- November 18: The powder tower in the fortress of Mainz explodes. This magazine contains 208 hundredweight primers and over 600 flares. Within a few seconds, 57 houses on Kästrich are destroyed. A further 64 buildings and the fortifications suffered major material damage.
- December 16: A strong earthquake occurs in Basilicata , causing over 11,000 deaths. Irish geophysicist Robert Mallet then travels to Italy to research the catastrophe.
- August 15: The Mönch in the Bernese Alps is climbed for the first time by mountain guide Christian Almer and three companions.
- October 24: The very first football club is founded with the English FC Sheffield .
- December 22: The Alpine Club , the world's first mountaineering association, is founded in London. It was not until 1974 that the association also accepted female alpinists into its ranks.
Historical views and maps
- Frederick Burr Opper , American comic artist and illustrator (died 1937) January 2
- Emma Ihr , German politician and trade unionist (died 1911) January 3:
- January 12: Knut Johann Ångström , Swedish physicist (died 1910)
- January 13: Paul Ewald , German Protestant theologian and university teacher († 1911)
- January 14 Alice Pike Barney , American painter (died 1931)
- January 15 Alexander Fritz , German chess player (died 1932)
- January 17: Wilhelm Kienzl , Austrian composer (died 1941)
- January 18: Franz Georg von Glasenapp , German general (died 1914)
- January 19: Karl Wüstefeld , German rector, organist and local historian (died 1937)
- January 23 Andrija Mohorovičić , Croatian geophysicist (died 1936)
- January 29: Richard Schwemer , German teacher and historian (died 1928)
- January 31: Alfred Gustav Benedictus Ackermann-Teubner , German publisher and bookseller (died 1941)
- Vladimir Bekhterev , Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist (died 1927) February 1
- Jan Drozdowski , Polish pianist and music teacher (died 1918) February 2 –
- Alexander Cameron Rutherford , Canadian politician (died 1941) February 2
- Wilhelm Johannsen , Danish botanist and geneticist (died 1927) February 3
- Hugo Krabbe , Dutch constitutional lawyer (died 1936) February 3 –
- James Hotchkiss Rogers , American organist and composer (d. 1940) February 7:
- Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje , Dutch Arabic and Islamic scholar (died 1936) February 8
- Nikolaus Müller , German classical scholar, church historian and Protestant theologian († 1912) February 8:
- February 11: Georg Wertheim , German merchant (died 1939)
- February 12: Eugène Atget , French photographer (died 1927)
- February 13: Friedrich Adler , Austrian writer (died 1938)
- February 17: Johannes Abromeit , German botanist (died 1946)
- February 18: Max Klinger , German sculptor, painter and graphic artist (died 1920)
- February 18: Ferdinand Wittenbauer , Austrian engineer (died 1922)
- February 22 – Robert Baden-Powell , British founder of the Boy Scout movement (d. 1941)
- February 22: Heinrich Hertz , German physicist (died 1894)
- February 23 Margaret Deland , American writer (died 1945)
- February 26 - Émile Coué , French author, founder of autosuggestion, medicine († 1926)
- February 26 – Edwin S. Johnson , American politician (died 1933)
- Alfred Bruneau , French composer and music critic (d. 1934) March 3:
- Julius Wagner-Jauregg , Austrian physician and psychiatrist (died 1940) March 7:
- Georg von Borries , German government official (died 1922) March 9
- March 10: Christian Berrenrath , German theologian, official in the Archdiocese of Cologne († 1941)
- March 13: Friedrich Heinrich Gotthold Anders , German politician (died 1936)
- March 15: Ishbel Maria Hamilton-Gordon , Scottish social reformer and suffragette (d. 1939)
- March 17 Thompson Benton Ferguson , American politician (died 1921)
- March 20: Benjamin F. Shively , American politician (d. 1916)
- March 21: Hunter Liggett , American general (died 1935)
- March 21: Albert Rossow , German composer and conductor (died 1943)
- March 22: Paul Doumer , President of France (died 1932)
- March 27: Josef Bacon , Romanian politician, doctor and museum founder (died 1941)
- March 27: Karl Pearson , British mathematician and philosopher (died 1936)
- March 27: Karl Rieker , German legal scholar and legal historian († 1927)
- March 30: Gabriela Zapolska , Polish writer (died 1921)
- March 31: Édouard Rod , Swiss author (died 1910)
- Adolf Schenck , German geographer and botanist (died 1936) April 4
- Alexander I , Prince of Bulgaria († 1893) April 5:
- Arthur Wesley Dow , American landscape painter (d. 1922) April 6
- April 14: Beatrice of Great Britain and Ireland , British Princess (d. 1944)
- April 14: Victor Horsley , British physiologist and neurologist (died 1916)
- April 14 – Edgar Stillman Kelley , American composer, conductor, organist, pianist, music critic and music educator (d. 1944)
- April 18 Clarence Darrow , American attorney (died 1938)
- April 20: Herman Bang , Danish writer (died 1912)
- April 21: Oltwig von Kamptz , German officer (died 1921)
- April 22: Johannes Gloël , German evangelical clergyman and university teacher († 1891)
- April 23: Ruggero Leoncavallo , Italian composer (d. 1919)
- April 25: Giuseppe Gamba , Archbishop of Turin and cardinal (d. 1929)
- April 27: Johannes Chrząszcz , Silesian priest and historian (died 1928)
- April 29: František Ondříček , Czech violinist and composer (died 1922)
- April 30: Eugen Bleuler , Swiss psychiatrist (d. 1939)
- Otto Sidow , German newspaper publisher and social democrat (died 1927) May 1
- Frederic Cliffe , English composer (d. 1931) May 2:
- Otto Umfrid , German evangelical theologian and pacifist (died 1920) May 2:
- António Teixeira de Sousa , Portuguese politician (died 1917) May 5:
- Frank Bramley , English painter (died 1915) May 6:
- Heinrich Berté , Austro-Hungarian composer (died 1924) May 8:
- May 10: Julius Smend , German theologian (died 1930)
- May 10: Hendrik Zwaardemaker , Dutch physiologist (d. 1930)
- May 12: Oskar Bolza , German mathematician (died 1942)
- May 13: Ronald Ross , English physician and Nobel Prize winner (d. 1932)
- May 15 Williamina Fleming , American astronomer (died 1911)
- May 16: Juan Morel Campos , Puerto Rican composer (d. 1896)
- May 16: Hermann Wette , German physician and writer (died 1919)
- May 17 Carl Appel , German Romanist and university teacher († 1934)
- May 17: Julius Trip , German garden architect (died 1907)
- May 19 John Jacob Abel , American biochemist (d. 1938)
- May 21: Francisco Aguilar Barquero , President of Costa Rica (d. 1924)
- May 22: Paul Morton , American politician (died 1911)
- May 25: Hermann Hoogeweg , German archivist and historian (died 1930)
- May 26: Rudolph Wilde , German politician (died 1910)
- May 27: Theodor Curtius , German chemist (died 1928)
- May 30: Hugo Schauinsland , German zoologist (died 1937)
- May 31: Pius XI. , Pope from 1922 to 1939 († 1939)
- Joseph Pujol , under his stage name Le Pétomane French artificial farter († 1945) June 1:
- Edward Elgar , English composer (died 1934) June 2:
- Karl Gjellerup , Danish writer (died 1919) June 2:
- Charles Herman Steinway , American industrialist, piano maker and amateur composer and pianist († 1919) June 3 -
- Árpád Doppler , Hungarian-German composer (died 1927) June 5:
- Karl Pommerhanz , Austrian comic artist († ?) June 6:
- Alexander Mikhailovich Lyapunov , Russian mathematician and physicist (died 1918) June 6:
- Rudolf Slatin , Austrian officer, explorer and Egyptian governor in the Turkish-Egyptian Sudan (died 1932) June 7:
- June 11: Antoni Grabowski , Polish chemical engineer and early Esperanto activist (died 1921)
- June 14: Ignaz Petschek , Bohemian banker and industrialist († 1934)
- June 16: Arthur Arz von Straußenburg , Austro-Hungarian career officer († 1935)
- June 19: Arthur Hoffmann , Swiss politician and Federal Councilor († 1927)
- June 21 - Olaf Kjelsberg , Norwegian engineer and skiing pioneer in Switzerland (died 1927)
- June 21: August Wilhelm Schynse , German missionary, Africa explorer and cartographer (d. 1891)
- June 27 Rosa Axamethy , Austrian writer
- June 27: Johannes Steinmeyer , German organ builder (died 1928)
- June 30: Friedrich von Ingenohl , German naval officer and chief of the German High Seas Fleet († 1933)
- Georg Bassler , German printer and labor leader (died 1900) July 1:
- Clara Zetkin , German politician and women's rights activist († 1933) July 5:
- Alfred Binet , French educator and psychologist (died 1911) July 8
- Rudolf Dellinger , composer and conductor († 1910) July 8:
- Frederick II , Grand Duke of Baden († 1928) July 9:
- July 11 Joseph Larmor , Irish physicist (died 1942)
- July 12: Amé Pictet , Swiss chemist (died 1937)
- July 12 – Jeter Connelly Pritchard , American politician (died 1921)
- July 14 Vittorio Amedeo Ranuzzi de' Bianchi , Bishop of Loreto and Cardinal (died 1927)
- July 23 Carl Meinhof , German pastor and Africanist (died 1944)
- July 24: Juan Vicente Gómez , Venezuelan politician and military officer (died 1935)
- July 24: Henrik Pontoppidan , Danish writer (died 1943)
- July 24 Emery J. San Souci , American politician (died 1936)
- July 25 George Pardee , American politician (died 1941)
- July 30 Thorstein Veblen , American economist and sociologist (died 1929)
- July 31: Wilhelm Ashoff , German entrepreneur (died 1929)
- July 31: Ernest Chuard , Swiss politician (died 1942)
- July 31: Edward Montagu-Stuart-Wortley , British general (d. 1934)
- Alice Hughes , English photographer (died 1939) August 3:
- Christian Wilhelm Allers , German painter and draftsman (died 1915) August 6:
- Ludwig von Höhnel , Austrian naval officer, Africa explorer and geographer († 1942) August 6:
- Eduard Zarncke , German classical scholar (died 1936) August 7:
- Cécile Chaminade , French pianist and composer (d. 1944) August 8:
- Maurice Yvon , French architect (died 1911) August 8:
- Francis Preston Blair Lee , American politician (d. 1944) August 9:
- August 13: Heinrich Bossart , German politician (died 1930)
- August 14: Oskar Bulle , German writer, Germanist, Italianist and lexicographer († 1917)
- August 15: Albert Ballin , German shipowner (died 1918)
- August 15: Georg Gothein , German politician (died 1940)
- August 16: John Nixon , British general (died 1921)
- August 18 Eusebius Mandyczewski , Austrian musicologist and composer (died 1929)
- August 24 Eugen Guglia , Austrian historian, journalist and writer († 1919)
- August 26 Richard Wilson Austin , American politician (died 1919)
- August 26 Agnes Gosche , German philologist (died 1928)
- August 28 James Buchanan Aurig , German photographer (died 1935)
- August 28 Hermann Schaedtler , German architect (died 1931)
- August 29: Paul Friedlaender , German chemist (died 1923)
- Karl Stauffer-Bern , Swiss painter (d. 1891) September 2:
- Jules Andrade , French mathematician, physicist and clockmaker (died 1933) September 4:
- Ernst Fabricius , German archaeologist and ancient historian († 1942) September 6:
- Georg Michaelis , German lawyer and politician (died 1936) September 8
- September 10: James Edward Keeler , American astrophysicist (d. 1900)
- September 12: George Hendrik Breitner , Dutch artist (d. 1923)
- September 13: Milton S. Hershey , American entrepreneur, founder of the Hershey Chocolate Company (d. 1945)
- September 14 Alice Blackwell , American journalist and suffragette (d. 1950)
- September 15: William Howard Taft , American politician, 27th President of the USA (died 1930)
- September 17: Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky , Russian space travel pioneer (died 1935)
- September 21: Johann Heinrich Louis Krüger , German geodesist (died 1923)
- September 22: Anita Augspurg , German lawyer and women's rights activist († 1943)
- September 24: Adolph von Elm , co-founder of Volksfürsorge († 1916)
- September 26: Joachim von Bonin , German politician (died 1921)
- September 30: Hermann Sudermann , German novelist and playwright (died 1928)
- September 30 Charles R. Miller , American politician (died 1927)
- Remigio Renzi , Italian organist, composer and music teacher (died 1938) October 1:
- Marthinus Theunis Steyn , President of the Orange Free State (died 1916) 2 October:
- Ferdinand Kurlbaum , German physicist (died 1927) October 4:
- Henry Schoenfeld , American composer (d. 1936) October 4:
- Fedor von Zobeltitz , German journalist and writer (died 1934) October 5:
- George P. McLean , American politician (died 1932) October 7
- October 11: Henri Cain , French librettist and painter (died 1937)
- October 12: Frieda von Bülow , German writer (died 1909)
- October 12 Wilhelm Fabricius , German librarian and historian (died 1942)
- October 17: Momme Andresen , German chemist (died 1951)
- October 17: Georg Emil Müller , German organ builder and harmonium manufacturer († 1928)
- October 18: Hans Freiherr von Berlepsch , German career officer and ornithologist († 1933)
- October 20: František Mareš , Czech national democrat, later fascist-leaning politician, physiologist and philosopher (died 1942)
- October 21: Alfons Auer , German politician (died 1910)
- October 24: Erich Aron , German lawyer, regional court director and university lecturer († 1943)
- October 30 Gertrude Atherton , American writer (died 1948)
- October 30: Georges Gilles de la Tourette , French neurologist, described Tourette's syndrome in 1885 († 1904)
- October 31 Arthur Vincent Green , Australian Bishop of Grafton and Armindale (d. 1944)
- October 31 – Axel Munthe , Swedish physician and author (died 1949)
- Jakob Johan Adolf Appellöf , Swedish zoologist (died 1921) November 2:
- Paul Mankiewitz , German banker (died 1924) November 7:
- November 11: Nathan Stein , German judge, first Jewish court president (died 1927)
- November 12: Moses Max Löw , Austrian architect (died after 1938)
- November 15: Mikhail Vasilyevich Alexeyev , Russian general (died 1918)
- November 16: Jón Sveinsson , Icelandic writer (died 1944)
- November 17: Joseph Babinski , Polish-French neurologist (d. 1932)
- November 18 Max von Gutmann , Austrian engineer and entrepreneur (d. 1930)
- November 21: Manuel José Estrada Cabrera , President of Guatemala (died 1924)
- November 22: George Robert Gissing , English novelist (d. 1903)
- November 22 Giuseppe Magrini , Italian cellist, music teacher and composer (died 1926)
- November 25: Heinrich Eduard Burlage , German politician (died 1921)
- November 25: Frederick Haultain , Canadian politician and judge (d. 1942)
- November 26: Ferdinand de Saussure , Swiss linguist (died 1913)
- November 27 Charles Scott Sherrington , British neurophysiologist (d. 1952)
- November 28: Alfonso XII. , Spanish king († 1885)
- November 29: Theodor Escherich , German-Austrian pediatrician and bacteriologist († 1911)
- Reinhold Steig , German literary historian (died 1918) December 1:
- Carl Koller , Austrian ophthalmologist (died 1944) December 3:
- Joseph Conrad , Polish-English writer (died 1924) December 3:
- Bruno von Schuckmann , German politician and governor of German South West Africa (died 1919) December 3
- Adalbert Matkowsky , German actor (died 1909) December 6:
- Louis Dollo , French-born Belgian paleontologist (died 1931) December 7
- Johann Albrecht zu Mecklenburg , Regent of Brunswick († 1920) 8 December:
- Paul Gustav Wilhelm Arras , German teacher, archivist and local historian (died 1942) December 9:
- December 11: Rodolfo Amoedo , Brazilian painter (died 1941)
- 11 December: Chaim Eitingon , Leipzig tobacconist and benefactor († 1932)
- December 12: Max Devrient , German actor (died 1929)
- December 13: Robert von Mendelssohn , German banker, art collector and patron (died 1917)
- December 15: Eugeniusz Pankiewicz , Polish composer and pianist (died 1898)
- December 16: Edward Barnard , American astronomer (died 1923)
- December 17: Niccolò van Westerhout , Italian composer († 1898)
- December 19: Siegmund Lustgarten , Austrian doctor (died 1911)
- December 20: Otto Crusius , German classics (died 1918)
- December 21: Marko Smoler , Sorbian publisher and editor († 1941)
- December 26: Berthe Constance Ursule Art , Belgian pastel and still life painter (d. 1934)
- December 27 Friedrich August Emil Heuer , Saxon coachbuilder (automobile & carriages) (d. 1934)
- December 27: William Douw Lighthall , Canadian poet and writer (died 1954)
- December 29: Louis Abel-Truchet , French painter (died 1918)
- December 30: Joachim Graf von Pfeil und Klein Ellguth , German explorer of Africa († 1924)
- December 31: Frank C. Archibald , American lawyer and politician (d. 1935)
- December 31: Hermann Oppenheim , German neurologist (died 1919)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Rupen Binemeciyan , Armenian actor (died 1912)
- Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma , Iranian politician, Prime Minister of Iran during World War I († 1939)
- Yusuf İsmail , Ottoman-Bulgarian professional wrestler (died 1898)
- Sardar Mohammed Ayub Khan , interim regent of Afghanistan (d. 1914)
January to April
- Andrew Ure , English physician and professor of natural history and chemistry (b. 1778) January 2:
- Just Friedrich von Seelhorst , German civil servant (b. 1770) January 3:
- Gregorio Aráoz de La Madrid , Argentine military leader, general and politician (b. 1795) January 5:
- Albert Schwegler , German theologian, philosopher and historian (born 1819) January 6:
- January 10: Bernhard Dreymann , German organ builder (b. 1788)
- January 14: Johann Ludwig Christian Carl Gravenhorst , German zoologist (b. 1777)
- January 15: Samuel Prentiss , American politician (b. 1782)
- January 19: Franz Limmer , Austrian composer (b. 1808)
- January 25: Andrew Stevenson , American politician (born 1784)
- January 27: Preston Brooks , American politician (b. 1819)
- January 30: Agostino Aglio , Italian painter, engraver and lithographer (b. 1777)
- January 30: Pierre Jean Baptiste Arnollet , French engineer (b. 1776)
- William Duhurst Merrick , American politician (born 1793) February 5:
- February 15: Mikhail Glinka , Russian composer (b. 1804)
- February 18: Jean-Louis Pierrot , President of Haiti (b. 1761/73)
- February 21: Karl Gottlob Boguslav von Zychlinsky , Prussian landowner and politician (b. 1783)
- Dominic Savio , disciple of Don Bosco, Italian saint (b. 1842) March 9:
- March 13: William Pitt Amherst , British politician and statesman (born 1773)
- March 14: David T. Disney , American politician (b. 1803)
- March 21: William Scoresby , British navigator and explorer (b. 1789)
- March 21: Abraham Jacob van der Aa , Dutch lexicographer and man of letters (born 1792)
- March 25: William Colgate , an American entrepreneur and patron (b. 1783)
- Heinrich Eduard Bethmann , German actor and theater director (b. 1774) April 8:
- Julius August von Bernuth , German civil servant (b. 1782) April 8:
- April 13: François-André Isambert , French jurist and politician (born 1792)
- April 16: Ferdinand Wedel-Jarlsberg , Norwegian officer (b. 1781)
- April 23: Juan Lindo , President of El Salvador and Honduras (b. 1790)
- April 28: Johann Konrad Irmischer , German Protestant theologian and librarian (b. 1797)
May to August
- Stephen Adams , American politician (b. 1807) May 1:
- Frederick Scott Archer , British sculptor and photographic pioneer (b. 1813) May 2:
- Alfred de Musset , French writer (b. 1810) May 2:
- May 11: Eugène François Vidocq , French criminal and criminologist (b. 1775)
- May 14: Jacob Niclas Ahlström , Swedish bandmaster and composer (b. 1805)
- May 16: Asaf Jah IV , Prince of Hyderabad (b. 1794)
- May 23: Augustin-Louis Cauchy , French mathematician (b. 1789)
- May 27: George Anson , British general (b. 1797)
- Catherine Bagration , Russian aristocrat (b. 1783) June 2:
- Henry Hubbard , American politician (b. 1784) June 5:
- Karl Friedrich Nebenius , German civil servant (b. 1784) June 8:
- June 10: Friedrich Wilhelm Wagner , German classical scholar (b. 1814)
- June 11: Albrecht von Roeder , German-American lawyer and town founder (b. 1811)
- June 15 Karl Funk , German educator (b. 1781)
- June 19: Friedrich Krafft , German politician (b. 1777)
- June 20: Alexander Chernyshev , Russian general, diplomat and statesman (b. 1786)
- June 21: Louis Jacques Thénard , French chemist (b. 1777)
- June 25: Langdon Cheves , American politician (b. 1776)
- William L. Marcy , American politician (b. 1786) July 4:
- Jakob Cederström , Swedish general and politician (born 1782) July 9:
- July 15: Carl Czerny , Austrian pianist and piano teacher (b. 1791)
- July 16: Pierre-Jean de Béranger , French poet (b. 1780)
- July 19: Stefano Franscini , Swiss politician (b. 1796)
- July 29: Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte , Italian ornithologist, zoologist and politician (born 1803)
- July 29: James Holman , British traveller, adventurer and author (b. 1786)
- Hopkins L. Turney , American politician (b. 1797) August 1:
- Eugène Sue , French writer (b. 1804) August 3:
- James C. Dobbin , American politician (b. 1814) August 4:
- Abe Masahiro , Japanese politician (b. 1819) August 6:
- August 10: John Wilson Croker , English Speaker of Parliament, poet and journalist (b. 1780)
- August 12: William Daniel Conybeare , English geologist and paleontologist (b. 1787)
- August 12: José María San Martín y Ulloa , President of El Salvador (b. 1811)
- August 23: Carl Ludwig Koch , German forester, entomologist and arachnologist (b. 1778)
- August 24: August Wilhelm Julius Ahlborn , German landscape painter (b. 1796)
- August 24: Grigore Alexandru Ghica , Prince of Moldavia (b. 1803 or 1807)
- August 26: Adolf Schlagintweit , German traveler and explorer (b. 1829)
September to December
- Auguste Comte , French founder of sociology (b. 1798) September 5:
- Antonie van Goudoever , Dutch literary scholar and classics scholar (b. 1785) 7 September:
- September 14: Franz Joseph Merklin , German organ builder (b. 1788)
- September 15: John Henderson , American politician (b. 1797)
- 16 September: Eugen von Württemberg , General of the Russian Infantry (b. 1788)
- Wenzel Scholz , Austrian actor (b. 1787) October 5:
- Louis McLane , US Secretary of State (b. 1786) October 7:
- Josef Ressel , Austrian forest officer (b. 1793) October 9:
- October 14: Johan Christian Clausen Dahl , Norwegian landscape painter (b. 1788)
- 17 October: Friedrich von Seherr und Thoß , German officer, civil servant and manor owner (b. 1789)
- October 20 Ludwig Bernhard Schmid , German clergyman and missionary (b. 1788)
- October 23: Friedrich Kammerer , German inventor in the field of matches (b. 1796)
- October 27: Charles Polk , American politician (b. 1788)
- October 28: Louis-Eugène Cavaignac , French Prime Minister of the Second Republic (b. 1802)
- Jacob Stout , American politician (b. 1764) November 1:
- November 12: August Heinrich von Pachelbel-Gehag , German officer civil servant and landowner (b. 1795)
- November 15: Alois Vock , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman, educator and historian (b. 1785)
- 16 November: Carl Andreas Ancker , benefactor of Ancker's legacy (b. 1828)
- November 18: Johann Ludwig von Bernuth , Prussian civil servant (b. 1770)
- November 26: Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff , German poet (b. 1788)
- Christian Daniel Rauch , German sculptor (b. 1777) December 3:
- Georg Forst , Nassau bailiff and judicial councilor (b. 1771) 7 December:
- John Pollard Gaines , American politician (b. 1795) December 9:
- 17 December: Francis Beaufort , Irish-British admiral and hydrographer (b. 1774)
- December 19: Johann Daniel Elster , German music professor and choirmaster (b. 1796)
- December 24: Félix Cazot , French music teacher and composer (b. 1790)
- December 24: Robert C. Nicholas , American politician (b. 1793)
- December 25: Joseph von Auffenberg , German playwright and poet (b. 1798)
- December 28: Heinrich Friedrich Philipp von Bockelberg , Prussian diplomat (b. 1802)
- December 29: John Baptista Ashe , American politician (b. 1810)
Exact date of death unknown
- Louis Frédéric Berger , Swiss Protestant clergyman and politician