Calendar overview 1857
The Atlantic Monthly
appears for the first time.
Josef Graf Radetzky
against the British colonial masters begins in India .
|1857 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1305/06 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1849/50 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||13/14 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1262/63 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2400/01 (southern Buddhism); 2399/2400 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1219/20 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4190/91 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1235/36 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1273/74 (August 21/22)|
|Jewish calendar||5617/18 (September 18-19)|
|Coptic calendar||1573/74 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1272/73 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2167/68 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2168/69 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1913/14 (April)|
Politics and world events
The Indian uprising of 1857
- March 29th : In India, discontent flares up in the British auxiliaries. The Sepoy Mangal Pandey shoots a British officer in his regiment. Pandey's comrades refuse to give orders to help British officers. The Sepoy mutiny in Bengal spread to other troops in British India within a few weeks and the situation came to a head.
- May 10 : The great uprising of 1857 against the British colonial rulers begins in British India .
- May 30th : The Indian troops stationed in Lucknow mutiny. The siege of Lucknow begins.
- June 5 : The up June 25 permanent Siege of Cawnpore by insurgent Indian troops under Nana Sahib begins.
- June 27 : In Kanpur occurs during the Indian uprising to massacre Sati chowra .
- September 20 : The British retake Delhi with loyal troops . The Indian uprising is weakened, especially since the nominal leader, Mughal Mughal Bahadur Shah II , is captured by British officer William Hodson after his hiding place is betrayed . He is exiled to Burma.
- November 18 : At the end of the siege of Lucknow , the British garrison in the city is evacuated.
Further colonies of the British Empire
- March 4 : A peace agreement is reached between Great Britain and Persia in Paris , which settles a war between the two states that broke out on November 1, 1856 after the invasion of Herat by Persian troops .
- June 27 : The Transvaal Republic founded by Buren in southern Africa declares itself independent from the British Cape Colony . Marthinus Wessel Pretorius becomes the first president .
- December 31 : Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa as the capital of Canada .
- December 28 : British and French ships begin in the Second Opium War from the Pearl River from Canton to shoot .
Switzerland / Prussia
- January 1 : The liberal radical Constant Fornerod becomes Federal President of Switzerland .
- May 26th : In the Treaty of Paris , Prussia renounces its rights to the Principality of Neuchâtel and the County of Valangin . The treaty ends the so-called Neuchâtel trade with Switzerland and means a serious diplomatic defeat for King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia . The eight-article treaty is signed and sealed in a six-power agreement by the representatives of Austria, France, Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and the Swiss Confederation.
- June 5 : The Federal City Hall in Bern , built according to the original plans by Ferdinand Stadler by Jakob Friedrich Studer , is ceremoniously handed over to its destination after almost five years of construction.
Other events in Europe
- September 24th : The Stuttgart Zwei-Kaiser-Treffen begins and lasts until September 29th . King Wilhelm I of Württemberg is host to the two opposing monarchs, Emperor Napoléon III. and Tsar Alexander for a Franco-Russian summit in the capital and residence of the Kingdom of Württemberg . The negotiations between Russia and France are led by the two foreign ministers, Alexander Michailowitsch Gorchakov and Alexandre Colonna-Walewski . The meeting will enable Russia to break away from the political isolation that it experienced as a result of the Crimean War that ended last year . In return, France obtained the promise of neutrality from Russia in the event of a conflict with Austria in Italy .
- September 25 : In Sweden , Crown Prince Karl takes over the reign of his seriously ill father Oskar I.
United States of America
- March 4 : James Buchanan becomes the 15th President of the United States , following his election victory last year . He takes over from Franklin Pierce . The Buchanan cabinet includes John C. Breckinridge , the youngest vice president in United States history .
- March 6 : The Supreme Court of the United States stated in its landmark decision in the case v Dred Scott. Sandford that blacks, whether or not kept as slaves, have no way of obtaining American citizenship. Furthermore, any restriction or ban on slavery by the US Congress is unconstitutional, as it would expropriate the slave owners without due process.
- September 11th : The Mountain Meadows massacre occurs in the Utah War .
Money economy and economic crisis
- January 24th : In the Vienna Coin Treaty , the Vereinstaler is agreed as a means of payment in Austria and most of the states of the German Customs Union . The guilder , which is divided into 100 kreuzers , exists as the Austrian currency . The ducats are being abolished in the countries of the German Customs Union .
- March 14 : The Copenhagen Convention abolishes the sound tariff , a main source of income in Denmark for more than four centuries, in exchange for monetary compensation.
- August 24 : With the collapse of the Ohio Life Insurance Company , the economic crisis of 1857 begins .
- The Swiss trade and industry exhibition is held. It is mainly a performance show.
Business start-ups and trading
- January 3 : Fletcher Harper publishes the first issue of Harper's Weekly .
- February 20th : The shipping company Norddeutscher Lloyd is founded in Bremen .
- April 15 : The brothers Abraham and Theodor Wertheim open their Manufactur fashion store in Stralsund .
- May 1st : The first edition of the weekly Postimees is published in Pärnu in Estonian. The managing editor is Johann Voldemar Jannsen .
- May 7 : Create In Stuttgart Ernst stems and Karl Ziller a cocoa - and chocolate factory , the products under the brand name Eszet manufactures.
- The Neuwerk share sugar factory near Hanover is founded. The production of sugar from sugar beet begins in the Kingdom of Hanover .
- In the USA, the first custom-made commercial toilet paper is produced.
- Oliver Winchester acquires the bankrupt Volcanic Repeating Arms Company and moves it from Norwich , Connecticut, to New Haven .
- Smith & Wesson launches the Smith & Wesson No 1 , the first revolver which , in contrast to the percussion revolvers in use at the time, wasdesigned to fire metal cartridges.
- May 7 : The first section of what will later become the Landau – Rohrbach railway line opens. It leads from Homburg via Schwarzenacker and Einöd to Zweibrücken.
- August 29th : In Argentina, the first railroad runs from the Plaza del Parque station in Buenos Aires to Floresta .
- September 15 : The first stagecoaches travel the Butterfield Overland Mail route between St. Louis and San Francisco .
- The Memphis and Charleston Railroad is completed, the first railroad line to connect the Mississippi River with the Atlantic.
science and technology
Voyages of discovery
- April 30th : The Novara expedition , a research trip around the world with the frigate SMS Novara of the Austrian Navy, starts in Trieste .
- August 26th : The German explorer Adolf Schlagintweit is beheaded without trial as an alleged Chinese spy in Kashgar, Inner Asia .
Biology and anthropology
- February 4th : Johann Carl Fuhlrott and Hermann Schaaffhausen report - after examining the fossil Neandertal 1 - about a previously unknown prehistoric human form, the Neanderthal , in a meeting of the Natural History Association of the Prussian Rhineland and Westphalia .
- March 23 : Elisha Graves Otis completes the world's first passenger elevator with fall protection in the Haughwout Store at “488, Broadway” in New York City .
- The French printer and bookseller Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville constructed the first known device for recording sounds and called it the phonautograph .
- Werner von Siemens formulates the countercurrent principle .
- Around 1857 an almost 4,000 km long submarine cable was laid from America to England.
Teaching and Research
- February 23 : 13 architects found the American Institute of Architects in New York City . Richard Upjohn is elected first president .
- September 4 : In Weimar , the Goethe-Schiller memorial created by the Dresden sculptor Ernst Rietschel is inaugurated in front of the Weimar Court Theater .
- The Swedish-British photographer Oscar Gustave Rejlander creates his most famous work, the collage The Two Ways of Life . The initial criticism of the work's “indecency” ceases when Queen Victoria purchases a copy for her husband.
- After an extensive revision, the French painter Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot is re-exhibiting his painting Rural Concert from 1844 .
- February 7th : Gustave Flaubert is acquitted in a criminal trial by a Parisian court of having violated morality and religion with descriptions in the novel Madame Bovary .
- June 25 : The first edition of the volume of poetry Les Fleurs du Mal by Charles Baudelaire appears. On July 7th, the public prosecutor initiated criminal prosecution for blasphemy and insulting public morality.
- August 20 : The French poet Charles Baudelaire is sentenced to a fine of 300 francs for “insulting public morality and good manners”.
- November 1st : The cultural magazine The Atlantic Monthly appears for the first time.
Music and theater
- January 7 : The . Piano Concerto No. 2 in A major by Franz Liszt will be premiered in Weimar.
- March 12th : The opera Simon Boccanegra by Giuseppe Verdi based on a libretto by Francesco Maria Piave has its world premiere at the Teatro La Fenice in Venice. The play Simón Bocanegra by Antonio García Gutiérrez serves as a template . The performance is a failure and soon disappears from the repertoire, which prompts Verdi to revise the material.
- March 26 : The Comedy The affair Rue de Lourcine of Eugène Labiche experienced its world premiere in Paris.
- April 27 : The first Teatro Colón , built by Charles Pellegrini with Verdi's La traviata, opens in Buenos Aires .
- April 30 : The world premiere of the operetta Dragonette by Jacques Offenbach takes place at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- August 16 : Giuseppe Verdi's opera Aroldo with the libretto by Francesco Maria Piave is successfully premiered at the Teatro Nuovo in Rimini. It is the reworked and completely redesigned opera Stiffelio , which, under pressure from the censors, may only be performed in a distorted form in Italy.
- September 5 : On the occasion of the inauguration of Goethe and Schiller monument is in Weimar , the Faust Symphony by Franz Liszt first performed. It is inspired by Goethe's drama Faust I and represents a symphonic poem that is close to the symphony form .
- October 10 : The world premiere of the one-act operetta Le Mariage aux Lanternes ( The Engagement at the Lantern ) by Jacques Offenbach based on the libretto by Michel Carré takes place at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- October 31 : At the Carltheater in Leopoldstadt near Vienna, the posse is premiered with Tannhäuser singing by Johann Nestroy (text) and Carl Binder (music). The piece is based on the travesty Tannhäuser and the fight on the Wartburg by Hermann Wollheim and parodies the opera Tannhäuser and the singer's war on Wartburg by Richard Wagner .
- February 22nd : In Munich , according to uncertain tradition, the first white sausages are said to have been served in the “Zum Ewigen Licht” inn. Sepp Moser coincidentally invented the white sausage on Rose Monday.
- February 28 : After 72 years of service, the Austrian Field Marshal Josef Graf Radetzky is retired.
- September 28 : During the two-emperors meeting in Stuttgart , the Russian Tsar Alexander II , the French Emperor Napoleon III. and the Württemberg King Wilhelm I made a trip to the Cannstatter Volksfest .
- The Savage Club is founded in London .
- January 3rd : The Parisian Archbishop Auguste Sibour is murdered in the parish church of Saint-Étienne-du-Mont by the priest Jean-Louis Verger. After his criticism of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception , the perpetrator had been removed from office prior to that .
- The Austrian Hospice for the Holy Family , a pilgrimage hostel of the Catholic Church of Austria in the old city of Jerusalem , is founded.
- January 9th : The strong Fort Tejon earthquake shakes large parts of California . The tremor can be compared to the 1906 earthquake in San Francisco . The epicenter is believed to be in the town of Parkfield . Because of the sparsely populated area in the affected area, there is less personal injury than property damage.
- February 13 : After casting off in New York, the passenger steamer Tempest of the British Anchor Line disappears without a trace on the North Atlantic with 150 people on board.
- August 20 : At the entrance to Sydney Harbor, the British clipper Dunbar shattered on the rocky shore in strong winds and heavy rain. Of the 122 people on board, only one survived.
- September 12 : A hurricane causes the sinking of the US passenger liner Central America on its way from Havana to New York. 149 people can be rescued by two ships, 429 people are killed. With the cargo over 13 tons of gold cargo go down from California, which will lead to a rescue operation in 1987.
- November 18 : The powder tower in Mainz fortress explodes. 208 quintals of primers and over 600 flares are in this magazine. Within a few seconds, 57 houses on Kästrich are destroyed. Major property damage occurs to a further 64 buildings and the fortifications.
- December 16 : A strong earthquake occurs in Basilicata, killing over 11,000. The Irish geophysicist Robert Mallet then travels to Italy to research the disaster.
- August 15 : The monk in the Bernese Alps is climbed for the first time by mountain guide Christian Almer and three companions.
- October 24 : The very first football club is founded with the English FC Sheffield .
- December 22nd : The Alpine Club, the world's first mountaineering association, is founded in London . It was not until 1974 that the association accepted alpinists into its ranks.
Historical views and maps
- January 3 : Emma Ihr , German politician and trade unionist († 1911 )
- January 12 : Knut Johann Ångström , Swedish physicist († 1910 )
- January 13 : Paul Ewald , German Protestant theologian and university professor († 1911 )
- January 14 : Alice Pike Barney , American painter († 1931 )
- January 15 : Alexander Fritz , German chess player († 1932 )
- January 17 : Wilhelm Kienzl , Austrian composer († 1941 )
- January 18 : Franz Georg von Glasenapp , German general († 1914 )
- January 19 : Karl Wüstefeld , German rector, organist and local history researcher († 1937 )
- January 23 : Andrija Mohorovičić , Croatian geophysicist († 1936 )
- January 29 : Richard Schwemer , German teacher and historian († 1928 )
- January 31 : Alfred Gustav Benedictus Ackermann-Teubner , German publisher and bookseller († 1941 )
- February 1 : Vladimir Bechterew , Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist († 1927 )
- February 2 : Jan Drozdowski , Polish pianist and music teacher († 1918 )
- February 2 : Alexander Cameron Rutherford , Canadian politician († 1941 )
- February 3 : Wilhelm Johannsen , Danish botanist and geneticist († 1927 )
- February 3 : Hugo Krabbe , Dutch constitutional lawyer († 1936 )
- February 7 : James Hotchkiss Rogers , American organist and composer († 1940 )
- February 8 : Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje , Dutch Arabist and Islamic expert († 1936 )
- February 8 : Nikolaus Müller , German classical philologist, church historian and Protestant theologian († 1912 )
- February 11 : Georg Wertheim , German businessman († 1939 )
- February 12 : Eugène Atget , French photographer († 1927 )
- February 13 : Friedrich Adler , Austrian writer († 1938 )
- February 17 : Johannes Abromeit , German botanist († 1946 )
- February 18 : Max Klinger , German sculptor, painter and graphic artist († 1920 )
- February 18 : Ferdinand Wittenbauer , Austrian technician († 1922 )
- February 22nd : Robert Baden-Powell , British founder of the Boy Scout Movement († 1941 )
- February 22 : Heinrich Hertz , German physicist († 1894 )
- February 23 : Margaret Deland , American writer († 1945 )
- February 26 : Émile Coué , French author, founder of autosuggestion, medicine († 1926 )
- February 26 : Edwin S. Johnson , American politician († 1933 )
- March 3 : Alfred Bruneau , French composer and music critic († 1934 )
- March 7th : Julius Wagner-Jauregg , Austrian doctor and psychiatrist († 1940 )
- March 9 : Georg von Borries , German government official († 1922 )
- March 10 : Christian Berrenrath , German theologian, official in the Archdiocese of Cologne († 1941 )
- March 13 : Friedrich Heinrich Gotthold Anders , German politician († 1936 )
- March 15 : Ishbel Maria Hamilton-Gordon , Scottish social reformer and women's rights activist († 1939 )
- March 17 : Thompson Benton Ferguson , American politician († 1921 )
- March 20 : Benjamin F. Shively , American politician († 1916 )
- March 21 : Hunter Liggett , American general († 1935 )
- March 21 : Albert Rossow , German composer and conductor († 1943 )
- March 22nd : Paul Doumer , French President († 1932 )
- March 27 : Josef Bacon , Romanian politician, doctor and museum founder († 1941 )
- March 27 : Karl Pearson , British mathematician and philosopher († 1936 )
- March 27 : Karl Rieker , German legal scholar and legal historian († 1927 )
- March 30 : Gabriela Zapolska , Polish writer († 1921 )
- March 31 : Édouard Rod , Swiss author († 1910 )
- April 4 : Adolf Schenck , German geographer and botanist († 1936 )
- April 5 : Alexander I , Prince of Bulgaria († 1893 )
- April 6 : Arthur Wesley Dow , American landscape painter († 1922 )
- April 7th : Nasrullah Khan , Emir of Afghanistan († 1920 )
- April 14 : Beatrice of Great Britain and Ireland , British princess († 1944 )
- April 14 : Victor Horsley , British physiologist and neurologist († 1916 )
- April 14 : Edgar Stillman Kelley , American composer, conductor, organist, pianist, music critic and music teacher († 1944 )
- April 18 : Clarence Darrow , American attorney († 1938 )
- April 20 : Herman Bang , Danish writer († 1912 )
- April 21 : Oltwig von Kamptz , German officer († 1921 )
- April 22nd : Johannes Gloël , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1891 )
- April 23 : Ruggero Leoncavallo , Italian composer († 1919 )
- April 25 : Giuseppe Gamba , Archbishop of Turin and Cardinal († 1929 )
- April 27 : Johannes Chrząszcz , Silesian priest and historian († 1928 )
- April 29 : František Ondříček , Czech violinist and composer († 1922 )
- April 30 : Eugen Bleuler , Swiss psychiatrist († 1939 )
- May 1 : Otto Sidow , German newspaper publisher and social democrat († 1927 )
- May 2 : Frederic Cliffe , English composer († 1931 )
- May 2 : Otto Umfrid , German Protestant theologian and pacifist († 1920 )
- May 5 : António Teixeira de Sousa , Portuguese politician († 1917 )
- May 6 : Frank Bramley , English painter († 1915 )
- May 8 : Heinrich Berté , Austro-Hungarian composer († 1924 )
- May 10 : Julius Smend , German theologian († 1930 )
- May 10 : Hendrik Zwaardemaker , Dutch physiologist († 1930 )
- May 12 : Oskar Bolza , German mathematician († 1942 )
- May 13 : Ronald Ross , English physician and Nobel Prize winner († 1932 )
- May 15 : Williamina Fleming , American astronomer († 1911 )
- May 16 : Juan Morel Campos , Puerto Rican composer († 1896 )
- May 16 : Hermann Wette , German doctor and writer († 1919 )
- May 17 : Carl Appel , German Romance studies and university professor († 1934 )
- May 17th : Julius Trip , German garden architect († 1907 )
- May 19 : John Jacob Abel , American biochemist († 1938 )
- May 21 : Francisco Aguilar Barquero , President of Costa Rica († 1924 )
- May 22 : Paul Morton , American politician († 1911 )
- May 25 : Hermann Hoogeweg , German archivist and historian († 1930 )
- May 26 : Rudolph Wilde , German politician († 1910 )
- May 27 : Theodor Curtius , German chemist († 1928 )
- May 30th : Hugo Schauinsland , German zoologist († 1937 )
- May 31 : Pius XI. , Pope from 1922 to 1939 († 1939 )
- June 1st : Joseph Pujol , under his stage name Le Pétomane French art farther († 1945 )
- June 2 : Edward Elgar , English composer († 1934 )
- June 2 : Karl Gjellerup , Danish writer († 1919 )
- June 3 : Charles Herman Steinway , American industrialist, piano maker and amateur composer and pianist († 1919 )
- June 5 : Árpád Doppler , Hungarian-German composer († 1927 )
- June 6th : Karl Pommerhanz , Austrian comic artist (†?)
- June 6 : Alexander Mikhailovich Lyapunov , Russian mathematician and physicist († 1918 )
- June 7 : Rudolf Slatin , Austrian officer, explorer and Egyptian governor in the Turkish-Egyptian Sudan († 1932 )
- June 11 : Antoni Grabowski , Polish chemical engineer and early Esperanto activist († 1921 )
- June 14th : Ignaz Petschek , Bohemian banker and industrialist († 1934 )
- June 16 : Arthur Arz von Straussenburg , Austro-Hungarian professional officer († 1935 )
- June 19 : Arthur Hoffmann , Swiss politician and Federal Councilor († 1927 )
- June 21 : Olaf Kjelsberg , Norwegian engineer and ski pioneer in Switzerland († 1927 )
- June 21 : August Wilhelm Schynse , German missionary, Africa explorer and cartographer († 1891 )
- June 27 : Rosa Axamethy , Austrian writer
- June 30 : Friedrich von Ingenohl , German naval officer and chief of the German deep sea fleet († 1933 )
- July 5 : Clara Zetkin , German politician and women's rights activist († 1933 )
- July 8 : Alfred Binet , French pedagogue and psychologist († 1911 )
- July 8 : Rudolf Dellinger , composer and conductor († 1910 )
- July 9 : Friedrich II , Grand Duke of Baden († 1928 )
- July 11 : Joseph Larmor , Irish physicist († 1942 )
- July 12 : Amé Pictet , Swiss chemist († 1937 )
- July 12 : Jeter Connelly Pritchard , American politician († 1921 )
- July 14 : Vittorio Amedeo Ranuzzi de 'Bianchi , Bishop of Loreto and Cardinal († 1927 )
- July 23 : Carl Meinhof , German pastor and Africanist († 1944 )
- July 24 : Juan Vicente Gómez , Venezuelan politician and officer († 1935 )
- July 24 : Henrik Pontoppidan , Danish writer († 1943 )
- July 24 : Emery J. San Souci , American politician († 1936 )
- July 25 : George Pardee , American politician († 1941 )
- July 30 : Thorstein Veblen , American economist and sociologist († 1929 )
- July 31 : Wilhelm Ashoff , German entrepreneur († 1929 )
- July 31 : Ernest Chuard , Swiss politician († 1942 )
- July 31 : Edward Montagu-Stuart-Wortley , British general († 1934 )
- August 3 : Alice Hughes , English photographer († 1939 )
- August 6 : Christian Wilhelm Allers , German painter and draftsman († 1915 )
- August 6 : Ludwig von Höhnel , Austrian naval officer, Africa explorer and geographer († 1942 )
- August 7th : Eduard Zarncke , German classical philologist († 1936 )
- August 8 : Cécile Chaminade , French pianist and composer († 1944 )
- August 8 : Maurice Yvon , French architect († 1911 )
- August 9 : Francis Preston Blair Lee , American politician († 1944 )
- August 13 : Heinrich Bossart , German politician († 1930 )
- August 14 : Oskar Bulle , German writer, Germanist, Italianist and lexicographer († 1917 )
- August 15 : Albert Ballin , German shipowner († 1918 )
- August 15 : Georg Gothein , German politician († 1940 )
- August 16 : John Nixon , British general († 1921 )
- August 18 : Eusebius Mandyczewski , Austrian musicologist and composer († 1929 )
- August 24 : Eugen Guglia , Austrian historian, journalist and writer († 1919 )
- August 26 : Richard Wilson Austin , American politician († 1919 )
- August 26 : Agnes Gosche , German philologist († 1928 )
- August 28 : James Buchanan Aurig , German photographer († 1935 )
- August 28 : Hermann Schaedtler , German architect († 1931 )
- August 29 : Paul Friedlaender , German chemist († 1923 )
- September 2 : Karl Stauffer-Bern , Swiss painter († 1891 )
- September 4 : Jules Andrade , French mathematician, physicist and watchmaker († 1933 )
- September 6 : Ernst Fabricius , German archaeologist and ancient historian († 1942 )
- September 8 : Georg Michaelis , German lawyer and politician († 1936 )
- September 10 : James Edward Keeler , American astrophysicist († 1900 )
- September 12 : George Hendrik Breitner , Dutch artist († 1923 )
- September 14 : Alice Blackwell , American journalist and suffragette († 1950 )
- September 15 : William Howard Taft , American politician, 27th President of the USA († 1930 )
- September 17 : Konstantin Eduardowitsch Ziolkowski , Russian space pioneer († 1935 )
- September 21 : Johann Heinrich Louis Krüger , German geodesist († 1923 )
- September 22 : Anita Augspurg , German lawyer and women's rights activist († 1943 )
- September 24th : Adolph von Elm , co-founder of Volksfürsorge († 1916 )
- September 26 : Joachim von Bonin , German politician († 1921 )
- September 30 : Hermann Sudermann , German writer and playwright († 1928 )
- September 30 : Charles R. Miller , American politician († 1927 )
- October 1 : Remigio Renzi , Italian organist, composer and music teacher († 1938 )
- October 4 : Ferdinand Kurlbaum , German physicist († 1927 )
- October 4 : Henry Schoenfeld , American composer († 1936 )
- October 5 : Fedor von Zobeltitz , German journalist and writer († 1934 )
- October 7 : George P. McLean , American politician († 1932 )
- October 11 : Henri Cain , French librettist and painter († 1937 )
- October 12 : Frieda von Bülow , German writer († 1909 )
- October 12 : Wilhelm Fabricius , German librarian and historian († 1942 )
- October 17 : Momme Andresen , German chemist († 1951 )
- October 18 : Hans Freiherr von Berlepsch , German professional officer and ornithologist († 1933 )
- October 20 : František Mareš , Czech national democrat , later a fascist-oriented politician, physiologist and philosopher († 1942 )
- October 21 : Alfons Auer , German politician († 1910 )
- October 24 : Erich Aron , German lawyer, district court director and university professor († 1943 )
- October 30 : Gertrude Atherton , American writer († 1948 )
- October 30 : Georges Gilles de la Tourette , French neurologist, described Tourette's syndrome in 1885 († 1904 )
- October 31 : Arthur Vincent Green , Australian Bishop of Grafton and Armindale († 1944 )
- October 31 : Axel Munthe , Swedish doctor and author († 1949 )
- November 2 : Jakob Johan Adolf Appellöf , Swedish zoologist († 1921 )
- November 7th : Paul Mankiewitz , German banker († 1924 )
- November 11 : Nathan Stein , German judge, first Jewish court president († 1927 )
- November 15 : Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Alexejew , Russian general († 1918 )
- November 16 : Jón Sveinsson , Icelandic writer († 1944 )
- November 17 : Joseph Babinski , Polish-French neurologist († 1932 )
- November 22 : George Robert Gissing , English writer († 1903 )
- November 22nd : Giuseppe Magrini , Italian cellist, music teacher and composer († 1926 )
- November 25 : Heinrich Eduard Burlage , German politician († 1921 )
- November 25 : Frederick Haultain , Canadian politician and judge († 1942 )
- November 26 : Ferdinand de Saussure , Swiss linguist († 1913 )
- November 27 : Charles Scott Sherrington , British neurophysiologist († 1952 )
- November 28th : Alfonso XII. , Spanish king († 1885 )
- November 29 : Theodor Escherich , German-Austrian pediatrician and bacteriologist († 1911 )
- December 1 : Reinhold Steig , German literary historian († 1918 )
- December 3 : Carl Koller , Austrian ophthalmologist († 1944 )
- December 3 : Joseph Conrad , Polish-English writer († 1924 )
- December 3 : Bruno von Schuckmann , German politician and governor of German South West Africa († 1919 )
- December 6 : Adalbert Matkowsky , German actor († 1909 )
- December 8th : Johann Albrecht zu Mecklenburg , Braunschweig regent († 1920 )
- December 9 : Paul Gustav Wilhelm Arras , German teacher, archivist and local history researcher († 1942 )
- December 11 : Rodolfo Amoedo , Brazilian painter († 1941 )
- December 12 : Max Devrient , German actor († 1929 )
- December 15 : Eugeniusz Pankiewicz , Polish composer and pianist († 1898 )
- December 16 : Edward Barnard , American astronomer († 1923 )
- December 17 : Niccolò van Westerhout , Italian composer († 1898 )
- December 19 : Siegmund Lustgarten , Austrian doctor († 1911 )
- December 20 : Otto Crusius , German classical philologist († 1918 )
- December 21 : Marko Smoler , Sorbian publisher and editor († 1941 )
- December 26 : Berthe Constance Ursule Art , Belgian pastel and still life painter († 1934 )
- December 27 : Friedrich August Emil Heuer , Saxon coachbuilder (automobiles and carriages) († 1934 )
- December 27 : William Douw Lighthall , Canadian poet and writer († 1954 )
- December 29 : Louis Abel-Truchet , French painter († 1918 )
- December 30th : Joachim Graf von Pfeil and Klein Ellguth , German Africa explorer († 1924 )
- December 31 : Frank C. Archibald , American lawyer and politician († 1935 )
- December 31 : Hermann Oppenheim , German neurologist († 1919 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Rupen Binemeciyan , Armenian actor († 1912 )
- Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma , Iranian politician, Prime Minister of Iran during the First World War († 1939 )
- Yusuf İsmail , Ottoman-Bulgarian professional wrestler († 1898 )
- Sardar Mohammed Ayub Khan , interim regent of Afghanistan († 1914 )
January to April
- January 2 : Andrew Ure , English physician and professor of natural history and chemistry (* 1778 )
- January 3 : Just Friedrich von Seelhorst , German civil servant (* 1770 )
- January 5th : Gregorio Aráoz de La Madrid , Argentine military leader, general and politician (* 1795 )
- January 6th : Albert Schwegler , German theologian, philosopher and historian (* 1819 )
- January 14th : Johann Ludwig Christian Carl Gravenhorst , German zoologist (* 1777 )
- January 15 : Samuel Prentiss , American politician (* 1782 )
- January 19 : Franz Limmer , Austrian composer (* 1808 )
- January 25 : Andrew Stevenson , American politician (* 1784 )
- January 27 : Preston Brooks , American politician (* 1819 )
- January 30th : Agostino Aglio , Italian painter, engraver and lithographer (* 1777 )
- January 30th : Pierre Jean Baptiste Arnollet , French engineer (* 1776 )
- February 5 : William Duhurst Merrick , American politician (* 1793 )
- February 15 : Michail Glinka , Russian composer (* 1804 )
- February 21 : Karl Gottlob Boguslav von Zychlinsky , Prussian landowner and politician (* 1783 )
- March 9 : Dominikus Savio , student of Don Bosco, Italian saint (* 1842 )
- March 13 : William Pitt Amherst , British politician and statesman (* 1773 )
- March 14 : David T. Disney , American politician (* 1803 )
- March 21 : William Scoresby , British navigator and explorer (* 1789 )
- March 21 : Abraham Jacob van der Aa , Dutch lexicographer and man of letters (* 1792 )
- March 25 : William Colgate , an American entrepreneur and patron (born 1783 )
- April 8 : Heinrich Eduard Bethmann , German actor and theater director (* 1774 )
- April 8 : Julius August von Bernuth , German civil servant (* 1782 )
- April 13 : François-André Isambert , French lawyer and politician (* 1792 )
- April 16 : Ferdinand Wedel-Jarlsberg , Norwegian officer (* 1781 )
- April 28 : Johann Konrad Irmischer , German Protestant theologian and librarian (* 1797 )
May to August
- May 1 : Stephen Adams , American politician (* 1807 )
- May 2 : Frederick Scott Archer , British sculptor and photography pioneer (* 1813 )
- May 2 : Alfred de Musset , French writer (* 1810 )
- May 11 : Eugène François Vidocq , French criminal (* 1775 )
- May 14 : Jacob Niclas Ahlström , Swedish conductor and composer (* 1805 )
- May 16 : Asaf Jah IV. , Prince of Hyderabad (* 1794 )
- May 23 : Augustin-Louis Cauchy , French mathematician (* 1789 )
- May 27 : George Anson , British general (* 1797 )
- June 5 : Henry Hubbard , American politician (* 1784 )
- June 8 : Karl Friedrich Nebenius , German civil servant (* 1784 )
- June 10 : Friedrich Wilhelm Wagner , German classical philologist (* 1814 )
- June 11th : Albrecht von Roeder , German-American lawyer and local founder (* 1811 )
- June 19 : Friedrich Krafft , German politician (* 1777 )
- June 20 : Alexander Tschernyschow , Russian general, diplomat and statesman (* 1786 )
- June 21 : Louis Jacques Thénard , French chemist (* 1777 )
- June 25 : Langdon Cheves , American politician (* 1776 )
- July 4th : William L. Marcy , American politician (* 1786 )
- July 9 : Jakob Cederström , Swedish general and politician (* 1782 )
- July 15 : Carl Czerny , Austrian pianist and piano teacher (* 1791 )
- July 16 : Pierre-Jean de Béranger , French poet (* 1780 )
- July 19 : Stefano Franscini , Swiss politician (* 1796 )
- July 29 : Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte , Italian ornithologist, zoologist and politician (* 1803 )
- July 29 : James Holman , British traveler, adventurer and author (born 1786 )
- August 1 : Hopkins L. Turney , American politician (* 1797 )
- August 3 : Eugène Sue , French writer (* 1804 )
- August 4 : James C. Dobbin , American politician (* 1814 )
- August 6 : Abe Masahiro , Japanese politician (* 1819 )
- August 10 : John Wilson Croker , English speaker, poet and journalist (* 1780 )
- August 12 : William Daniel Conybeare , English geologist and paleontologist (* 1787 )
- August 23 : Carl Ludwig Koch , German forester, entomologist and arachnologist (* 1778 )
- August 24th : August Wilhelm Julius Ahlborn , German landscape painter (* 1796 )
- August 24 : Grigore Alexandru Ghica , Prince of Moldova (* 1803 or 1807 )
- August 26th : Adolf Schlagintweit , German traveler and explorer (* 1829 )
September to December
- September 5 : Auguste Comte , French founder of sociology (* 1798 )
- September 7th : Antonie van Goudoever , Dutch literary scholar and classical philologist (* 1785 )
- September 15 : John Henderson , American politician (* 1797 )
- September 16 : Eugen von Württemberg , General of the Russian Infantry (* 1788 )
- October 5 : Wenzel Scholz , Austrian actor (* 1787 )
- October 7th : Louis McLane , US Secretary of State (* 1786 )
- October 9 : Josef Ressel , Austrian forest official (* 1793 )
- October 17 : Friedrich von Seherr and Thoß , German officer, civil servant and manor owner (* 1789 )
- October 20 : Ludwig Bernhard Schmid , German clergyman and missionary (* 1788 )
- October 23 : Friedrich Kammerer , German inventor in the field of matches (* 1796 )
- October 27 : Charles Polk , American politician (* 1788 )
- October 28 : Louis-Eugène Cavaignac , French Prime Minister of the Second Republic (* 1802 )
- November 1 : Jacob Stout , American politician (* 1764 )
- November 12th : August Heinrich von Pachelbel-Gehag , German officer civil servant and landowner (* 1795 )
- November 15 : Alois Vock , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman, educator and historian (* 1785 )
- November 16 : Carl Andreas Ancker , founder of the Ancker legate (* 1828 )
- November 18 : Johann Ludwig von Bernuth , Prussian civil servant (* 1770 )
- December 3 : Christian Daniel Rauch , German sculptor (* 1777 )
- December 9 : John Pollard Gaines , American politician (* 1795 )
- December 17th : Francis Beaufort , Irish-British admiral and hydrograph (* 1774 )
- December 19 : Johann Daniel Elster , German music professor and choir director (* 1796 )
- December 24th : Félix Cazot , French music teacher and composer (* 1790 )
- December 24 : Robert C. Nicholas , American politician (* 1793 )
- December 25th : Joseph von Auffenberg , German playwright and poet (* 1798 )
- December 28 : Heinrich Friedrich Philipp von Bockelberg , Prussian diplomat (* 1802 )
- December 29 : John Baptista Ashe , American politician (* 1810 )