Max Klinger

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Max Klinger on a photograph by Nicola Perscheid , 1915

Max Klinger (born February 18, 1857 in Leipzig , † July 4, 1920 in Großjena ) was a German sculptor , painter and graphic artist and also a medalist . His work is primarily to be assigned to symbolism .


Heinrich Louis Klinger's office building in Leipzig (also known as “Klingerhaus”), built in 1887/88 by Arwed Roßbach instead of Max Klinger's birthplace

On February 18, 1857, Max Klinger was born as the second son of the soap boiler Heinrich Louis Klinger and his wife Auguste Friederike Eleonore Klinger. Richter was born in Leipzig at Petersstrasse 48. First he attended the citizens' school in Leipzig from 1863 to 1867 and the Brauer drawing school on Sunday. He then went to secondary school (later Petri School ) until 1873 .

In 1874, the Dresden architect and art historian Franz Richard Steche recommended Klinger to the well-known painter Anton von Werner in Berlin , who rejected him and referred him to the painter Karl Gussow in Karlsruhe . In April Klinger began studying at the Grand Ducal Baden Art School in Karlsruhe near Gussow and the history and portrait painter Ludwig Des Coudres . During this time he was also known as a piano player in Karlsruhe. He continued his training in 1875 at the Royal Academy of Arts in Berlin with Karl Gussow, who had been appointed there by Anton von Werner. His artistic role model at this time was Adolph Menzel in particular ; in addition, he dealt with the teaching of Charles Darwin . In 1876 he graduated with the title “Extraordinary” and the Silver Medal. In 1877 he served as a one-year volunteer in an infantry regiment.

Kidnapping from the series "A Glove", 1881
Sea gods in the surf , mural of Villa Albers , 1884–1885

In 1878 Klinger presented his paintings for the first time in the 52nd exhibition of the Royal Academy of the Arts in Berlin. These included: "Walkers or The Raid" (1878, Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Nationalgalerie), "Advice on a competition on the subject of Christ" (1877/78, Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett) and the preliminary drawings for the paraphrase on the " Find a glove ” . Up to this point, his early work consisted of around 100 drawings, mostly in pen and ink. From April 1879, Klinger lived completely withdrawn in Brussels , where he became a student of the history painter Emile Wauters . He dealt intensively with the implementation of his preliminary drawings in etching and the aquatint technique . Selection of works: "Etched Sketches" (Opus I), "Rescues of Ovidian Victims" (Opus II), "Caesar's Death". In 1880 he went to Karlovy Vary for a cure and from June to Munich , where he exhibited the etching: "Eve and the Future" (Opus III).

In 1881 Klinger moved to Berlin, where he had his own studio. It was there that he became friends with the Swiss painter, etcher and sculptor Karl Stauffer-Bern , from whom he distanced himself because of a lawsuit in 1889. During this time he created: "Intermezzi" (Opus IV), "Amor and Psyche" (Opus V), "A glove" (Opus VI). In 1882, the essay by the Danish literary historian and critic Georg Brandes appeared in the series "Moderne Geister" with Klinger's first comprehensive description. In this year he created: "Evening" (Darmstadt), "The Legation". In 1883 Klinger received his first major commission from the court trainee Julius Albers, the design of the decorations in the vestibule of his villa in Steglitz near Berlin . The acquaintance with the art historian, museum director and art educator Alfred Lichtwark began . In the summer he moved to Paris , where he lived in seclusion. At the Louvre he studied the works of Goya and Daumier . Pierre Puvis de Chavannes became his role model . He published works such as the cycle "Dramas" (Opus IX), for which he received awards and excellent reviews in Munich, Berlin and Paris. This also included: "Four Landscapes" (Opus VII), "One Life" (Opus VIII).

In the following year he worked intensively on the designs and the execution of the decorations in the Villa Albers. In 1886 he created the plaster model for the “ Beethoven Monument” and the first conception of the “New Salome ”. At the end of July he left Paris and traveled to Italy , where he also visited the Carrara quarries . From March 1887 Klinger was back in Berlin, where he met the Swiss artist Arnold Böcklin . From September he resided in Leipzig. During this time the painting "Judgment of Paris" (1885/87; Vienna, Neue Galerie des Kunsthistorisches Museum) and the etching: "Eine Liebe" (Opus X) were created.

In February 1888 Klinger traveled to Rome , where he refused to collaborate on the artistic execution of a greeting address for the Germans living in Rome on the occasion of the German emperor's visit to Rome. In 1889 he traveled to Brussels and Italy ( Naples , Paestum and Pompeii ), during which the etching "From Death First Part" (Opus XI) was created. The next year he traveled again to Italy, where “The Blue Hour”, “Pietà” (formerly Dresden, painting gallery ; loss of war), “Am Strand” (Munich, Neue Pinakothek ) were created. In 1891 he stayed in Munich, where he was elected a full member of the Munich Art Academy . He then traveled to Italy again, where he met Otto Greiner and made friends with him. The first edition of his theoretical work “Painting and Drawing” appeared. His work " The Crucifixion of Christ " was also created.

Max Klinger at work, drawing by Emil Orlík, 1902

In 1892 Klinger became a founding member of the "XI" group, which consisted of eleven artists. The group “XI” took a stand against the “ Association of Berlin Artists ”. The result was "Campagna (The Source)" (formerly Dresden, painting gallery; loss of war). In 1893 he settled again in Leipzig, where the marble bust: "The new Salome" was created. In the following year, Klinger became a member of the Royal Academy of Arts in Berlin . He traveled via Vienna to Greece and back via southern Italy to Paris. In this year the "Brahms Fantasy" (Opus XII) was created.

In 1895 he traveled to Paris, London , the Netherlands and Bonn and moved into the newly built studio at Leipzig Karl-Heine-Straße 6 . Klinger turned down the offer of a professorship in Vienna because the university did not accept his condition that he could use five consecutive months for his own work. The marble bust "Kassandra" was created. Klinger's father died the following year. Klinger had the Leipzig studio expanded into a presentation building in order to be able to exhibit his own works as well as works by Böcklin and drawings by Rodin and Menzel. Drafts for wall paintings were made in the stairwell of the Museum of Fine Arts in Leipzig. In 1897 Klinger became a professor at the Academy of Graphic Arts in Leipzig and a corresponding member of the newly founded Vienna Secession . The painting “Christ in Olymp” was exhibited in Berlin together with the work “The Wedding of Kanaa” by August von Brandis in the hall of honor of the Great Munich Art Exhibition. It provoked public polemics.

Beethoven torso, 1902
Elsa Asenijeff , around 1900

The following year, Klinger met the writer Elsa Asenijeff, who became his model and partner. He also made trips to Vienna, Italy and Paris. In 1899 he traveled to the Pyrenees and Greece to look for marble for some commissioned work. In 1900 Klinger met Auguste Rodin in his Paris studio. On September 7th, his daughter Desirée was born in Paris, who grew up with a foster mother. Klinger was one of the preferred selection of contemporary artists that the "Committee for the Procurement and Evaluation of Stollwerck Pictures" suggested to the Cologne chocolate producer Ludwig Stollwerck to commission them with drafts. This year the portrait bust "Elsa Asenijeff" (Munich, Neue Pinakothek) was created. In 1901 he became a founding member of the Villa Romana Association . In the same year the bronze bust of Franz Liszt (formerly Leipzig, Gewandhaus; loss of war) was created. In the following year he stayed in Leipzig again to complete the large sculpture "Beethoven" that he had begun in 1895. The large sculpture became the central exhibit during the Beethoven exhibition in the Vienna Secession in spring 1902 .

Klinger's house in Großjena
“Eraser house” in Großjena
Max Klinger on his death bed, lithograph by Paul Horst-Schulze

In 1903 Klinger acquired a vineyard with a historic little vineyard house ("Radierhäuschen") in Großjena near Naumburg and leased the upper house, an expanded sheepfold. In Berlin he lost a trial for defamation against the sculptor and painter Ernst Moritz Geyger . In the following year he signed a contract for the Brahms monument for the Hamburg music hall. He traveled to Italy again to buy marble. His mother died on November 22nd. In that year the etching : Drama (completed in 1904; Dresden, Staatliche Museen, Skulpturensammlung) and the painting: “Elsa Asenijeff in evening dress” was created. In 1905, on the initiative of Max Klinger , the German Association of Artists founded the Villa Romana artist house in Florence. The following year he became chairman of the Villa Romana Association. In 1907 he traveled again to Paris and Spain . For the first time, Klinger's complete works were exhibited at the Leipziger Kunstverein . In 1909 Klinger had the upper vineyard house in Großjena expanded into a comfortable residential building. The result was “The Blossom of Greece” as a mural for the auditorium of Leipzig University, the Brahms memorial and “On Death, Part Two” (Opus XIII). In 1911 Gertrud Bock (1893–1932) became Klinger's model, and in 1914 the conversion of the vineyard house into a residential house with a veranda was completed. In 1915 "Tents I and II" (Opus XIV) were created. In the following year there was a break with Elsa Asenijeff.

On October 19, 1919, Klinger suffered a stroke and moved his main residence to Großjena, where he married Gertrud Bock in late autumn. On July 4th, 1920 Max Klinger died on his vineyard in Großjena, where he found his final resting place at his own request. He appointed his friend and sculptor Johannes Hartmann to supervise the estate, who removed his death mask and married Klinger's widow two years later.


Max Klinger in front of his marble relief "Sleeping", 1902

Thanks to his extensive sculptural work, he is considered a German Rodin , although stylistically he pursued a different direction. He formulated an independent sculptural program based on archaeological knowledge that was new at the time. Accordingly, ancient Greek sculptures, which shaped the canon of sculptors at that time, were not monochrome white, as they existed in Roman copies, but multicolored and made of different materials. Klinger also tried to increase the expressiveness of his portraits by combining different materials, colored marble and bronze .

With this re-evaluation of the reception of antiquity and its influence on contemporary art, he was in line with Friedrich Nietzsche and Richard Wagner . Their idea of ​​a total art was evident in the cross-genre staging of the works of art, that is, visual arts in connection with music and theater, architecture and design. In Klinger's work, the connection to music, painting and sculpture was particularly evident. Some of his monumental works of art went beyond their architecturally coordinated picture frames.

Klinger's paintings are populated with life-size and extremely naturalistic actors who bring the often mythological and Christian themes into the presence of the viewer. Not infrequently, contemporary viewers took offense at this conception of art. The exhibition of his painting “ Crucifixion ” caused a scandal in Dresden in 1893 because Klinger showed Christ completely naked in this picture . However, the contemporary impressionism is not reflected in his works. Klinger created his outstanding position within the art movement of symbolism, particularly in the so-called “ stylus art ”, that is, in his graphic work. Some consider this part of his work - in addition to the equally outstanding drawings - to be the real focus of his life's work. It showed different focal points: Klinger proves a socially critical point of view in the etching cycles, "Dramen" and "Ein Leben", in which he describes the living conditions of the lower social classes in the form of tragedies . ( Poverty , drunkenness , prostitution , unwanted pregnancy , suicide ).

Max Klinger's grave in Großjena with the bronze statue "Athlete" designed by him
Johannes Hartmann : Marble baths Max and Gertrud Klingers at the grave site of Max Klinger, Großjena

The classification in symbolism can apply to the entire rest of the graphic work, in which the subjects of longing, passion, love, eroticism and death are sometimes more and sometimes less clearly presented and often treated self-ironically. The “heroes” of the Ovidian Metamorphoses (for example Amor and Psyche , Narcissus and many more) are saved from their fate (transformation into trees, drowning) in Klinger's etchings. ("Amor and Psyche", "Rescuing Ovidian Victims"). Here, too, there is a reference to music: In addition to the titles, the cycles bear the designations Opus I to Opus XIV .

His work arises as a matter of course for an educated bourgeois audience . His allusions can only be understood with a basic humanistic education. But the content is more than just an intellectual game for a small class of society. The treatment of love, eroticism and death in their fateful combination was just as much a critical examination of a double standard that is hostile to sexuality as was the declaration of the need for social legislation, which is practically warned in the “dramas”. Artists of the early 20th century, such as Käthe Kollwitz , Ernst Barlach , Edvard Munch and Max Beckmann ( Expressionism ) or Max Ernst ( Surrealism ), referred to Max Klinger and used direct quotations from pictures . Numerous ex-libris that he made for friends, but also for members of the upper class , are of varying quality . As a representative of a bourgeois art of the late 19th century, he achieved fame and success, contrary to the popular artist myth, only during his lifetime, but was only known to specialists a short time after his death.

Max Klinger is said to have had an early encounter with literature; his unbroken hunger for reading is attested. He knew the world literature of his time, as well as contemporary literature. His relationship to poetry found some analogies in his graphic cycles, such as the pictorial thinking in rows and the literary nature of his subjects. In addition, Klinger maintained a lively exchange with poets and writers of his time, and there were encounters with them. Klinger wrote his writing painting and drawing and also wrote his own poems and wrote a diary. In 1917 Ferdinand Avenarius wrote a collective publication Klinger als Poet . Klinger used themes from Christian or pagan mythology, found literary-poetic titles, inscriptions of a poetic nature and Klinger also emerged as a "poet" in dedications and text substitutions. The "dramas", for example, are introduced with a line from Hölderlin . The "Epithalamia" - wedding chants of the "Amor-und-Psyche" fairy tale - are a single hymn to the "love omnipotence" and were freely worded by his later partner Elsa Asenijeff (1867-1941). Gerhart Hauptmann , Arthur Schnitzler , Richard Dehmel or Hugo von Hofmannsthal made use of a revelation technique which, in scenic variants, allows one and the same theme - in novels and dramas - to be analyzed and illustrated from different angles; they are later parallels to Klinger's cycles see. In Berlin he made the acquaintance of the art critic Ludwig Pietsch and the Danish literature professor Georg Brandes . Klinger studied his work.

In 1880 in Munich, Klinger worked on a famous work in Indian dramatic literature, Kalidasa'sShakuntala ”, one of the great love stories in world literature. He also read Kalidasa's Urvashi. In 1883 he made himself in Paris with the high-quality literature there, especially Émile Zola , Gustave Flaubert and Guy de Maupassant . At that time, the studies of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche had already fully affected him and helped to shape his worldview. In 1893, when he settled down in Leipzig , he became a member of the “Literary Society” and came into contact with Richard Dehmel (who was with August Strindberg and Arno Holz ), Falke and Detlev von Liliencron . Klinger was also an avid reader, including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , William Shakespeare , Homer , Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Jean Paul (his pupil Kurt Kluge would later become known as a poet in the succession of Paul). At a lecture evening by Detlev von Lilienkrons, he met his partner Elsa Asenijeff in 1895. Richard Dehmel dedicated his first work as a freelance writer to Klinger, the “Lebensblätter”, as well as a number of stanzas. Klinger was very much appreciated by poets at the turn of the century, for example Hugo von Hofmannsthal.

With the exhibition “Paths to the Total Work of Art” (Hildesheim 1984, see exhibitions), Klinger's work was once again brought into the focus of public interest; Numerous other, partly opulently designed and scientifically based exhibitions have followed at short intervals (see exhibitions).

Klinger than Adam in Adam and Eve by Carl Seffner


Klinger Villa in Leipzig

In Leipzig, a street ( Klingerweg ), a park ( Klingerhain ), a bridge ( Klingerbrücke ) and, since 1927, a high school ( Max Klinger School ) were named after him. A primary school in Kleinjena near Naumburg bears his name.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Leipzig preserves a large part of his works . The entrepreneur Siegfried Unterberger from Brixen collects works by Klinger and was committed to the rescue of the Klinger villa in the Plagwitz district of Leipzig , which is also used by the Klinger Forum association.

The Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner (1861–1932) designed Adam with Klinger's facial features in his bronze relief Adam and Eve (around 1910) at the Leipziger Künstlerhaus .

The asteroid (22369) Klinger was named after him.

Works (selection)

Model of the Richard Wagner monument in Leipzig, postcard around 1913


Kassandra , 1903

Sculptures and sculptures

  • Satyr and Toad (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, Inv. No. 217), around 1882–1883, bronze, 30 cm
  • The new Salome (Dresden, Albertinum, Skulpturensammlung , Inv.No.ZV1269), 1887/1888, plaster
  • Kassandra (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 26), 1886–1896, marble, 93.5 cm
  • Bathers who are reflected in the water (Leipzig, Museum der bildenden Künste, inv. No. 27), 1896–1897, marble, 152 cm
    • In October 2010, three reductions of the bronze figure came up for auction in Königstein am Taunus, each with a height of 25, 40 and 100 cm
  • Athlete (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 29), 1898–1899, bronze, 69 cm
  • Woman's head (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 213), around 1899, bronze, 26 cm
  • Elsa Asenijeff (Munich, Neue Pinakothek, Inv.No.B 739), around 1900, marble, 92 × 47 × 36 cm
  • Die Kauernde (Vienna, Austrian Gallery, Inv. No. 8079), 1900–1901, marble, 80 cm
  • Beethoven (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts), 1902, marble
  • Kneeling girl with a basket of flowers (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 142a), 1905, silver casting, 106 cm

Portrait busts

  • Bust of Wilhelm Wundt (Dresden, Albertinum), bronze copy of the bust in Mannheim
  • Bust of Franz Liszt (Leipzig, Gewandhaus), marble
  • Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts
  • Bust of Richard Wagner (Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum)
  • Bust of Wilhelm Wundt (Mannheim), marble
  • Bust of Friedrich Nietzsche (Weimar, Nietzsche Archive), marble
  • Bust of Friedrich Nietzsche 1904, Ottawa , National Gallery of Canada , bronze copy with black patina
An embassy, ​​1882


  • An embassy (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 1297), 1882, oil on panel, 37 × 63 cm
  • 5 pairs of doors from the vestibule of the former Villa Albers in Berlin-Steglitz (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 1352), 1883–1884, oil on panel
  • Judgment of Paris (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum ), 1885–1887, oil on canvas, 320 × 720 cm
  • Portrait of the Mother (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, Inv. No. 1292), 1880–1890, oil on canvas, 102 × 66 cm
Woman in boudoir , drawing, 1878
Landscape on the Unstrut , 1912
  • View from Klinger's Roman studio to Santa Maria Maggiore (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 2160), 1889, oil on panel, 46 × 36.2 cm
  • The Crucifixion of Christ (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, Inv. No. 1117), 1888–1891, oil on canvas, 251 × 465 cm
  • The Blue Hour (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, Inv. No. 833), 1890, oil on canvas, 191.5 × 176 cm
  • House over the quarry (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, Inv. No. 2168), around 1895, oil on paper laid down on cardboard, 26.8 × 35.2 cm
  • Christ in Olymp (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts), 1889–1897, oil on canvas, 362 × 722 cm, wings each 362 × 86 cm
  • Portrait of Elsa Arsenijeff in evening dress (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts, inv. No. 1280), around 1903–1904, oil on canvas, 198.5 × 108.7 cm
  • Work = prosperity = beauty (mural in the new town hall in Chemnitz , city council hall, front side), commissioned by textile entrepreneur Herrmann Vogel in 1911, completed in 1918, 13.50 × 3.75 m
  • Landscape on the Unstrut (Altenburg, State Lindenau Museum), 1912, oil on canvas, 192 × 126 cm


  • March 10 to April 29, 1956, Berlin, German Academy of the Arts [East]: The graphic cycle - From Max Klinger to the present
  • October 8, 1966 to November 19, 1966, Darmstadt, Kunsthalle: Max Klinger - Bernhard Schlotter, etchings
  • July 4, 1970 to September 20, 1970, Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts: Max Klinger 1857–1920, exhibition on the 50th anniversary of his death
  • September 20, 1970 to October 25, 1970, Bremen, Kunsthalle: Max Klinger on the 50th anniversary of his death - the graphic work from the possession of the Kunsthalle Bremen
  • October 10, 1976 to November 11, 1976, Bielefeld, Kunsthalle: Max Klinger
  • November 28, 1979 to February 17, 1980, Munich, Museum Vila Stuck: Max Klinger - The graphic cycles
  • December 3, 1981 to January 31, 1982, Vienna, Künstlerhaus: Max Klinger - painting, graphics, sculpture
  • February 26, 1981 to April 12, 1981, Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria : Love, Death and the Beyond
  • September 18, 1983 to October 26, 1983, Kiel, Kunsthalle der Christians-Albrecht-Universität: Brahms Fantasies
  • August 4, 1984 to November 4, 1984, Hildesheim, Roemer- und Pelizaeus-Museum: Max Klinger. Paths to a total work of art.
  • February 12, 1992 to June 7, 1992, Frankfurt am Main, Städtische Galerie in the Städelsche Kunstinstitut: Max Klinger 1857–1920
  • February 13, 1992 to June 8, 1992, Frankfurt am Main, Städtische Galerie in the Städelsche Kunstinstitut: A glove - dream and artistic reality
  • June 26, 1992 to August 16, 1992, Hamburger Kunsthalle: A glove - dream and artistic reality (takeover of the exhibition from Frankfurt am Main)
  • May 3, 1995 to July 23, 1995, Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts: Exhibition on the 75th anniversary of Max Klinger's death
  • March 17, 1966 to June 16, 1996, Ferrara, Palazzo dei Diamanti: Max Klinger
  • October 24, 1996 to January 12, 1997, Munich, Villa Stuck: Max Klinger - drawings, status prints, cycles
  • January 15, 1999 to March 21, 1999, Paderborn, Städtische Galerie in the Reithalle Schloss Neuhaus: Max Klinger - Play me the song of death - The graphic cycles from the collection of the Stadtmuseum Oldenburg
  • October 18, 2002 to November 16, 2002, Bozen, Goethe Gallery: Max Klinger - Opere dalla collezione Siegfried Unterberger
  • July 3, 2004 to August 22, 2004, Dessau, Anhaltische Gemäldegalerie: Max Klinger - Love, Death and the Devil - The graphic cycles from the collection of the Stadtmuseum Oldenburg, the Academy for Graphics and Book Art Leipzig and the Anhaltische Gemäldegalerie Dessau
  • March 5, 2006 to May 7, 2006, Neuss, Clemens-Sels-Museum: Max Klinger (1857–1920). The graphic cycles
  • January 27 to April 9, 2007, Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe: Max Klinger - The Imprint Consequences
  • March 11 to June 24, 2007, Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts: One Love - Max Klinger and the Consequences. Almost 300 works (paintings, graphics, drawings and sculptures) by around 40 artists will be presented. Was taken over by Hamburger Kunsthalle on October 12, 2007.
  • March 18 to May 20, 2007, Chemnitz, art collections: Max Klinger in Chemnitz. 163 exhibits, including 3 large cardboard boxes (3.90 × 1.60 m) of drafts for the mural, 28 color study drawings and sketchbooks as well as graphics, paintings and sculptures by Max Klinker from the holdings of the Chemnitz art collections are shown.
  • May 17 to September 16, 2007, Zwickau, art collections: Max Klinger (1857–1920) - Graphic Cycles.
  • June 10 to September 2, 2007, Berlin, Georg Kolbe Museum: Max Klinger. In search of the new person.
  • November 9, 2007 to January 20, 2008, Cologne, Käthe Kollwitz Museum: Max Klinger - "All registers of life" Graphic cycles and drawings
  • September 12, 2007 to January 20, 2008, Hamburger Kunsthalle: One love. Max Klinger and the consequences.
  • December 1, 2007 to March 2, 2008, Neu-Ulm, Edwin-Scharff-Museum: Max Klinger - In search of the new person.
  • September 12 to December 19, 2010, Apolda, Kunsthaus Avantgarde: Max Klinger - On the austere delicacy of beautiful forms.
  • January 21 to May 1, 2011, Duisburg, Lehmbruck Museum: Max Klinger - On the bitter delicacy of beautiful shapes.
  • September 4 to December 10, 2011, Leipzig, Klinger-Villa: Max Klinger -… and women beckon forever. Works from the Siegfried Unterberger Collection and the Museum of Fine Arts Leipzig.
  • September 8, 2012 to January 6, 2013, Düsseldorf, Museum Kunstpalast: Max Klinger - The Enigmatic Woman
  • July 5, 2015 to October 4, 2015, Stendal, Winckelmann Museum: Max Klinger - master graphics and drawings from Art Nouveau to Surrealism (exhibition catalog Verlag Franz Philipp Rutzen)
  • February 1 to April 26, 2020, Waiblingen, Galerie Stihl Waiblingen : love, dream and death. Max Klinger's graphic series
  • February 6 to August 18, 2020, Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts: Max Klinger


The written estate has been in the archive for fine arts in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg as a gift from the granddaughter since 1984 .


  • Elsa Asenijeff : Max Klinger's Beethoven. An art-technical study. Leipzig undated [1902].
  • Ferdinand Avenarius : Max Klinger's pen art. Berlin 1895.
  • Ferdinand Avenarius: Max Klinger as a poet. Munich 1917.
  • Eva-Suzanne Bayer-Klötzer:  Klinger, Max. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1980, ISBN 3-428-00193-1 , pp. 90-94 ( digitized version ).
  • Lothar Brieger-Wasservogel : Max Klinger. Leipzig 1902.
  • Conny Dietrich: Max Klinger. In search of the new person. EA Seemann, Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-86502-160-1 .
  • Christian Drude: Historicism as montage. Combination process in Max Klinger's graphic work. Mainz 2005.
  • Alexander Dückers: Max Klinger. Berlin 1976.
  • Rolf Günther: The symbolism in Saxony 1870-1920. Dresden, Sandstein, 2005, ISBN 3-937602-36-4 .
  • Herwig Guratzsch (Ed.): Max Klinger. Inventory catalog of the sculptures, paintings and drawings in the Museum of Fine Arts Leipzig. Leipzig: Seemann, 1995.
  • Renate Hartleb (Ed.): I am still writing. Max Klinger in his letters. With the participation of Bernd Ernsting, Harald Jurkovic, Camilla G. Kaul. Letter Foundation , Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-930633-22-7 .
  • Renate Hartleb: Max Klinger and Cornelia Paczka-Wagner. A Roman relationship. In: Hans-Werner Schmidt , Jeannette Stoschek (eds.): Max Klinger "the great sculptor and the great wrestler ...". Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-422-07143-8 , pp. 34–51.
  • Anneliese Hübscher: Reflections on the two central problem complexes death and love in Max Klinger's graphics. In connection with his theories about graphics. Phil. Diss., Halle-Wittenberg, 1969.
  • Max Klinger: Letters from the years 1874–1919. Edited by Hans W. Singer, Leipzig 1924.
  • Max Klinger: painting and drawing. Leipzig 1891 ( urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb00079784-2 ).
  • Paul Kühn: Max Klinger. Leipzig 1907
  • Stella Wega Mathieu: Max Klinger. Life and work in data and images. Insel, Frankfurt a. M. 1976, ISBN 3-458-01904-9 .
  • Karin Mayer-Pasinsky: Max Klinger's graphic cycle “Ein Handschuh” (1881). In: Pantheon 34, 1976, pp. 298-334.
  • Michael Michalski: Max Klinger. Artistic development and change in ideological content in the years 1879–1910. Augsburg 1986.
  • Willy Pastor : Max Klinger. Amsler & Ruthardt, Berlin 1918.
  • Claus Pese: Max Klinger (1857-1920). Sculptor, graphic artist, painter. In: Anette Scherer (Red.): Patrons, donors, donors. The Germanic National Museum and its collections. Nuremberg 2002 (= cultural-historical walks in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum , vol. 5), pp. 161–163.
  • Hans-Georg Pfeifer: Max Klinger's graphic cycles (1857–1920). Subjectivity and compensation in artistic symbolism as a parallel development to the beginnings of psychoanalysis. (Giessen contributions to art history, Vol. V), Giessen 1980.
  • Norbert Pfretzschner : About Max Klinger. In: Anton Breitner (Ed.): Marginal glosses on German literary history , Vol. 11, Vienna 1905.
  • Carl Schirren (Ed.): Max Klinger, Carl Schirren . Correspondence 1910–1920. Publishing house Dr. R. Kramer, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-926952-03-2 .
  • Max Schmid-Burgk : Klinger. Bielefeld u. Leipzig 1913.
  • Hans W. Singer: Max Klinger's etchings, engravings and stone prints. Scientific directory by Hans W. Singer. Berlin 1909.
  • Henry Tauber: Max Klinger's bookplate work. Claus Wittal, Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 3-922835-12-0 .
  • Gerhard Winkler: Max Klinger. Prisma, Gütersloh 1984, ISBN 3-570-09234-8 .
  • Frank Zöllner (Ed.): Art of the pen. Myth, dream and love in Max Klinger's graphic. Plöttner Verlag, Leipzig 2011, ISBN 978-3-938442-31-9 .
Exhibition catalogs
  • Max Klinger. Original print from the possession of the Oldenburg City Museum. Municipal art collection, Oldenburg 1975.
  • Max Klinger. Catalog. Bielefeld / Göttingen / Tübingen / Wiesbaden 1976.
  • Max Klinger. Paths to a total work of art. Roemer and Pelizaeus Museum Hildesheim. With contributions by Manfred Boetzkes, Dieter Gleisberg, Ekkehard Mai , Hans-Georg Pfeifer, Ulrike Planner-Steiner, Hellmuth Christian Wolff and a comprehensive Klinger documentation, Mainz, 1984.
  • Eva and the future. The image of women since the French Revolution. Kunsthalle Hamburg. Edited by Werner Hofmann, concept and catalog Sigrun Paas and Friedrich Gross, Munich 1986.
  • Max Klinger. Drawings, status prints, cycles. Edited by Jo-Anne Birnie Danzker and Tilman Falk. Prestel, Munich a. New York 1996, ISBN 3-927803-17-0 , ISBN 3-7913-1742-3 .
  • Max Klinger. The graphic consequences. Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, Edition Braus, Heidelberg 2007.
  • Max Klinger in Chemnitz. Catalog. Edited by Ingrid Mössinger with texts and an inventory catalog of the works in the Chemnitz art collections by Conny Dietrich. EA Seemann, Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-86502-156-4 , 280 pages with 95 color images. and 170 b / w images.
  • One Love. Max Klinger and the consequences. Edited by Hans-Werner Schmidt and Hubertus Gaßner , Kerber, Bielefeld / Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-86678-057-6 .
  • Max Klinger. Master graphics and drawings from Art Nouveau to Surrealism. Ed. Winckelmanngesellschaft Stendal, authors Kathrin Schade, Stephanie-Gerrit Bruer, Verlag Franz Phillip Rutzen 2015, ISBN 978-3-447-10453-1 , 104 pages with 117 z. T. colored illustrations.

Web links

Commons : Max Klinger  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. artist. Max Klinger. German Society for Medal Art, accessed on September 19, 2015 .
  2. Detlef Lorenz: Advertising art around 1900. Artist lexicon for collecting pictures. Reimer, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-496-01220-X .
  3. Archive 1903 to 1936 / Villa Romana ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on September 14, 2015
  4. Stella Wega Mathieu (ed.): Max Klinger. Life and work in data and images , Insel Taschenbuch 204, Frankfurt am Main 1976, p. 56.
  5. for example Paul Angerholm in his essay on the 100th birthday, ed. from the Museum of Fine Arts in Leipzig, 1957, p. 20.
  6. ^ S. Unterberger: A house with a history: Klinger's parents' house in Plagwitz
  7. Exhibitions - Outlook - Annual Preview 2012 ( Memento from June 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), on, accessed on October 24, 2012.
  8. Past exhibitions. Retrieved July 7, 2020 .
  10. I am still writing. Max Klinger in his letters on