Honoré Daumier (born February 26, 1808 in Marseille , † February 10, 1879 in Valmondois , Val-d'Oise ) was a French painter , sculptor , graphic artist and caricaturist . He is an important representative of realism . His political and socially critical caricatures are significant.
From 1831/32 Daumier produced lithographs for the satirical magazines La Caricature and Le Charivari . He modeled a large number of small portrait sculptures as templates for drawings by well-known contemporaries such as politicians or journalists, which appeared in La Caricature . For his exaggerated satirical designation of King Louis Philippe as Gargantua - a voracious eater and drunkard (fictional character by François Rabelais ) - he was sentenced to six months in prison in 1832. Daumier's painting became less well known, in which he also turned to literary subjects and the socially critical representation of the common people. From around 1848 he kept in close contact with the realistic school of Barbizon . Blinded in old age, he died impoverished. In 1880 his body was transferred to Paris and solemnly buried in the Père Lachaise cemetery.
Typical of Daumier's painting is a strong light-dark contrast and the use of a clearly emphasized graphic outline. The scope of his graphic work includes more than 4000 lithographs and over 1000 woodcuts. In the characteristic drawing of ridiculous and tragic personality profiles, his caricatures achieve timeless generality.
Characterization of the cartoons
Daumier first made a name for himself through the series "Robert Macaire" published by him in Le Charivari . His portrayals deal with the comical and ridiculous scenes and incidents of the day, the foolishness of strange people, the downside of big things, foolishness. Daumier knew how to portray the comic side of common bourgeois life and the ridiculous of individual nature sharply and vigorously, even often brutally (e.g. in the figure of Ratapoil). Noteworthy in this regard are: "Les Bons bourgeois", "Pastorales", "Locataires et propriétaires", "Les papas", "Les beaux jours de la vie" and his "Représentants représentés", a collection of caricature portraits of around 100 representatives of the Constituent and legislative branches, as well as his “Idylles parlementaires”, masterpieces of political-satirical jokes that recall the best time of Greek comedy. The latter two are fruits of the 1848 revolution .
Daumier's caricatures also deal with the connection between the bourgeoisie and antiquity : While in France classicism had been a program of cultural rule since Louis XIV , it was first adopted by the revolutionary leaders after the French Revolution, but then by the real winners of the revolution, the bourgeoisie, utilized. This appropriation of ancient iconography by the bourgeoisie makes Daumier ridiculous: he pulls the false masks off the petty bourgeoisie and shows them in pathetic everyday scenes. So he created a “mythology of everyday life” in small studies of the physiognomy and character of his fellow human beings. In his caricature, The Smile of the Augurs , he ties in with a saying by Cato , who said that the augurs should smile when they meet because they knew too much. Daumier on this: The industrial barons know just as much - but they don't smile when they meet.
Pictures / paintings
- The Wandering, 1847–1850, oil on panel, 32.6 × 24.8 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
- The Laundress, approx. 1850–1853, oil on canvas, 130 × 98 cm, Hermitage, St. Petersburg
- The Print Collector, 1857–1863, oil on panel, The Art Institute of Chicago
- Das Drama, around 1860, oil on canvas, 97.5 × 90.4 cm, Munich, Neue Pinakothek
- Laundress on the Quai d'Anjou, ca.1860, oil on wood panel, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
- Don Quixote and the dead mule, 1867, 132.5 × 54.5 cm, Musée d'Orsay , Paris
- Third Class Carraige, 1863–1865, oil on canvas, 65.4 × 90.2 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- A Third Class Car, ca.1862–1864, oil on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Ottawa, Canada
- Scapin, approx. 1863–1865, oil on panel, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
- Chess player, approx. 1863–1867, oil on panel, Musée du Petit Palais, Paris
- Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, approx. 1865–1870, oil on canvas, Neue Pinakothek , Munich
Two world wars resulted in a large number of Daumier's paintings being lost or stolen.
Catalog raisonné of all Daumier paintings
Since April 2011 there has been internet access to all known oil paintings by Daumier with in-depth research results, provenance information, exhibitions, publications and numerous search functions.
- 36 surviving portraits of celebrities (terracotta busts - 1832/35, Musée d'Orsay , Paris) Not all of the 40 terracotta busts have been preserved.
Graphics / caricatures by Daumier on various topics can be found in the Daumier Register, e.g. B. for the subjects "animals", "sport", "music", "spring", "carnival, masks, costumes", "hunting", "celebrations and festivals", "theater", "wine", "school" , "Summer", "Lawyers", "Ships, Boats", "Books, Newspapers".
- Antoine-Maurice-Apollinaire d'Argout (1782–1858), Minister and Peer of France 1832. Colored tone. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.
- André-Marie-Jean-Jacques Dupin, also called Dupin the Elder (1783–1865), member of parliament, lawyer, academician 1832. Colored tone. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France
- Charles Philipon (1800-1861) , journalist and director of the magazine cartoon and caterwauling c.1833. Colored tone. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France
- Charles-Léonard Gallois (1774–1851), publicity manager and historian, Republican 1833? Colored tone. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.
- Jacques Lefévre (1777–1856), banker and MP 1833. Colored clay. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.
- Historie ancienne (colored lithographs on ancient mythology; published 1841–1843 in the Paris magazine Le Charivari )
- Poor France ... the trunk was struck by lightning, but the roots hold up well, lithograph, 23 × 19
- Chinese dignitaries watch over the welfare of the empire (from Charivari), December 1859, lithograph
- Crispin and Scapin, around 1858–1860, canvas, 60 × 82, Paris, Musée National du Louvre
- The copper engraving lover, around 1857–1860, canvas, 41 × 33, Paris, Petit Palais
- The graphic collector, 1860, Paris
- The Painter in Front of the Easel, c. 1865–1868, wood, 33 × 26, Washington DC, Phillips Collection
- The Emigrants, around 1848–1849, canvas, 38 × 69
- The Republic, 1848, canvas, 73 × 60, Paris, Musée National du Louvre
- The Soup, 1853, ink drawing in watercolor, 28 × 40, Paris, Musée National du Louvre
- Don Quichotte and Sancho Panza, around 1868, canvas, 51 × 32, Munich, Neue Pinakothek
- Drama, around 1856–1860, canvas, 97 × 89, Munich, Neue Pinakothek
- Mother with Child, around 1865–1870, canvas, 40 × 33, Zurich, Emil Georg Bührle Collection
- Gossip, Mesdag Museum, The Hague
- Robert Jordan: Models - Masks - People. Biographical novel about Honoré Daumier. Petermänken-Verlag, Schwerin 1956
- H. Schwarz: Daumier, Gill et Nadar. In: Gazette des Beaux-Arts . Vol. 99, XLIX, 1957, pp. 89ff.
- Jean Cherpin: Autour de la première exposition des peintures de Daumier. In: Gazette des Beaux-Arts . Vol. 100, LI, 1958, p. 329ff.
- (Cillie) Cäcilia Rentmeister : Honoré Daumier and the Ugly Sex. Women's movement in 19th century caricature. In: Honoré Daumier and the unsolved problems of civil society. Berlin 1974 (see above). cillie-rentmeister.de
- Honoré Daumier and the unsolved problems of civil society. Catalog of the New Society for Fine Arts ( NGBK ), Berlin 1974, Stuttgart (Württembergischer Kunstverein) 1975, Graz / Austria (Kulturhaus) 1977.
- Rudolf Pillep: Honoré Daumier . Verlag der Kunst, Dresden 1979
- Jürg Albrecht: Honoré Daumier . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1984, ISBN 3-499-50326-3 (Rowohlt's monographs, 326)
- Mathias Arnold: Honoré Daumier - life and work. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart / Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-7630-1927-8 .
- Matthias Recke (Ed.): Catalog for the exhibition “Wahre Helden? - Daumier and the ancient world ” . AKAMAS 1, Norderstedt 2007, ISBN 978-3-8334-8028-7 .
- Michael Brunner et al. (Eds.): Géricault, Delacroix, Daumier and contemporaries. French lithographs and drawings. edit by Karin Althaus, Michael Mohr and Götz J. Pfeiffer, Imhof-Verlag, Petersberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-86568-403-5 .
- Roger Münch, Matthias Winzen (ed.): Daumier and his Paris. Art and technology of a metropolis . In collaboration with the Honoré Daumier Society. Kehrer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86828-180-4 .
- Monsieur Daumier, your series is delightful. The Kames Foundation . Exhibition catalog Staatliche Graphische Sammlung Munich , Berlin / Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag 2012, ISBN 978-3-422-07175-9 .
- Henri Mondor , Adhémar: Physicians at Daumier's Work. Geneva 1981.
- Literature by and about Honoré Daumier in the catalog of the German National Library
- Honoré Daumier at Google Arts & Culture
- Works by and about Honoré Daumier in the German Digital Library
- Search for Honoré Daumier in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Works by Honoré Daumier at Zeno.org .
- Daumier's works in video guides on the artinspector
- Daumier Videos website - Access to Daumier Videos and 500 of Daumier's most important lithographs between 1832 and 1850.
- L. & D. Noack: www.daumier.org Detailed information, biography, bibliography, exhibitions, pictures, Daumier register
- Daumier Bibliography Brandeis University Libraries
- Exhibition "Daumier and his Paris" in Baden-Baden
- Daumier Society
- Honoré Daumier illustrations in HeidICON
- "Daumier ante Portas!" A conference report
- Page on the topic of dance and caricature with examples by H. Daumier at the German Dance Archive Cologne
Examples of cartoons
- Examples for the subject of "animals". In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Sport”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Music”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Spring”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Carnival, masks, costumes”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the subject of “hunting”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Celebrations and celebrations”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic of “theater”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the subject of "wine". In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “School”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Summer”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the subject of “lawyers”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Ships, Boats”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- Examples for the topic “Books, Newspapers”. In: The Daumier Register. Lilian and Dieter Noack, accessed on April 27, 2019 .
- LOST ART. Daumier's stolen or lost paintings
- The Daumier Register.
- Daumier, The Celebrities of the Juste Milieu . ( Memento of the original from February 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Musée d'Orsay
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||French painter, sculptor, printmaker and caricaturist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 26, 1808|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Marseille , France|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 10, 1879|
|Place of death||Valmondois , Val-d'Oise department , France|