Calendar overview 1879
Zulu War ends with the British victory in the Battle of Ulundi .
begins in Latin America .
|Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld managed to pass through the Northeast Passage with the Vega .|
collapse of the Firth of Tay Bridge during a storm
|1879 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1327/28 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1871/72 (September 11-12)|
|Baha'i calendar||35/36 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1284/85 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2422/23 (southern Buddhism); 2421/22 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1241/42 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4212/13 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1257/58 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1296/97 (December 14/15)|
Meiji 12 (
明治 12 年 );
|Jewish calendar||5639/40 (September 17-18)|
|Coptic calendar||1595/96 (September 11-12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1294/95 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2189/90 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2190/91 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1935/36 (April)|
Politics and world events
Russia / German Empire / Austria-Hungary
- April 14 : The the Narodnaya Volya associated Alexander Soloviev committed a shot attempt on the Russian Emperor . Alexander II , without this, however, hurt. He will be executed on June 9th .
- August 15 : Annoyed by the events and results of the Berlin Congress last year, Tsar Alexander II of Russia wrote the slap letter to his uncle, the German Kaiser Wilhelm I , in which he complained about Otto von Bismarck .
- October 1 : The coming into force of the Reich Justice Acts bring about a legal standardization in the field of procedural law of the ordinary jurisdiction in Germany.
- October 5 : The exile newspaper Der Sozialdemokrat appears for the first time during the time of the socialist laws .
- October 7th : The German Reich and Austria-Hungary form the dual alliance , a temporarily secret defensive alliance .
- December 1 : An unsuccessful attempt is made near Moscow to blow up the imperial train with Tsar Alexander II on board with dynamite .
Principality of Bulgaria
- April 28 : The National Assembly of the Principality of Bulgaria , which had become independent from the Ottoman Empire the year before , passes the Tarnovo constitution . On the following day, with the approval of the great powers, she elects Alexander I of the Battenberg family to be ruler of the principality . He made his entry into Tarnowo on July 8th and swore the oath on the new constitution, but set up his residence in Sofia .
- January 1st : Bernhard Hammer becomes Federal President of Switzerland .
- May 18 : In Switzerland , the ban on the death penalty in the federal constitution is lifted by a referendum .
- July 19 : The Swiss civil engineer Louis Favre , the architect of the Gotthard railway tunnel , dies while inspecting the tunnel under construction.
Other events in Europe
- May 2nd : Pablo Iglesias Posse founds the Spanish socialist workers party Partido Socialista del Trabajo .
- November 24 : William Ewart Gladstone starts the Midlothian campaign for the British General Election in 1880 . Organized at great expense by the liberal House of Lords Earl of Rosebery as a media event based on the US model, the Midlothian campaign is considered a milestone and the first modern election campaign in the political history of the United Kingdom .
Zulu War in South Africa
- January 11 : British troops under Frederic Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford penetrate after an ultimatum to the Zulus in the Zulu Kingdom under King Cetshwayo one.
- January 22nd : In the Battle of Isandhlwana, the British suffer a catastrophic defeat against 20,000 Zulu under Chief Ntshingwayo Khoza . On the same day at Rorke's Drift, 145 British withstand the onslaught of approximately 4,000 Zulu warriors.
- March 12 : In the Battle of the Ntombe River , a detachment of the British Army accompanying a supply convoy is defeated by a force of irregulars from the Zulu Kingdom led by the Swazi Prince Mbilini waMswati .
- March 28th : The Zulu are victorious in the Battle of Hlobane .
- March 29 : 2,000 British under Evelyn Henry Wood defeat Ntshingwayo Khoza's 20,000-strong army at the Battle of Kambula .
- June 1st : In South Africa, Napoléon Eugène Louis Bonaparte , who voluntarily participated on the British side in the Zulu War , the only son of the French Emperor Napoleon III. , overwhelmed by Zulu warriors while fleeing on foot and killed by Assegai stings.
- July 4th : In the Battle of Ulundi, the British destroy the Zulu army, ending the Zulu War.
- On August 17th, the chiefs of the coastal region submit to the British, most of the chiefs of the north follow them at the end of August.
- August 28th : Cetshwayo is captured by a British patrol and taken to Cape Town . The remaining resistance of the Zulu then collapses.
- September 1st : Zululand is divided into 13 independent districts or kingdoms ( chiefdoms ) under a British resident.
- May 26 : The Gandamak Treaty is signed between Great Britain and Afghanistan, ending the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War .
- September 3 : Louis Cavagnari , British envoy in Kabul , is murdered by Afghans.
United States of America
- Social housing in New York City : The Tenement House Act of 1879 required builders to equip the bedrooms of all newly built apartment buildings with a window.
Saltpeter War in Latin America
- February 14th : Chile occupies the Bolivian port city of Antofagasta .
- March 1st : Bolivia declares war on Chile . The saltpeter war begins.
- March 27 : Chile conquers the city of Cobija in the saltpeter war and has since cut off Bolivia from access to the Pacific .
- April 5 : After Peru refused to declare neutrality, Chile declares war on Peru.
- May 21 : The naval battles at Iquique and Punta Gruesa ended with a victory for the Peruvian fleet under Miguel Grau Seminario over Chile under Arturo Prat, who fell in battle. With this, Peru can end the siege of Iquique by Chile. However, after the battle with the Huáscar , Peru remains only a larger warship, which ultimately creates the conditions for Chile's maritime domination in the South Pacific.
- October 8 : In the naval battle of Angamos , the Chilean navy succeeds in boarding the Peruvian ironclad Huáscar and thus gaining naval dominance off the Pacific coast.
- November 2 : The Peruvian city of Pisagua , a major port for exporting saltpetre , is captured by the troops of Chile .
- November 19 : Chile's troops defeat the united Peruvian - Bolivian army near Dolores .
- February 18 : George W. McGill receives a patent in the USA for a single staple device , which he developed from his staple press, which he had invented years earlier.
- November 4 : James Ritty , a saloon owner from Dayton , Ohio, files a patent for the cash register he invented .
- February 22 : The Merchant Winfield Woolworth makes itself independent and opened in Utica (New York) his first five-cent store whose business concept soon creates a chain store.
- March 9th : A group of 25 small tradespeople and traders founds the first Creditreform association in Mainz , at that time still under the name "Verein Barrechnung Mainz".
- June 21 : Carl von Linde and other entrepreneurs found the company for Linde's ice machines in Wiesbaden .
- Johann Jacob Heinrich Bahr founds a wheelwright shop in Bramfeld , from which the Max Bahr hardware store developed under the direction of his son .
- Philipp Rosenthal founds the Rosenthal porcelain painting company as a family business.
- May 14 : The first food law is passed in Germany
- July 12 : To help the economy, the Reichstag of the German Empire decides to introduce protective tariffs .
- July 14 : The Reich Treasury in Berlin is founded.
science and technology
- February 27 : Professors Constantin Fahlberg and Ira Remsen from Johns Hopkins University inform about the discovery of the sweetener saccharine in Baltimore .
- March 1 : The engineer Werner Siemens installs a carbon arc lamp he developed for street lighting purposes . Shortly afterwards, the city of Berlin equips a street with this electric light source for the first time in the world.
- May 9th : The Dresden doctor Maximilian Nitze presents the first urethrocystoscope, a device for urethral and bladder mirroring .
- May 28 : The first oil pipeline in history, the so-called Tidewater Pipeline , is put into operation by the Tidewater Company under the leadership of Byron Benson .
- May 31 : The first usable electric locomotive ( Siemens & Halske ) drives at the Berlin trade fair .
- July 19 : The polar explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld succeeds in passing through the Northeast Passage .
- July 21 : In the Swiss canton of Bern , the Giessbachbahn is the first funicular railway in Europe to be used only for leisure tourism . The water ballast runway transports guests from Lake Brienz to the higher-lying Grand Hotel.
- July 24th : The French astronomer Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan discovers the galaxy, later known as NGC 6745 , in the constellation Lyra .
- October 10 : Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan finds the galaxy NGC 228 in the constellation Andromeda .
- October 13 : Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan becomes aware of the galaxy NGC 282 in the constellation Pisces .
- October 21 : Thomas A. Edison makes a light bulb glow permanently for the first time .
- December: The Swiss chocolatier Rodolphe Lindt invents the conching machine that improves the consistency and aroma of chocolate.
- The world's first institute for psychology is founded in Leipzig ( Wilhelm Wundt ).
- Based on experimental observations, Josef Stefan formulates the law about the total radiation power (later theoretically founded by Boltzmann, Stefan-Boltzmann law ).
- Discovery of the Hall effect by Edwin Hall
- The American Lester Allan Pelton developed the Pelton turbine named after him (patent 1880 ).
- The Jena mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege publishes his term book , the groundbreaking work of modern logic .
Music and theater
- January 11 : World premiere of the opera Hero and Leander by Giovanni Bottesini at the Teatro Regio in Turin
- February 1 : The world premiere of the operetta Boccaccio by Franz von Suppè , the composer's most successful stage play, takes place at the Carltheater in Vienna. The libretto is by Camillo Walzel and Richard Genée .
- March 28 : World premiere of the opera Iwein by August Klughardt in Neustrelitz
- March 29th : The opera Eugene Onegin by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is premiered by students of the Moscow Conservatory under the direction of Nikolai Rubinstein at the Moscow Maly Theater . It is based on the eponymous verse novel Eugene Onegin by Alexander Pushkin .
- June: 5th Organ Symphony by Charles-Marie Widor is published.
- July 10 : Rudolf Baumbach's student song swears by this sheer defense , the later hymn of the German fraternity, wins a competition for Austrian student songs in Vienna.
- August 23rd : With the landing of the Portuguese musician Joao Fernandez in Honolulu, the development of the Hawaiian ukulele from the Madeira native Braguinha begins .
- October 31 : The world premiere of the operetta Countess Dubarry by Karl Millöcker takes place at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna. The libretto is by F. Zell and Richard Genée .
- December 21 : At Det Royal Danish Theater in Copenhagen, the drama A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen premiered. Out of consideration for the contemporary perspective of the institution of marriage, Nora stays with her husband at the end of this performance. The first performance with Ibsen's original ending did not take place until 1880 in Munich.
- November 3rd : During excavations in Olympia , the fragment of the head belonging to the statue of Nike des Paionios is found. The statue was created around 420 BC. Chr.
- November 5th : The social democratic satirical magazine Der Wahr Jacob appears with its first edition in Hamburg.
- Founding of the Zimmermann & Heitmann gallery
- Founding of the Saint Louis Art Museum
- Foundation of the Walker Art Center
- January 19 : Anna Bates gives birth to the heaviest known newborn in Seville, Ohio . Your child is 10.6 kilograms and 76 cm tall. It dies eleven hours later.
- July 1 : Charles Taze Russell's religious magazine Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence is first published in the United States. The magazine is published in German under the current title The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom .
- August 21 : An apparition of Mary is reported from Knock, County Mayo, Ireland . The Virgin Mary , accompanied by her husband Joseph of Nazareth and the Evangelist John , is observed by fifteen people at the south gable of the church from around 8 p.m. to 10 p.m.
- December 2 : The British passenger ship Borussia sinks in the North Atlantic after a storm caused a leak in the hull. 169 people die.
- December 28 : The collapse of the Tay Rail Bridge during a storm will cost 75 people their lives. Theodor Fontane later processed the accident in his work Die Brück 'am Tay .
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
- April 19 : Foundation of FC St. Gallen , the oldest still existing football club in Switzerland
- September 20 : The oldest Irish football club, Cliftonville FC, comes into being in Belfast when a businessman looks for prospects for the Cliftonville Association Football Club in the local newspaper .
- The Norwegian Olaf Haugann reached the world record distance of 20 meters in ski jumping on the Husebybakken in Kristiania (Oslo) .
- January 1 : EM Forster , English narrator († 1970 )
- January 1 : Ernest Jones , British psychoanalyst († 1958 )
- January 3 : Lina Abarbanell , German soprano and actress († 1963 )
- January 5 : Viktor Mäulen , German football player and official († 1956 )
- January 5 : Jack Norworth , American poet, composer and producer († 1959 )
- January 6 : Émile Argand , Swiss geologist and mineralogist († 1940 )
- January 8 : Emory S. Land , American officer († 1971 )
- January 8 : Samuel Shaw Ulysses Arentz , American politician († 1934 )
- January 11 : Ernst Jencquel , German rower († 1939 )
- January 12 : Paul Guthnick , German astronomer († 1947 )
- January 12 : Ray Harroun , American racing driver († 1968 )
- January 12 : Franklin Elmore Kennamer , American lawyer and politician († 1960 )
- January 14 : Hans Nadler , German painter († 1958 )
- January 14th : Hans Nordmann , German railway engineer († 1957 )
- January 15 : Benedikt Kreutz , President of the German Caritas Association (DCV) († 1949 )
- January 17 : Burt McKinnie , American golfer († 1946 )
- January 17 : Richard Gavin Reid , Canadian politician († 1980 )
- January 18 : Henri Giraud , French general († 1949 )
- January 18 : Walter Kaesbach , German art historian († 1961 )
- January 18 : Ikai Tane , Japanese Supercentenarian († 1995 )
- January 19 : Guido Fubini , Italian mathematician († 1943 )
- January 20 : Walther Ahlhorn , German lawyer († 1961 )
- January 20 : Clifford Hugh Douglas , British economic theorist, engineer († 1952 )
- January 20 : Ruth St. Denis , American dancer, choreographer and teacher († 1968 )
- January 20 : Wilhelm Burkamp , German philosopher († 1939 )
- January 20 : Walter W. Bacon , American politician († 1962 )
- January 22 : Francis Picabia , Cuban writer, painter, graphic artist († 1953 )
- January 23 : Walther Bauersfeld , German engineer and physicist († 1959 )
- January 23 : Harry A. Pollard , American actor and director († 1934 )
- January 24th : Stanislaw Lyudkewitsch , Russian composer († 1979 )
- January 28 : Julia Bell , English human geneticist († 1979 )
- February 1 : Henri Chrétien , French astronomer and inventor. († 1956 )
- February 3 : Bruno Doehring , German theologian († 1961 )
- February 3 : Harry Fuld , German industrialist († 1932 )
- February 4 : Jacques Copeau , French playwright, actor and theater director († 1949 )
- February 6 : Pedro Aguirre Cerda , Chilean politician († 1941 )
- February 6 : Neville Bulwer-Lytton, 3rd Earl of Lytton , British officer, sportsman and painter († 1951 )
- February 6 : Edwin Samuel Montagu , British politician († 1924 )
- February 6 : Carl Ramsauer , German physicist († 1955 )
- February 8 : Glover Morrill Allen , American zoologist and ornithologist († 1942 )
- February 9 : Natanael Berg , Swedish composer († 1957 )
- February 10 : Gottlob Schrenk , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1965 )
- February 11 : Jean Gilbert , German composer († 1942 )
- February 12 : Urban Gad , Danish screenwriter and director († 1947 )
- February 12 : George McGill , American politician († 1963 )
- February 12 : Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez , Chilean politician († 1948 )
- February 12 : Helena Roerich , Russian writer († 1955 )
- February 12 : José Luis Sánchez Besa , Chilean aviation pioneer († 1955 )
- February 14 : Frederick Philip Grove , German-Canadian writer and translator († 1948 )
- February 15 : Hermann Burte , German poet and painter († 1960 )
- February 15 : Friedrich Franz zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst , Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst († 1958 )
- February 16 : Josef Andre , German politician († 1950 )
- February 19 : Luigj Gurakuqi , Albanian writer and politician († 1925 )
- February 22nd : Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted , Danish chemist and artist († 1947 )
- February 22nd : Ernest Read , English composer and music teacher († 1965 )
- February 23 : Agnes Arber , English botanist († 1960 )
- February 23 : Gustav Oelsner , German architect and urban planner († 1956 )
- February 25 : Otakar Ostrčil , Czech composer († 1935 )
- February 26 : Frank Bridge , English composer († 1941 )
- February 27 : Wilhelm von Arnim-Lützlow , German author († 1943 )
- February 27 : Mads Nielsen , Danish writer († 1958 )
- March 1 : Robert Daniel Carmichael , American mathematician († 1967 )
- March 1 : Aleksandar Stambolijski , Bulgarian politician († 1923 )
- March 2 : Johann Viktor Bredt , German constitutional lawyer and politician († 1940 )
- March 2 : William Wallace Gilchrist , American painter († 1926 )
- March 4 : Bernhard Kellermann , German writer († 1951 )
- March 4 : Josip Murn , Slovenian poet († 1901 )
- March 4 : Otto Pannenbecker , German politician († 1956 )
- March 5 : William Henry Beveridge , English economist († 1963 )
- March 6 : Max Haller , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1949 )
- March 8 : Otto Hahn , German chemist, discoverer of nuclear fission , Nobel Prize winner († 1968 )
- March 9 : Alois Arnegger , Austrian landscape painter († 1963 )
- March 9 : Agnes Miegel , German writer and journalist († 1964 )
- March 9 : Martin Mutschmann , German politician, Saxon Prime Minister († 1947 )
- March 10 : Hans Luther , Imperial Chancellor in the Weimar Republic († 1962 )
- March 12 : Alfred Abel , German actor († 1937 )
- March 12 : Charles Delestraint , French General of the Resistance († 1945 )
- March 13 : Karl Caspar , German painter († 1956 )
- March 14 : Albert Einstein , German physicist with Swiss and US citizenship († 1955 )
- March 14 : Thành Thái , tenth emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyễn dynasty († 1955 )
- March 15 : Marie Juchacz , German social reformer and women's rights activist († 1956 )
- March 17 : Hugo Küttner , German entrepreneur († 1945 )
- March 17 : Jim Nance McCord , American politician, Governor of Tennessee († 1968 )
- March 18 : Grigori Abramowitsch Krejn , Russian composer († 1957 )
- March 19 : Joseph Haas , German composer († 1960 )
- March 20 : Emil Lueken , German lawyer and Lord Mayor († 1961 )
- March 21 : Josef Steinbach , Austrian weightlifter († 1937 )
- March 21 : Saharet , Australian dancer († 1942 )
- March 22nd : Josef Heinrich Grebing , German businessman, painter and Nazi victim († 1940 )
- March 22 : Léon Deubel , French poet († 1913 )
- March 22nd : Wilhelm Schlenk , German chemist († 1943 )
- March 24th : Hela Sander , German writer († 1952 )
- March 26 : Othmar Ammann , Swiss-American engineer and bridge builder († 1965 )
- March 27 : Edward Steichen , Luxembourg photographer († 1973 )
- March 29 : Alan Gardiner , British Egyptologist († 1963 )
- March 31 : John Hart , Canadian politician († 1957)
- April 2 : Alexander Moissi , Austrian actor († 1935 )
- April 3 : Nagatsuka Takashi , Japanese writer († 1915 )
- April 6 : Jules Mazellier , French composer († 1959 )
- April 7th : Angelo Dibona , South Tyrolean climber and mountain guide († 1956 )
- April 7th : Jules Robin , French racing car driver († 1957 )
- April 7 : Hermann Schwab , German journalist and press service founder († 1962 )
- April 8 : Heinrich Reimers , German publicist († 1942 )
- April 11 : Bernhard Schmidt , German optician († 1935 )
- April 12 : Ernst Wandersleb , German balloonist, photographer, physicist († 1963 )
- April 12 : Fred H. Brown , American politician († 1955 )
- April 13 : Johan Petter Åhlén , Swedish entrepreneur and curler († 1939 )
- April 13 : Redfield Proctor junior , American politician († 1957 )
- April 14 : James Branch Cabell , American writer († 1958 )
- April 14 : Mario Danieli , Italian entrepreneur and racing car driver († 1955 )
- April 15 : Karl Bösch , Austrian politician († 1956 )
- April 15 : Alexander Gleichmann von Oven , German rower († 1969 )
- April 16 : Léon Théry , French racing driver († 1909 )
- April 18 : August Hinrichs , German writer († 1956 )
- April 19 : Richard Scheibe , German sculptor († 1964 )
- April 20 : Marie Adamczyk , Austrian nurse († 1973 )
- April 20 : Heinrich Nüßlein , German antiquarian and painter ("The Prophet in a Maler's Smock") († 1947 )
- April 20 : Hans Heinrich Müller , German architect († 1951 )
- April 20 : Paul Poiret , French fashion designer († 1944 )
- April 21 : Oskar Erbslöh , German aviation pioneer († 1910 )
- April 22nd : Galo Leoz , Spanish ophthalmologist and supercentenarian († 1990 )
- April 22 : Otto Krafft , German civil engineer († 1916 )
- April 23 : Emil Barth , German politician († 1941 )
- April 23 : Walther Spielmeyer , German psychiatrist and neurologist († 1935 )
- April 24 : Ernst Adam , German writer († 1919 )
- April 26 : Owen Willans Richardson , English physicist († 1959 )
- April 27 : Otto Buchwitz , German politician, member of the People's Chamber of the GDR († 1964 )
- April 27 : Alfred Roth , German politician, MdR († 1948 )
- April 29th : Thomas Beecham , British conductor, founder of several symphony orchestras († 1961 )
- April 30 : Georg Queri , Bavarian local poet and writer († 1919 )
- May 1st : Otto Abeles , Austrian journalist, writer and music critic († 1945 )
- May 2 : Paul Thiersch , German architect and university professor († 1928 )
- May 3 : Clyde L. Herring , American politician († 1945 )
- May 4 : Leonid Isaakowitsch Mandelstam , Russian physicist († 1944 )
- May 6 : Bedřich Hrozný , Czech linguist and orientalist († 1952 )
- May 9 : Kurt Herrfurth , Lord Mayor of Gera († unknown)
- May 10 : Hermann Andert , German paleontologist, geologist and bank director († 1945 )
- May 14 : Adolf Attenhofer , Swiss writer and Indologist († 1950 )
- May 15 : Gustaf Emanuel Hildebrand Aulén , Swedish theologian and bishop († 1977 )
- May 15 : Paul Wachtsmuth , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1919 )
- May 17 : Hans Grade , German aviation pioneer († 1946 )
- May 18 : Bruno Bielefeld , German painter, etcher and lithographer († 1973 )
- May 19 : Nancy Astor , British politician († 1964 )
- May 19 : Waldorf Astor , British politician and newspaper publisher († 1952 )
- May 20 : Hans Meerwein , German chemist († 1965 )
- May 21 : Karl Felix Wolff , South Tyrolean folklorist († 1966 )
- May 22 : Symon Petljura , Ukrainian politician († 1926 )
- May 23 : Harold Samuel , English pianist and composer († 1937 )
- May 24 : Otto Reche , German anthropologist († 1966 )
- May 25 : William Maxwell Aitken , Canadian-British publisher and politician († 1964 )
- May 25 : William Stickney , American golfer († 1944 )
- May 27 : Hans Heinrich Lammers , German lawyer, civil servant and SS-Oberführer († 1962 )
- May 27 : Karl Bühler , German thought and language psychologist, language theorist († 1963 )
- May 28 : Vanessa Bell , British painter and interior designer († 1961 )
- May 28 : Henri-Pierre Roché , French writer and art collector († 1959 )
- May 31 : Samuel Guyer , Swiss art historian († 1950 )
- May 28 : Milutin Milanković , Serbian astrophysicist († 1958 )
- May 29 : Kosta Abrašević , Serbian poet († 1898 )
- May 29 : Richard Hamann , German art historian († 1961 )
- May 30 : Anne Shymer , American chemist († 1915 )
- June 3 : Raymond Pearl , American biologist and geneticist († 1940 )
- June 3 : Paul Wilhelm Georg Hoffmann , German politician and member of the Reichstag († 1949 )
- June 4 : Theodor Haecker , German writer, cultural critic and translator († 1945 )
- June 5 : Marcel Tournier , French harpist and composer († 1951 )
- June 5 : René Pottier , French cyclist († 1907 )
- June 5 : Fritz Theodor Kuhnen , German politician and member of the Reichstag († 1947 )
- June 6 : August Leonhard Bernoulli , Swiss physicist († 1939 )
- June 6 : Bartolomeo Blanche Espejo , Chilean politician and military officer († 1970 )
- June 7th : Carl Arthur Scheunert , German veterinarian († 1957 )
- June 7th : Knud Rasmussen , Danish polar explorer († 1933 )
- June 8 : Matthäus Herrmann , German politician († 1959 )
- June 11 : Joseph Friedrich Abert , German historian and archivist († 1959 )
- June 11 : Julia Claussen , Swedish singer and music teacher († 1941 )
- June 12 : Rudolf Albert August Wilhelm Asmis , German lawyer and diplomat († 1945 )
- June 12 : Gérard Hekking , French cellist and music teacher († 1942 )
- June 14 : Theodor Anton Abele , German schoolboy († 1965 )
- June 15 : Bernhard Sopher , American-German sculptor († 1949 )
- June 17th : Gustav Dreher , a German football official
- June 19 : Rein Boomsma , Dutch national soccer player († 1943 )
- June 20 : Jim Delahanty , American baseball player († 1953 )
- June 20 : Vladko Maček , Croatian politician († 1964 )
- June 22nd : Guido Seeber , German film pioneer and cameraman († 1940 )
- June 22nd : John Joseph Dempsey , American politician († 1958 )
- June 24 : Juan Demóstenes Arosemena Barreati , Panamanian President († 1939 )
- June 28 : Charles Montier , French racing driver and vehicle designer († 1952 )
- June 29 : Benedetto Aloisi Masella , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1970 )
- June 29 : Aleksandar Zankow , Bulgarian politician († 1959 )
- June 30 : Heinrich Ambrosius , German politician († 1968 )
- July 1st : Emma Gertrud Eckermann , German painter, graphic artist and art teacher
- July 1 : Léon Jouhaux , French trade unionist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate († 1954 )
- July 2 : Zsigmond Móricz , Hungarian narrator († 1942 )
- July 3 : Fritz Mielert , German photographer and writer († 1947 )
- July 3 : A. Harry Moore , American politician († 1952 )
- July 4 : Agathe Lasch , German Germanist, victim of Nazi Germany († 1942 )
- July 5 : Dwight Filley Davis , US Secretary of War and founder of the Davis Cup († 1945 )
- July 5 : Philippe Gaubert , French composer († 1941 )
- July 5 : Eugen Nesper , German engineer and radio pioneer († 1961 )
- July 5 : Volkmar Andreae , Swiss conductor and composer († 1962 )
- July 5th : Wanda Landowska , Polish harpsichordist and pianist († 1959 )
- July 6 : Gunther Burstyn , technician and officer in the Austrian Austro-Hungarian Army († 1945 )
- July 6 : Karl Maybach , German engine designer († 1960 )
- July 9 : Carlos Chagas , Brazilian doctor († 1934 )
- July 9 : Ottorino Respighi , Italian composer († 1936 )
- July 11 : Alfred Büchi , Swiss engineer and national councilor († 1959 )
- July 12 : Roland Foster , Australian singer and music teacher († 1966 )
- July 12 : Bolesław Raczyński , Polish composer and music teacher († 1937 )
- July 15 : Alcides Arguedas , Bolivian writer, politician and historian († 1946 )
- July 16 : Jorge González Bastías , Chilean poet († 1950 )
- July 21 : Joseph AA Burnquist , American politician († 1961 )
- July 23 : Ernst Herzfeld , German Near Eastern archaeologist, ancient orientalist and inscription researcher († 1948 )
- July 25 : Fritz Steuri , Swiss mountain guide and skier († 1950 )
- July 26 : Otto Hieronimus , German-Austrian automobile designer and racing driver († 1922 )
- July 28 : Inocenc Arnošt Bláha , Czech sociologist, philosopher, educator († 1960 )
- July 28 : Lucy Burns , American suffragette († 1966 )
- July 28 : Vittorio Ambrosio , Italian general († 1958 )
- July 28 : Albert Grzesinski , Prussian Interior Minister from 1926 to 1930 († 1947 )
- July 29 : Erwin Böhme , German fighter pilot in World War I († 1917 )
- July 29 : Giuseppe Garibaldi the Younger , Italian adventurer and revolutionary († 1950 )
- July 30th : Hans Franck , German writer and dramaturge († 1964 )
- July 31 : Margarete Bieber , first female professor of archeology in Germany († 1978 )
- July: Alfred Ambler , English football player († 1940 )
- August 1 : Augusto Samuel Boyd , Panamanian President († 1957 )
- August 1 : Erich Harbort , German geologist († 1929 )
- August 2 : James M. Tunnell , American politician († 1957 )
- August 5 : Vladimir Aïtoff , French medic and rugby union player († 1963 )
- August 8 : Robert Holbrook Smith , American doctor († 1950 )
- August 8 : Terauchi Hisaichi , Field Marshal of the Imperial Japanese Army († 1946 )
- August 8 : Emiliano Zapata , Mexican revolutionary († 1919 )
- August 11 : Frieda von Richthofen , German writer and translator († 1956 )
- August 11 : Alfrēds Kalniņš . Latvian composer († 1951 )
- August 13 : John Ireland , English composer († 1962 )
- August 15 : Ethel Barrymore , American actress († 1959 )
- August 15 : Philipp Holl , German politician († 1967 )
- August 15 : Hugo Ruppe , German engineer and engine designer († 1949 )
- August 17 : Alexander Dutow , Cossack leader in the Russian Civil War († 1921 )
- August 17 : Samuel Goldwyn , American film producer († 1974 )
- August 18 : Manuel Arce y Ochotorena , Archbishop of Tarragona and Cardinal († 1948 )
- 23 August : Yevgenia Bogdanovna Bosch , functionary of German descent of the SDAPR († 1925 )
- August 24 : Emmerich Hanus , Austrian film actor, director and producer († 1956 )
- August 24 : Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia , Italian industrial designer and graphic artist († 1959 )
- August 27 : Karl Schapper , German resistance fighter against National Socialism († 1941 )
- August 30 : Hermann Jacobsohn , German classical philologist († 1933 )
- August 30 : Rıza Nur , Turkish politician, historian and doctor († 1942 )
- August 31 : Ida Kerkovius , German painter and tapestry weaver († 1970 )
- August 31 : Alma Mahler-Werfel , Austrian composer († 1964 )
- August 31 : Yoshihito , 123rd Tennō (Emperor) of Japan († 1926 )
- September 1 : Bruno Granichstaedten , Austrian composer († 1944 )
- September 2 : Chung-gun An , Korean Pan-Asianist and nationalist († 1910 )
- September 6 : Johan Nygaardsvold , Norwegian social democratic politician († 1952 )
- September 6 : Max Schreck , German actor († 1936 )
- September 6 : Joseph Wirth , Chancellor of the Weimar Republic († 1956 )
- September 10 : Stanley C. Wilson , American politician († 1967 )
- September 13 : Harry Burton , English photographer († 1940 )
- September 14 : Albert Amann , Baden politician († 1965 )
- September 14 : Margaret Sanger , American suffragette († 1966 )
- September 17 : Adolf Ahrens , German captain and politician († 1957 )
- September 18 : Peter G. Gerry , American politician († 1957 )
- September 20 : Victor Sjöström , Swedish director and actor († 1960 )
- September 21 : Samuel Washington Arnold , American politician († 1961 )
- September 22 : Charles Borel-Clerc , French composer († 1959 )
- September 27 : Gil Andersen , Norwegian-American engineer, racing car driver and automobile manager († 1935 )
- September 27 : Cyril Scott , English composer, pianist and writer († 1970 )
- September 27 : Hans Hahn , Austrian mathematician († 1934 )
- September 27 : Fred Schule , American hurdler and Olympic champion († 1962 )
- September 28 : Benjamin Christensen , Danish director († 1959 )
- September 29 : Willem Willeke , Dutch-American cellist, pianist and music teacher († 1950 )
- September 30 : Johan Falkberget , Norwegian writer († 1967 )
- October 2 : Wilhelm Kosch , Austrian literary historian and lexicographer († 1960 )
- October 2 : Joseph Stoffels , auxiliary bishop in Cologne († 1923 )
- October 2 : Wallace Stevens , American poet and essayist († 1955 )
- October 5 : Francis Peyton Rous , American pathologist († 1970 )
- October 5 : Halfdan Cleve , Norwegian composer († 1951 )
- October 7 : Julius Busch , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1907 )
- October 7th : Herman Nohl , German educator and philosopher († 1960 )
- October 7 : Joe Hill , American labor leader, union activist and song poet († 1915 )
- October 8 : Chen Duxiu , Chinese politician († 1942 )
- October 8 : Joseph Bovet , Swiss composer and priest († 1951 )
- October 9 : Max von Laue , German physicist († 1960 )
- October 10 : Bruno Cicognani , Italian writer († 1971 )
- October 10 : Karl Etlinger , Austrian actor († 1946 )
- October 10 : Eugen Täubler , German ancient historian († 1953 )
- October 11 : Christian Schilling , German national soccer player († 1955 )
- October 12 : Emil Friedrich Adolf Andreae , German historian († 1939 )
- October 13 : Giovanni Piaz , Italian mountaineer († 1948 )
- October 14 : Ewald Hecker , President of the Hanover Chamber of Commerce and later SS-Brigadführer († 1954 )
- October 14 : Miles Franklin , Australian writer († 1954 )
- October 16 : Eduard Hamm , German politician († 1944 )
- October 18 : Grzegorz Fitelberg , Polish composer and conductor († 1953 )
- October 20 : Paul Zaunert , German legend researcher († 1959 )
- October 21 : Joseph Canteloube , French composer, pianist, musicologist († 1957 )
- October 24 : Friedrich Jähne , German engineer and entrepreneur († 1965 )
- October 25 : William Law Anderson , Scottish-American professional golfer († 1910 )
- October 25 : Fritz Haarmann , German serial killer († 1925 )
- October 25 : Alfred Käser , Swiss Evangelist († 1924 )
- October 26 : Oskar Strnad , Austrian set designer, artisan, designer and architect († 1935 )
- October 28 : Channing H. Cox , American politician († 1968 )
- October 28 : Luisa Capetillo , Puerto Rican feminist and anarchist († 1922 )
- October 29 : Franz von Papen , German politician and statesman († 1969 )
- October 31 : Reinhard Piper , German publisher and art historian († 1953 )
- November 1 : Oskar Barnack , German precision mechanic († 1936 )
- November 1 : Pál Teleki , Hungarian scientist and politician († 1941 )
- November 3 : Sir Joseph Addison , British diplomat († 1953 )
- November 3 : Vilhjálmur Stefánsson , Canadian polar researcher and ethnologist († 1962 )
- November 4 : Will Rogers , American comedian and entertainer († 1935 )
- November 5 : Otto Barsch , German geologist and geophysicist († 1946 )
- November 5 : Francesco Bracci , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1967 )
- November 5 : Otto Wahle , Austrian swimmer († 1963 )
- November 7th : Walter Dix , German crop scientist († 1965 )
- November 7 : Lev Dawidowitsch Trotsky , Ukrainian-Russian revolutionary and politician († 1940 )
- November 10 : Nicholas Vachel Lindsay , American writer († 1931 )
- November 10 : Patrick Pearse , Irish teacher, writer and insurgent († 1916 )
- November 11 : Reinhard Machold , Austrian politician († 1961 )
- November 11th : Ludolf Malten , German classical philologist and religious scholar († 1969 )
- November 11 : Heinrich Maria Martin Schäfer , German politician († 1951 )
- November 11 : Heinz Stoffregen , German architect († 1929 )
- November 12 : Wilhelm Schubert , German officer († 1972 )
- November 13 : Henri Miro , Canadian composer of Spanish origin († 1950 )
- November 20 : Heinrich Lilienfein , German writer and General Secretary of the Schiller Foundation Weimar († 1952 )
- November 20 : Franz Pfemfert , German publicist, editor and literary critic († 1954 )
- November 21 : Johannes Nitzsche , German designer of cinema projectors († 1947 )
- November 21 : Taoka Reiun , Japanese cultural and literary critic († 1912 )
- November 23 : Walther Felix Mueller , Mayor of Weimar († 1970 )
- November 23 : Erich Otto Volkmann , German officer, archivist and writer († 1938 )
- November 24 : Eli Filip Heckscher , Swedish economic historian († 1952 )
- November 25 : Maurice Vignerot , French croquet player († 1953 )
- November 26th : Hans Bredow , German radio pioneer († 1959 )
- November 26th : Edgar Katzenstein , German rower († 1953 )
- November 29 : Nikolai Mitrofanowitsch Krylow , Russian-Soviet mathematician († 1955 )
- November 30th : Laura Clifford Barney , American author († 1974 )
- November 30 : Henry Horner , American politician († 1940 )
- December 1 : Blanche DuBuisson , Canadian singer and actress († after 1952)
- December 1 : Ogiwara Rokuzan , Japanese sculptor († 1910 )
- December 4 : Hamilton Harty , Irish composer († 1941 )
- December 5 : Dionisio Kfoury , Syrian auxiliary bishop in Antioch († 1965 )
- December 5 : Clyde Vernon Cessna , American aviation pioneer († 1954 )
- December 6th : Albert Schädelin , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1961 )
- December 10 : Paul Münch , German dialect poet († 1951 )
- December 10 : Ernest Shepard , English illustrator ( Winnie the Pooh ) († 1976 )
- December 12 : Friedrich Christiansen , German aviator general and commander in the Netherlands († 1972 )
- December 14 : Paul Corder , English composer († 1942 )
- December 14 : Hermann Dietrich , German politician († 1954 )
- December 15 : Charles Gray, 5th Earl Gray , son of 4th Earl Gray († 1963 )
- December 15 : Rudolf von Laban , Hungarian dancer, choreographer and dance theorist († 1958 )
- December 15 : Bert H. Miller , American politician († 1949 )
- December 16 : William Barbour Agnew , Scottish football player and football coach († 1936 )
- December 16 : Hans Watzlik , Sudeten German writer († 1948 )
- December 17 : Luigi Durante , Italian football player († 1944 )
- December 18 : Paul Klee , Swiss painter († 1940 )
- December 19 : Emilie Gourd , Swiss women's rights activist († 1946 )
- December 19 : Beals Wright , American tennis player († 1961 )
- December 22nd : Minna Specht , German educator and co-founder and chairwoman of the ISK († 1961 )
- December 24 : Clemente Micara , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1965 )
- December 25 : Igo Etrich , Austrian pilot and aircraft designer († 1967 )
- December 26 : Christie Benet , American politician († 1951 )
- December 26 : Armen Tigranjan , Armenian composer († 1950 )
- December 26 : Julius Weismann , German composer († 1950 )
- December 27 : Karl Appelbaum , German politician († 1961 )
- December 27 : Sydney Greenstreet , British actor († 1954 )
- December 27 : Bunk Johnson , American cornetist and trumpeter († 1949 )
- December 28 : Manuel Arteaga y Betancourt , Archbishop of Havana and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1963 )
- December 28 : Frank Blachford , Canadian violinist, music teacher, conductor and composer († 1957 )
- December 29 : Ellen Gleditsch , Norwegian chemist († 1968 )
- December 30th : Ramana Maharshi , Indian spiritualist and yogi († 1950 )
- December 31 : Albert Werkmüller , German athlete, soccer player and gymnast († unknown)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Sadri Maksudi Arsal , Tatar statesman, legal scholar, thinker and scientist († 1957 )
- Damase DuBuisson , Canadian singer and actor († 1945 )
- Raoul Duquette , Canadian cellist and music teacher († 1962 )
- January 8 : Ferdo Livadić , Croatian composer (* 1799 )
- January 10 : Gustav Schleicher , German-American engineer, entrepreneur and politician (* 1823 )
- January 13 : Jakob Dubs , Swiss politician (* 1822 )
- January 19 : Johann Eduard Heuchler , German architect and builder (* 1801 )
- January 19 : Georg Eduard Steitz , German Protestant theologian and historian (* 1810 )
- January 22nd : Henriette von Bissing , German narrator (* 1798 )
- January 23 : Adolf Jensen , German composer (* 1837 )
- January 24th : Heinrich Geißler , German glassblower, instrument maker and inventor (* 1814 )
- January 27 : John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence , Governor General and Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869 (* 1811 )
- January 29th : Antonio Benedetto Antonucci , Italian Cardinal (* 1798 )
- February 10 : Honoré Daumier , French painter, draftsman and sculptor (* 1808 )
- February 10 : Paul Gervais , French zoologist and paleontologist (* 1816 )
- February 21 : Shir Ali Chan , Emir of Afghanistan (* 1825 )
- February 23 : Josef Arnold the Elder , Austrian painter (* 1788 )
- February 23 : Albrecht von Roon , Prussian general and minister (* 1803 )
- February 25 : Wladimir Georgijewitsch Kastrioto-Skanderbek , Russian composer (* 1820 )
- February 26 : Franz Leopold Sonnenschein , chemist (* 1817 )
- February 26 : Otto Blau , German orientalist (* 1828 )
- March 1 : Joachim Heer , Swiss politician (* 1825 )
- March 3 : William Kingdon Clifford , British philosopher and mathematician (* 1845 )
- March 13 : Adolf Anderssen , German chess master (* 1818 )
- March 16 : George Goldthwaite , American politician (* 1809 )
- March 17th : Jean-Louis Ancrenaz , Swiss politician (* 1814 )
- March 17 : Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach , German natural scientist, zoologist and botanist (* 1793 )
- March 25 : Georg Friedrich Schömann , German classical philologist (* 1793 )
- April 4 : Heinrich Wilhelm Dove , German physicist and meteorologist (* 1803 )
- April 8 : Karl Horn , theologian, co-founder of the Jena Urburschenschaft (* 1794 )
- April 8 : Antonio Panizzi , Italian librarian (* 1797 )
- April 16 : Erik Bodom , Norwegian painter (* 1829 )
- April 16 : Bernadette Soubirous , French nun and saint (* 1844 )
- April 20 : Gawriil Konstantinowitsch Aiwasowski , Russian orientalist (* 1812 )
- April 21 : John Adams Dix , American politician (* 1798 )
- April 21 : Hermann Loew , German entomologist and teacher (* 1807 )
- April 23 : Eugenio Aguilar Gonzalez Batres , head of state of El Salvador (* 1804 )
- April 28th : Thilo Irmisch , German botanist (* 1816 )
- May 4th : William Froude , English naval engineer (* 1810 )
- May 5 : Isaac Butt , Irish lawyer, economist and politician (* 1813 )
- May 5 : Alejandro Ciccarelli , Italian-Chilean painter (* 1811 )
- May 6 : Georg Heinrich Crola , German painter (* 1804 )
- May 7 : Charles De Coster , Belgian writer (* 1827 )
- May 9 : Karolina Gerhardinger , German nun and founder of the order (* 1797 )
- May 12 : Ludwig Angerer , Austrian photographer (* 1827 )
- May 14 : Henry Sewell , first Prime Minister of New Zealand (* 1807 )
- May 15 : George Fife Angas , English businessman, parliamentarian and philanthropist (* 1789 )
- May 15 : Gottfried Semper , German builder (* 1803 )
- May 15 : Jakob Stämpfli , Swiss politician (* 1820 )
- May 18 : Asahel Peck , American politician (* 1803 )
- May 21 : Arturo Prat , Chilean naval hero, corvette captain and lawyer (* 1848 )
- May 24 : William Lloyd Garrison , American writer (* 1805 )
- May 29 : Enoch Wedgwood , English entrepreneur (* 1813 )
- June 1 : Napoléon Eugène Louis Bonaparte , French Emperor (* 1856 )
- June 4 : Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander , German educator and proverb collector (* 1803 )
- June 7 : Siegfried Kapper , Czech writer, translator and doctor of Jewish origin (* 1820 )
- June 9 : Alexander Solovyov , Russian revolutionary (* 1846 )
- June 24th : Franz Xaver Chwatal , Czech composer and music teacher (* 1808 )
- June 26 : Richard Heron Anderson , American general (* 1821 )
- June 27 : Wilhelm Laurop , German forester (* 1804 )
- June: Alexander Cummings , American politician (* 1810 )
- July 6 : Henry Smart , English organist and composer (* 1813 )
- July 6 : Jakob Friedrich Reiff , German philosopher (* 1810 )
- July 9 : Georg Aenotheus Koch , German classical philologist and lexicographer (* 1802 )
- July 11 : William Allen , American politician (* 1803 )
- July 14 : Auguste Barbereau , French composer (* 1799 )
- July 15 : Johann Friedrich von Brandt , German naturalist and zoologist (* 1802 )
- July 18 : William Farquhar Barry , American general (* 1818 )
- July 19 : Louis Favre , Swiss engineer (* 1826 )
- August 1st : Wenzel Babinsky , Bohemian robber (* 1796 )
- August 1 : August Geib , German poet, bookseller and politician (* 1842 )
- August 8 : Immanuel Hermann Fichte , German theologian and philosopher (* 1796 )
- August 24 : John C. Ten Eyck , American politician (* 1814 )
- August 26 : Josep Caixal i Estradé , Bishop of Urgell and Co-Prince of Andorra (* 1803 )
- August 27 : Rowland Hill , reformer of the English postal system (* 1795 )
- August 27 : Henriette Nissen-Saloman , Swedish opera singer (* 1819 )
- August 30 : John Bell Hood , American Civil War general (* 1831 )
- Alphonse Thys , French composer (* 1807 ) August:
- September 2 : Bernhard Becker , Swiss Protestant clergyman and social politician (* 1819 )
- September 5 : Adolf Harleß , German Protestant theologian (* 1806 )
- September 14 : Bernhard von Cotta , German geologist (* 1808 )
- September 30th : Francis Gillette , American politician (* 1807 )
- October 8 : George Vickers , American politician (* 1801 )
- October 13 : Henry Charles Carey , American economist (* 1793 )
- October 14 : Ferdinand Kürnberger , Austrian writer (* 1821 )
- October 15 : George Washington Patterson , American politician (* 1799 )
- October 16 : Sergei Solowjow , Russian historian (* 1820 )
- October 16 : Karl Dernfeld , district master builder in Baden-Baden (* 1831 )
- October 31 : Jacob Abbott , American youth writer and educator (* 1803 )
- October 31 : Joseph Hooker , General of the Northern States in the American Civil War (* 1814 )
- November 5 : James Clerk Maxwell , Scottish physicist (* 1831 )
- November 11th : Louis Désiré Besozzi , French composer, organist and pianist (* 1814 )
- November 12 : Jakob Heine , German physician and discoverer of spinal polio (* 1800 )
- November 16 : Benning W. Jenness , American politician (* 1806 )
- November 18 : Michel Chevalier , French economist and free trader (* 1806 )
- November 19 : Ryszard Wincenty Berwiński , Polish poet (* 1817 )
- November 22nd : Edmund Strother Dargan , American politician (* 1805 )
- November 23 : Maria Caroline Gibert de Lametz , Princess of Monaco (* 1793 )
- November 26th : Charles Spackman Barker , English organ builder (* 1804 )
- December 2 : Ferdinand Lindheimer , German-American botanist, journalist and publisher (* 1801 )
- December 7th : Jón Sigurðsson , Icelandic President (* 1811 )
- December 14 : Heinrich Christian Burckhardt , German forester (* 1811 )
- December 16 : Johann Eduard Wappäus , German geographer and statistician (* 1812 )
- December 18 : Johann Jakob Stehlin , Swiss politician (* 1803 )
- December 31 : George S. Houston , American politician (* 1811 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Ludwig Achenbach , lawyer and politician from Baden (* 1812 )
- Jules Anspach , Belgian lawyer and politician (* 1829)
- Pietro Musone , Italian composer (* 1847 )
- Hans Friedrich Georg Julius Sudendorf , German historian and state archivist (* 1812 )
- Minnie Walton , Australian-American singer and actress (* 1852 )