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Historic shop interior

A shop (also: shop or shop ; English shop ; French boutique ) is a business space in which goods or services are offered commercially for sale .


The shop is a form of business in stationary retail ( retail business ) through which goods are offered to the customer (e.g. supermarkets , vending machines ). The stationary retail trade is a floor trade in which the goods are visible to the customer through their storage or presentation and can therefore be assessed. The sales stand at an exhibition or trade fair is also a shop. This form of sale is considered the classic until the self-service shop caught on.

The shop equipment belonging to the shop is the operating and business equipment of a shop, which technically enables the sale of goods and should also have a sales-promoting effect through its atmospheric design ( shop window ). Slow- moving goods ("bums") are goods in store sales whose inventory turnover rate is low compared to other goods; Opposite are the fast movers ("Renner"). According to commercial law, shop clerks do not necessarily have to have an employment contract like clerks , but can also be relatives of the shop owner .


In Old High German of the 10th century, a latte or board (ahd. "Latto") served as a sales stand, in Middle High German it was transformed into "lade". Back then, a “sales drawer”, lath or board functioned as the counter of a sales stand . Such sales stands can still be seen today, for example, on the Ponte Vecchio in Florence . The medieval shopkeeper sold stuff that originally referred to the stretched or braided protective roof over the wagon of the traveling merchant. Such general stores had been a permanent fixture in urban markets since the early 13th century. They were also called pharmacies , where not only medicines but also spices and pulses were sold. A document from 1294 declares the "apothece" to be almost identical to Gaden, Krambuden or a shop. The most typical shops of the Middle Ages were these general stores , in which pretty much all common goods were offered. The concept of the shop first appeared in 1571.

Johann Christoph Adelung described the use of the word in his dictionary in 1796 as follows: “In the meaning of an enclosed space, only the boutiques of the shopkeepers and rummaging craftsmen in the houses are called shops, where this word is more elegant than the lesser shop or Boutique, but less than the more genteel vault. "In the colonial period offered grocery stores groceries like spices, coffee, cocoa, rice, tobacco, sugar and tea. Napoleon Bonaparte allowed the import of colonial goods into France through the decrees of Saint-Cloud of June 1810. In 1810/1811 Leipzig advanced to become a European hub for colonial goods for a short time. At the Michaelmas Fair in 1810 alone , the total supply of colonial goods brought by Russian and Polish carriers from the Prussian Baltic Sea ports reached 16.3 million thalers. The "purchasing cooperative of colonial goods dealers in the Hallesches Torviertel zu Berlin" (short: Edeka ) was established in October 1898. In order to improve the supply situation in remote villages, the village shop was established during the early days , also as franchising with Edeka. At that time, the grocery stores experienced in the US ( English grocery stores ) flourished, in addition to the general stores ( English general stores existed).

The term grocery store was used in Germany until the 1970s. Although these shops no longer offered colonial goods, they did offer all basic foodstuffs , regardless of the country of origin, as well as soap , detergent and other household items . It corresponded to the corner shop in Germany or Switzerland , while in Austria the term Greißler was used. The Wilhelm Holtorf grocery store in Bremen, which opened in April 1874, is Germany's last grocery store .

For the first time there were more self- service shops than service shops in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 , initially as conversions of existing shops. Within a few years, supermarkets developed into the central point of purchase and displaced those of their size to small shops. Only the specialist shops of the specialist trade proved to be able to survive . The sales-related market share of smaller grocery stores fell from 43% (1985) to 23% (1995). Since then there has been a trend towards shopping in the supermarket or in the discounter , and since the 1990s there has also been a trend towards online retailing . Since then, this has led to a significant reduction in the number of shops, which is known as shop deaths .


The shop in the shop ( English shop-in-shop ) is a special cooperation concept. With this form of horizontal cooperation in retail, a large-scale trading company provides sales space to a smaller, independent trading or service company and, if necessary, also takes on parts of the processing of purchasing and sales. Their product ranges complement each other and increase the acquisition power for each seller involved. Another form of horizontal cooperation is the shop community. Several independent shops complementing each other in terms of their range are in spatial, organizational and / or advertising association. A special form of the store community is the community warehouse , whose "departments" are run by independent retailers, but whose overall appearance is determined by a central management.

In vertical cooperation, (partial) ranges from manufacturers (often of branded products ) are integrated into the sales areas and, as a rule, they are also managed by them themselves. The concept serves to profile both the manufacturer's brand and that of the trading company. Another special form of vertical co-operation inside the storefront is (by Pfleger shelf English rack jobber ) realized. This includes external specialists who refill the shelves for parts of the range and, if necessary, carry out the price labeling according to the retailer's specifications.

Ask the store design, namely the store appearance ( english layout exterior, exterior design ) as the shop interior ( english layout interior, interior design ) are important areas of decision for the commercial management. Since the outside of the shop and - to a greater extent - the inside of the shop have a direct impact on the mood of potential buyers, both are suitable for design from a commercial psychological perspective. However, the moods of customers are neither uniform nor generally known. Therefore, as a compromise, the simultaneous use of activating, stimulating elements (bright lighting, intense and warm colors, original forms of product presentation, etc.) and deactivating, relaxing elements (subtle lighting, cold colors, clear product areas, etc.)

Legal issues

The term shop is also a legal term . Since the goods in a shop belong to the shopkeeper, but not to the shop clerks, a regulation had to be found that also empowers employed salespeople to sell the property of their shopkeeper. Anyone who is employed in a shop or in an open warehouse is, in accordance with Section 56 of the German Commercial Code (HGB), as authorized to make sales and receipts that usually occur in such a shop or warehouse. In this context, the shop is understood to be a point of sale which is intended for free entry for the public and for the conclusion of business transactions with shop staff. It is a sham power of attorney that does not have to be based on an employment relationship , so that relatives of the shopkeeper also fall under this provision. It is sufficient if someone works in the shop with the knowledge and will of the business owner. An irrefutable presumption for the power of attorney is established by § 56 HGB .

Special laws deal with shop closing , which uniformly regulates shop opening times , or shoplifting , which is criminally considered a subtype of theft .

economic aspects

Shops are part of the retail trade , where the size of a shop is measured by its sales area. Retail operations are large within the meaning of Section 11 Paragraph 3 Clause 1 No. 2 BauNVO if they exceed a sales area of ​​800 m². According to that judgment are retail space, the actual sales room , the bar and the checkout zone ( english front doors ) and the warehouse with the area of packaging and disposal ( English backstore ). The sales area in turn consists of the shelves and the contact lines in between . The largest retail operations are therefore department stores , hypermarkets , shopping centers and supermarkets , which as large-scale retailers are not considered shops in the narrower sense. Rather, typical shops are owner -operated shops equipped with advice options with a sales area of ​​up to 100 m². In this segment today there are especially organic shops , bistros , cafés , one-euro shops , snack bars and kiosks . With a smaller retail space, there is a higher level of social interaction . The location is particularly favorable when there is a high concentration of shops, as is the case with the mall . For pedestrian traffic , the location of a business plays a decisive role.

The retail space is an essential criterion for the scope of the range and thus - with constant inventory turnover - for the maximum achievable sales . The inventory turnover rate can be improved by switching to just-in-time delivery , shortening order cycles for suppliers , introducing mail-order business or a consistent product range policy through “ fast- selling” lists with prioritization of “ fast-moving ” (“ fast- moving”) and Discontinuation of " slow movers " ("bums"). The store opening times are the most important criterion for sales, along with pedestrian frequency.

Forms, characteristics

Toy replicas from shops are usually called shop . There is also occasional mention of virtual shops in connection with online trading . Other forms of expression in the trade are or were:

The space of the shop does not necessarily have to coincide with the sales area . In addition to the sales room, a shop can also include other parts of the merchant's business, e.g. B. at the car dealership , the sales room for the new cars and the exhibition space for the used cars as well as the workshop .

See also


  • T. James, Karla L. Murray: Store Front - The disappearing Face of New York . Gingko Press, Corte Madera 2009, ISBN 978-1-58423-227-8 . ( Review by Marc Pitzke with photos. Spiegel, 2009; book English)
  • Lisa Fuhr, Ursula Jeshel: My shop - my life. Trade and change in Munich. Buchendorfer Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-937090-10-X .

Web links

Wiktionary: Laden  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Stores  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Compact Lexicon Marketing Practice. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 2013, p. 167. (
  2. ^ Gabler's Economic Lexicon. Volume 4, Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, 1984, p. 3.
  3. Compact Lexicon Marketing Practice. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 2013, p. 167.
  4. Gerhard Köbler : Etymological legal dictionary. 1995, p. 242.
  5. Georg Schwedt: What is really inside? Products from the supermarket. 2006. (
  6. Friedrich Böhmer, in: Archive for Frankfurt's History and Art. Volume III, 1865, p. 288.
  7. Ludwig Berekoven: History of the German retail trade. 1987, p. 25.
  8. Emil Öhmann (Ed.): Simon Roths Fremdsprachverzeichnis. 1936, p. 100 ff.
  9. Johann Christoph Adelung: Grammatical-critical dictionary of the High German dialect. Volume 2, Leipzig 1796, p. 1864. (
  10. ^ Richard Konetzke, Hermann Kellenbenz: Yearbook for the history of the state, economy and society of Latin America. Volume 32, 1995, p. 297.
  11. ↑ Grocery store saved. In: Weser courier. June 1, 2016. (
  12. ^ Frank Bösch: Divided history: East and West Germany 1970-2000. 2015, p. 244. (
  13. ^ Lothar Müller-Hagedorn: The trade: basics - management - strategies. 1998, p. 102.
  14. Hans-Otto Schenk: Market economics of trade. Wiesbaden 1991, p. 287 ff.
  15. Hans-Otto Schenk: Psychology in trade. 2nd Edition. Munich / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58379-3 .
  16. Knut Werner Lange: Basic knowledge of civil commercial law. 2012, p. 233. (
  17. BGH NJW 1975, 2191 , 2192 = BGH, judgment of September 24, 1975, Az .: VIII ZR 74/74
  18. ^ Claus Wagner, in: Volker Röhricht , Friedrich Graf von Westphalen : Commentary on the HGB. 2013, § 56 Rn. 2
  19. BVerwG, judgment of November 24, 2005, Az .: 4 C 14.04
  20. Oliver Blank: Development of the retail trade in Germany. 2004, p. 132.
  21. Dirk Dalichau: Rationalization in consumption. 2016, p. 224.
  22. ^ Willy Schneider, Alexander Hennig: Lexicon of key figures for marketing and sales. 2008, p. 210.