A kiosk (borrowed from French kiosque before the 18th century , from Italian chiosco , from Ottoman كوشك Köšk "garden pavilion", from Persian کوشک Kūšk ) is now commonly used to denote a small sales point in the form of a house or stall. One example is the pump room .
Originally a kiosk was a freestanding pavilion opened on several sides in parks and palaces in the Islamic cultural area. In the technical language of architecture and landscape architecture , the term still has this meaning today.
The traditional floor plan was often polygonal or square with several arched openings. In terms of function and form, there are more or less close relationships to a pavilion, a pergola or an oriental tent. “Most of the buildings were single story and only had one room; other, somewhat larger buildings were equipped with an additional floor, several rooms, a pillared vestibule or arcades running all around . "
The origin of the word kiosk is in Middle Persian kūšk , which translates into New Persian (كوشك) and called a pavilion or a summer house . From there, the term found its way into Ottoman with the same spelling and as köşk into modern Turkish . Both meanings have been preserved in the Turkish language. In the early 18th century, the word was translated into French and changed to kiosque; from there it was adopted into other European languages and also into German.
The word kiosk was already known in Germany in the 18th century, but was only associated with Ottoman architecture. According to Johann Georg Krünitz , this was understood to mean “a building by the Turks, which consists of a number of columns that are not too high, which are set so that they surround a [...] room that is covered with a tent roof [...]. The Turks use such pleasure buildings or open halls in their gardens and on hills to enjoy the fresh air and a pleasant view. ”The term“ pleasure building ”refers to the activity of pleasure strolling .
At the beginning of the 19th century in German it was already understood to be garden pavilions, “from which one can enjoy the view of a beautiful landscape [...] so that they provide some protection against the weather and sun rays and at the same time provide a friendly look themselves. They usually consist of some rough pillars of tree trunks, which support a roof of straw or wood, and are bordered at the bottom with a simple railing. "
After 1900 the pavilions went out of fashion as viewpoints and the term was carried over to small stalls in the cities.
Kiosk-like buildings have existed in Persia , India and the Ottoman Empire since the 13th century . In the Topkapi Saray in Istanbul are some examples obtained (Çinili kiosk of 1466, Revan- and Baghdad Kiosk of 1635, Kiosk of Kara Mustafa Pasha in the 18th century and kiosk of the Abd ul-Mejid of 1840). The oriental kiosks were important elements of the garden architecture and served the wealthy as summer houses in their private complexes. With the end of the Ottoman Empire , interest in this form of court architecture was lost.
In the course of the preference for the Asian-Oriental style in the 18th century, the design - mostly free standing on pillars and closed on the sides with latticework - came to Europe as part of the landscaped parks that many rulers had created. They are mentioned for the first time in England.
There are also examples of kiosk buildings in the facilities of Stanislaus I , Duke of Lorraine and Bar in Lunéville , and of the French King Louis XV. Striking examples in Germany include a. the Chinese House in Potsdam, begun in 1755, as well as those built by Ludwig II of Bavaria near Linderhof Palace or in the winter garden of the Munich Residence .
In the 19th century the kiosk found its way into the large public parks of Paris as a sales pavilion and later on the large boulevards . At first only newspapers and flowers were sold here, later also refreshments. The new word tabloid also originated here. Some of these famous Parisian kiosques still exist today. In Greece, the name of the kiosk ( Periptero ) is derived from the temple design Peripteros .
In common parlance in German since the 19th century , the kiosk has been equated with a small sales stall selling tobacco products, sweets, drinks, newspapers, etc. In the Ruhr area and in the Rhineland , as well as in the Hanover area , such kiosks are also called drinking halls , in the Rhine-Main area water houses, elsewhere Bude or Büdchen. The oldest German sales kiosks offered drinks, and newspapers only since the beginning of the 20th century. The listed Magdeburg cream rose is well known . There are currently (2019) 385 kiosks in the Hanover region, around 300 of which are in the city of Hanover, some of which are listed buildings.
The bookseller Frédéric Zahn is considered to be the father of the kiosk business in Switzerland, who was inspired by the colporteurs in 1883 and opened the first Swiss kiosk in Le Locle train station. These offered their goods for sale over the counter in the employment relationship of the major daily newspapers. With the increasing importance of rail transport, the profession spread via France and Italy to French and Italian-speaking Switzerland. Zahn made the movement his own by selling books and newspapers to commuters at the Le Locle train station with the help of a table. In doing so, he laid the foundation stone for the largest kiosk operator in Europe, the Valora Group with almost 2,000 sales outlets in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Luxembourg.
Although today often associated with the sale of alcoholic beverages, the early kiosks were associated with the anti-alcohol movement. On the one hand, this applies to mineral water houses, which have been selling carbonated water since the 1840s, and later also lemonades and ice cream. On the other hand, hundreds of dairy houses have been built since the turn of the century, especially in the industrial region of Rhineland-Westphalia. The collapse of the milk supply during and after World War I led to an expansion of the range. However, alcohol only became common after World War II.
In the 1950s, the Waldner company built a total of 50 kiosks in the shape of a toadstool , which were originally intended to sell dairy products and were also exported. Some of the examples that still exist today are now under monument protection .
Operating a kiosk in Germany usually only requires a business registration , so that this can be achieved quickly and easily for every person without further permission. Depending on the equipment and range of the kiosk, there may be additional requirements for e.g. B. toilets, alcohol sales etc. must be fulfilled; in some cases a more extensive restaurant license may then be necessary.
Ancient Egyptian kiosk
In ancient Egyptian architecture, buildings that were used to temporarily store shrines during processions are also technically called kiosks (for example the kiosk Sesostris' I in Karnak , also called the White Chapel ).
- Dieter Arnold : Lexicon of Egyptian Architecture , Artemis & Winkler, Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-7608-1099-3
- Dieter Arnold: The temples of Egypt: dwellings, places of worship, architectural monuments , Artemis and Winkler, Zurich 1992, ISBN 3-86047-215-1
- Hans Bonnet: Kiosk , in: Lexikon der Ägyptischen Religionsgeschichte , Nikol, Hamburg 2000, p. 376, ISBN 3-937872-08-6 .
- Julia Franke, Clemens Niedenthal: Kiosk Culture - The Place. The things. The people of Aschenbeck and Holstein, Delmenhorst 2004, ISBN 978-3-932292-69-9 (For the exhibition "Kiosk Culture - The Place. The Things. The People", Museums of the City of Delmenhorst , November 28, 2004 to January 30, 2005)
- Elisabeth Naumann: kiosk. Discoveries in an everyday place. From the pleasure pavilion to small consumption , Jonas, Marburg 2003, ISBN 3-89445-322-2 (also dissertation at the Free University of Berlin 1999)
- Uwe Ruprecht u. a .: Kiosk - a casual place , Schack, Dortmund / Parega, Düsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-929983-07-9 (Schack) / ISBN 3-930450-28-3 (Parega) (= Archive das Alltags , Volume 7) .
- Listed kiosks . In: ZEITmagazin , No. 36/2016; from the series Map of Germany .
- “I would never move to a city that has no booths” ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). Interview with the author Sabine Werz. In: Stadtrevue Cologne , No. 3, 2006
- Kiosk. In: Wolfgang Pfeifer u. a .: Etymological dictionary of German. 8th edition. dtv, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-32511-9 , p. 655.
- Elisabeth Naumann, kiosk. From the pleasure pavilion to the small temple of consumption, Marburg 2003, p. 14
- The Turkish term köşe , which is often quoted in this context, comes from the Persian gūše (گوشه, 'Angle, corner'), which begins with the word gūš (گوش, 'Ear').
- Elisabeth Naumann, Kiosk, p. 10
- Krünitz's Economic Encyclopedia, Article Kiosk
- Der Brockhaus, 1837, article kiosk
- Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1905, article kiosk
- Elisabeth Naumann, Kiosk, Marburg 2003
- Kiosk Guide - News. Retrieved December 22, 2019 .
- Three kiosks in Hanover under monument protection. Retrieved August 21, 2018 .
- "Drink for drink!" Bourgeois alternatives to the alcohol consumption of the workers. Uwe Spiekermann, May 16, 2018
- A mushroom under monument protection - Bavaria plus
- Milk from the fly agaric German Foundation for Monument Protection
- IHK Cologne : Restaurant opening (PDF)