A tabloid is a periodic high edition appearing printed product , which only limited reliability is attributed. The first representatives of the genre were only available for purchase on the street ( boulevard ) , not by subscription (see also the newspaper ). Following on from the tabloid newspaper, the term tabloid journalism has established itself and is now a separate genre in journalism .
The San Francisco Examiner, published since 1865, is occasionally referred to as the first scandalous paper in newspaper history. The English name, derived from the typical paper format, is tabloid journalism .
Origin and history
On October 22, 1904, BZ am Mittag was the first tabloid newspaper to be sold on the street for the German newspaper market. BZ stands for Berliner Zeitung . The first edition of the Illustrierte Kronen Zeitung , the newspaper with the highest circulation in Austria , appeared in 1901 ; Back then, the newspaper relied on novels and games for customer loyalty . A tabloid in the Weimar Republic in the 1920s and 1930s was the Berlin newspaper " Tempo " , which appeared up to three times a day. In Austria, new popular daily newspapers such as Die Hour , Der Abend and Der Tag boomed in the early 1920s, and they distinguished themselves from the Kronen Zeitung through broad political reporting and a left-wing or liberal editorial.
The first tabloid in Germany after the Second World War was the regional Hamburger Morgenpost owned by the SPD . Its first issue appeared on September 16, 1949. In 1952, the national tabloid Bild des Verlagers Axel Springer ( Axel Springer Verlag ) appeared for the first time . It made it to the daily newspaper with the highest circulation in Europe. Numerous tabloids established themselves in German-speaking countries ( Blick from Switzerland), including many with a regional reference ( Abendzeitung from Munich).
The Americanist Gert Raeithel explains the origin of the term yellow press from the 1890s in his three-volume history of North American culture with the “press war” of the end of the 19th century: In New York, the publisher James Gordon Bennett regularly tried the circulation of the Herald through spectacular campaigns to increase. At the same time there was the comic series [At the Circus in] Hogan's Alley by the illustrator Richard Outcault in the New York World of the publisher Joseph Pulitzer with a yellow colored figure called The Yellow Kid , who described everyday life in the immigrant neighborhoods of Manhattan . Pulitzer also relied on activities such as world trips by its reporters and used them to finance the foundation of the Statue of Liberty, for example . When Outcault moved to the New York Journal of publisher William Randolph Hearst in 1896 , a yellow-colored comic was also printed there in the Sunday editions. Around 1900, all newspapers belonging to the sensation press initially printed yellowish comics.
Characteristics and layout
In terms of newspaper typology, tabloids (also disparagingly " Revolverblatt ") are viewed as a hybrid of information and news press, commercially oriented press and political opinion press, which are characterized by specific linguistic and creative characteristics. Tabloids often have sensation- oriented presentations, large headlines and large photos. Flashy colors and bold headlines are used. The title page is often designed clearly. Images and headlines occupy the predominant place in most tabloids , the texts are usually short and are often condensed with a high level of language economy . Background information is often not given.
The tabloids mainly deal with topics that are likely to arouse emotions. Messages with a clearly relevant subject are personified, emotionalized (e.g. a less significant emotional component is assigned to the core message) and sometimes also scandalized . Police and court reports, celebrities and sports are given special attention in the boulevard area .
The coverage of celebrities mainly revolves around love relationships , public scandals and personal suffering such as illness , accidents or aging .
In various countries, tabloids portray women shirtless or naked. In Great Britain there is the so-called Page Three girl (German: “Mädchen von Seite drei”). The Sun newspaper introduced the "Page three girl" and later protected the name. But also in German tabloids such as "BILD" are often naked or little dressed women depicted.
Reports on sporting events and athletes are also often in the style typical of tabloids.
In Italy , the newspapers La Gazzetta dello Sport , Corriere dello Sport - Stadio and Tuttosport have established themselves as pure sports tabloids with high circulation every day .
In Portugal , the two daily newspapers with the highest circulation, A Bola and Record , are also sports tabloids.
See also: Nikkan Sports (Japan), Sport (Czech daily newspaper) , Sport (Austrian daily newspaper) (only 7 June to 8 July 2004).
The tabloid market
German language area
The German tabloid market consists of a total of eight daily and four weekly ( Bild am Sonntag , BZ am Sonntag , Hamburger Morgenpost am Sonntag and Sonntag Express ) tabloids. Most stocks are primarily active in local or regional markets. Only Bild und Bild am Sonntag distribute a national edition with extensive distribution in addition to a series of regional editions and can therefore be regarded as a national newspaper.
- Abendzeitung München (discontinued in Nuremberg in 2012) (Die Abendzeitung)
- Abendpost / Nachtausgabe Frankfurt ( Frankfurter Societät ), discontinued in 1988
- The evening Berlin, discontinued in 1981
- Berliner Kurier ( Berliner Verlag , part of M. DuMont Schauberg )
- BZ Berlin ( Axel Springer SE )
- Image (Axel Springer SE)
- Bild am Sonntag (Axel Springer SE)
- Express Cologne, Bonn, Düsseldorf (M. DuMont Schauberg)
- Hamburger Morgenpost (M. DuMont Schauberg)
- Morgenpost Sachsen Dresden, Chemnitz (DD + V Media Group Dresden)
- Excellent! ( Burda-Verlag ), discontinued in 1992
- tz Munich (newspaper publisher tz Munich)
- Today ( Vienna ) free of charge ( AHW Verlags GmbH. )
- Kronen newspaper
- Blick ( Ringier AG )
- 20 minutes ( Tamedia , free)
- Blick am Abend (printed 2008-2018, then only online)
- Le Matin (in French, only online since 2018)
- Private ( press Nicolas )
English speaking area
- News of the World , discontinued as a result of the News International scandal in 2011
- The Sun
- Daily Mail
- Daily Express
- Daily Star
- Daily Mirror
- The Sunday People
- New York Post
- San Francisco Examiner (since 1865; free newspaper since 2004 )
- Paris Match
- France Dimanche
Other language areas
- Komsomolskaya Pravda (RUS)
- Fact (PL) ( Axel Springer Polska )
- Hürriyet (TR)
- Sabah (TR)
- Blesk (CZ)
- Aha! (CZ)
- Nový Čas (SK) ( Ringier Slovakia as)
- Plus every deň (SK)
- Aftonbladet (SE)
- Expressen (SE)
- Verdens Gang (NO)
- Bergensavisen (NO)
- Dagbladet (NO)
- De Telegraaf (NL)
- Ekstra Bladet (DK)
- Click! (RO)
- Kurir (SRB)
- 24 sata (HR)
- La Cuarta (Chile)
- El Extra (Ecuador)
- Rainbow press
- Scoop (journalism) - an exclusive message that one medium spreads earlier than other media
- Jürgen Alberts : The mass press as an ideology factory. Using the example of “BILD” (= social science paperbacks ), Athenäum, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-7610-5828-7 (153 pages, 22 cm); Paperback edition: (= Fischer Athenaeum pocket books, 4059: Social Sciences ). Athenäum-Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-8072-4059-4 (Dissertation University of Bremen, Department of Communication and Aesthetics, Study Area 5, 1973, 153,  pages with illustrations, 19 cm).
- Urs Jaeggi : Capital and Labor in the Federal Republic. Elements of an analysis of society as a whole (= Fischer 6510 texts on political theory and practice ). Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1973, ISBN 3-436-01685-3 (Up to the 135th thousand as: Power and rule in the Federal Republic. ).
- Bernd Jansen , Arno Klönne (Ed.): Imperium Springer. Power and manipulation. Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1968 DNB 457055065
- Klaus Beck, Simon Berghofer, Leyla Dogruel, Janine Greyer: Economic reporting in the tabloid press. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-531-18615-3 .
- Fabian Virchow : “Demand and support“ - On the gratification, sanction and justice discourse in the BILD newspaper . In: U. Wischermann, T. Thomas (Ed.) Media - Diversity - Inequality. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2008. doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-531-90860-1_13
- Hermann Meyn : Mass Media in Germany. New edition. UVK Verlags-Gesellschaft, Konstanz 2001, ISBN 3-8966-9299-2 .
- Ekkehart Mittelberg : Vocabulary and syntax of the Bild newspaper (= Marburg contributions to German studies. Volume 19, ISSN 0542-6499 ). Elwert, Marburg 1967 (Dissertation University of Marburg, Philosophical Faculty, July 6, 1966, 324 pages with illustrations, size 8).
- Ekkehart Mittelberg: Language in the tabloid press. Analyzed in German lessons from the 10th grade onwards. 4. Pressure. Klett, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-12-925830-2 .
- Neil Postman : We're having a great time . Formation of judgment in the age of the entertainment industry . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-10-062407-6 .
- Dieter Prokop : Media Power and Mass Effect. A historical overview (= Rombach Science. Series: Litterae. Vol. 34). Rombach, Freiburg (Breisgau) 1995, ISBN 3-7930-9115-5 .
- Johannes Raabe : tabloid press . In: Günter Bentele, Hans-Bernd Brosius, Ottfried Jarren (eds.): Lexicon of communication and media studies . VS, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 978-3-531-13535-9 .
- Annamaria Rucktäschel (Ed.): Language and Society (= Uni-Taschenbücher 131 Linguistics ). Fink, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-77050-639-1 .
- Günter Wallraff : The lead story. The man who was at BILD Hans Esser. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1977, ISBN 3-46202-663-1 .
- Literature on the subject of tabloids in the catalog of the German National Library
- Thomas Lückerath: Instructions: Angled Yellow Press, it's that easy. on: DWDL.de , August 12, 2009.
- ↑ What Ambrose Bierce saw of Shiloh. In: The time. 26/1999, on: zeit.de , June 24, 1999.
- ^ Raeithel, Gert: History of North American Culture. Volume 2. From the Civil War to the New Deal. 1860-1930. Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt am Main 1995, pages 102-106.
- ↑ cf. Beck, Klaus, Berghofer, Simon, Dogruel, Leyla, Greyer, Janine (2012): Economic coverage in the tabloid press . Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Pp. 17-18
- ↑ cf. Raabe, Johannes (2006): Tabloid Press . In: bentele, Günter; Brosius, Hans-Benrd; Jarren, Ottfried (Hrsg.): Lexicon of communication and media studies . Wiesbaden: VS
- ↑ cf. Beck, Klaus, Berghofer, Simon, Dogruel, Leyla, Greyer, Janine: economic reporting in the tabloid press. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2012, pp. 20-23.
- ↑ "Abendzeitung Nürnberg" is discontinued
- ↑ These are the best Swiss media. In: Persoenlich.com , September 20, 2016.
- ↑ Klatsch und Klatsch , sueddeutsche.de
- ↑ Closer
- ↑ Voici