1901

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1901
Leon Czolgosz shoots President McKinley at the Pan-American exhibition Drawing of Theodore Roosevelt's inaugurations, 1901After the assassination of William McKinley , Theodore Roosevelt becomes the youngest President of the United States to date.
The first session of the Australian Parliament opens
The Commonwealth of Australia is founded.
Boxer protocol
After the defeat in the Boxer War, China has to pay the boxer's compensation .
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
The first Nobel Prize in Physics goes to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
1901 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1349/50 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1893/94 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Baha'i calendar 57/58 (turn of the year 20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1306/07 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2444/45 (southern Buddhism); 2443/44 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Metal Ox辛丑 ( since February 19 , before that Metal Rat庚子)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1263/64 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4234/35 (2-3 October)
Iranian calendar 1279/80 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1318/19 (April 20-21)
Japanese calendar Meiji 34 ( 明治 34 年);
Kōki 2561
Jewish calendar 5661/62 (September 13-14)
Coptic calendar 1617/18 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1076/77
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1316/17 (March 1st)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2211/12 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2212/13 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2443/44 (April 1)
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1957/58 (turn of the year April)

The year 1901 marks the beginning of the 20th century . Nobel Prizes are awarded for the first time . The winners include Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen for his discovery of X-rays and Emil von Behring for his research into diphtheria . Henri Dunant gets along with the "apostle of peace" Frédéric Passy the Nobel Peace Prize .

The suffragettes celebrate their first success: In Norway women’s right to vote is introduced in local elections.

A new nation is founded in the southern hemisphere: the previously independent areas of New South Wales , Victoria , Queensland , South Australia , Western Australia and Tasmania merge to form the state of Australia (Commonwealth of Australia) .

After the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion by the western colonial powers, Japan and Russia , China is forced to sign the humiliating Boxer Protocol.

events

Politics and world events

Deutsches Reich

Europe

Africa

  • January 31st: The British start building concentration camps in South Africa where they intern the Boers.
  • February 23: Great Britain and the German Empire agree on the border between Lake Nyassa and Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa.
  • March 10th: French troops occupy the Moroccan oasis of Talmima.
  • April 15: Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen is appointed the new governor of the German colony of East Africa .
  • July 17: The Belgian State secures a fundamental right to acquire privately owned by the king located Congo colony .
  • November 19: German troops suppress a Fulbe uprising in the Cameroon colony near Garua .
  • November 28: Great Britain and Italy agree in Rome on the demarcation of their colonies in Sudan and Eritrea .

America

Asia

Australia and Oceania

business

Oil boom

  • January 10: A huge oil fountain shoots up during a drilling on Spindletop Hill near Beaumont in Texas , tripling US oil production overnight and creating the Texan oil companies (including Texaco ).
  • May 28: William Knox D'Arcy receives a 60-year concession to explore oil fields in Iran for £ 20,000 in cash and £ 20,000 in shares .

Money and economic crisis

  • June 25: The bankruptcy of the Leipziger Bank plunges the state of Saxony into a severe economic and government crisis . After the scandal, distrust of financial institutions grew in the German Reich. The bank files for bankruptcy on June 26th.

Business start-ups

traffic

Angels Flight in their original location
  • The Angels Flight funicular goes into operation in Los Angeles . At this point in time it was considered to be the shortest railway line in the world.

Other economic events

The Ville de Paris in the Grand Palais

science and technology

Antarctic exploration

Golden Age of Antarctic Research

Natural sciences

psychology

Others

Culture

architecture

Visual arts

Paul Gauguin : And the gold of their bodies , 1901, oil on canvas
Paul Cézanne: Skull pyramid , oil on canvas

literature

Music and theater

Others

company

  • January 1st: The port hospital in Hamburg goes into operation.
  • January 11th: The König-Friedrich-Stiftung is established by the Berlin city ​​council. It was financed with 1 million marks to improve the poor housing situation in the capital.
  • February 7th: Queen Wilhelmina marries the German Duke Heinrich zu Mecklenburg in the Netherlands .
Müllersches Volksbad

religion

  • February 22: The Russian writer Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy is expelled from the Russian Orthodox Church for blasphemous statements in his novel Resurrection . There were crowds and demonstrations for Tolstoy in Moscow and Saint Petersburg .
  • March 22nd: Adalbert Endert , Bishop of Fulda , announced in a pastoral letter that he rejects marriages between Catholics and Protestants and will only tolerate them if a Catholic wedding takes place and the hoped-for children are baptized Catholics. The Protestant regional churches sharply criticize the pastoral letter.
  • May 17: The clerical press threatens to boycott school lessons after the Bavarian state government rejected the plan by Catholic bishops to dismiss Catholic teachers who live in "mixed marriages" and have their children raised in Protestant schools.
  • May 30th: Foundation of the Altoona-Johnstown Diocese
  • October 9: The Italian government forbids the clergy to use churches for non-religious purposes, especially for political purposes.
  • October 17: For denominational reasons, the University of Strasbourg doubles the chair for modern history with the Protestant Friedrich Meinecke and the Catholic Martin Spahn .

Disasters

  • February 22nd: The American liner City of Rio de Janeiro sinks in San Francisco Bay after colliding with an underwater rock. 138 of the 220 people on board are killed. The sinking of the City of Rio de Janeiro is considered to be the worst shipwreck in the San Francisco Bay Area to date .
  • May 3: A fire breaks out in a mattress factory in Jacksonville, Florida , which one believes can be mastered with a few buckets of water. The flames spread faster than expected, and an eight-hour fire ultimately destroyed 2,368 houses in the city and made around 10,000 residents homeless.
  • August 15: Canadian passenger steamer Islander rams an iceberg in the Lynn Canal and sinks in 15 minutes, killing 40 passengers and crew.
  • November 16: In severe storms 33 ships sink off the British coast, drowning 187 people.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .

Sports

For entries of athletics world records, see the respective discipline under athletics .

Nobel Prizes

In 1901 the Nobel Prizes , endowed in his will by Alfred Nobel , were awarded for the first time .

price person country Reason for awarding the prize picture
Nobel Price for physics Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
(1845–1923)
Deutsches ReichThe German Imperium Deutsches Reich "In recognition of the extraordinary merit that he has earned through the discovery of the rays named after him " Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
Nobel Prize in Chemistry Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
(1852-1911)
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands "In recognition of the extraordinary merit he has earned through the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions" Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Emil von Behring
(1854–1917)
Deutsches ReichThe German Imperium Deutsches Reich "For his work on serum therapy and especially for its application against diphtheria , with which he opened up new avenues for medical science and gave the doctor a successful weapon in the fight against illness and death" Emil von Behring
Nobel Prize in Literature 1901 Sully Prudhomme
(1839-1907)
FranceFrance France "In recognition of his excellent services as a writer, which he also demonstrated in later years, and especially his poetry, which testifies to a high level of idealism, artistic perfection and a rare union of heart and mind" Sully Prudhomme
Nobel Peace Prize Henry Dunant
(1828-1910)
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross Henry Dunant
Frédéric Passy
(1822-1912)
FranceFrance France Founder of the "French Society of Friends of Peace" (" International Peace League ") Frédéric Passy

Born

January

Elisabeth Schwarzhaupt (right) 1963
Fulgencio Batista, 1952
Willy Fritsch, 1927

February

Clark Gable, 1943
Linus Pauling, 1962

March

Carl Barks, 1994
Erich Ollenhauer, Bonn 1954
  • March 27: Erich Ollenhauer , SPD party chairman and chairman of the SPD parliamentary group († 1963)
  • March 27: Satō Eisaku , 61st to 63rd Prime Minister of Japan († 1975)
  • March 28: Märtha of Sweden , Swedish princess and crown princess of Norway († 1954)
  • March 29: Sidney Arodin , American jazz clarinetist and composer († 1948)
  • March 30: Ali Razmara , General and Prime Minister of Iran († 1951)

April

May

Gary Cooper

June

Sukarno
  • 0June 6: Sukarno , Indonesian politician († 1970)
  • 0June 7th: Laura Rodig , Chilean painter and sculptor († 1972)
  • 0June 8: Ernst Mayer , German politician († 1952)
  • 0June 9: Sammy Newsome , British racing car driver († 1970)
  • June 10: Frederick Loewe , American composer († 1988)
  • June 13: Emil Belzner , German journalist and writer († 1979)
  • June 13: Tage Erlander , Swedish Prime Minister († 1985)
  • June 13: Paul Fässler , Swiss football player († 1983)
  • June 13: Mikhail Starokadomski , Russian composer († 1954)
  • June 14: Werner Hausmann , Swiss actor, television presenter, author, radio play director and speaker († 1991)
  • June 14: Heinrich Rempel , German prehistorian († 1978)
  • June 15: Lutz Mackensen , German philologist and lexicographer († 1992)
  • June 16: Conrad Beck , Swiss composer († 1989)
  • June 16: Henri Lefebvre , French Marxist sociologist, intellectual and philosopher († 1991)
  • June 16: Otto Waffenschmied , Austrian illustrator and comic artist († 1971)
  • June 18: Anastasia Nikolajewna Romanowa , daughter of the last Russian tsar, Nicholas II († 1918)
  • June 19: Herbert Krebs , German forester and hunting author († 1980)
  • June 19: Erwin Henning , German painter († 1993)
  • June 19: Piero Gobetti , Italian publicist, politician, anti-fascist († 1926)
  • June 20: Willy Gebhardt , German editor and politician (SED) († 1973)
  • June 20: Ernest White , Canadian organist and organ builder, choir director and music teacher († 1980)
  • June 21: Red Dunn , American football player († 1957)
  • June 22nd: Hans Hinkel , journalist and ministerial official († 1960)
  • June 22nd: Luise Albertz , German politician († 1979)
  • June 22nd: Luís Armando Rivera , Dominican composer, pianist and violinist († 1986)
  • June 23: Franz Ruland , Saarland politician of the CVP († 1964)
  • June 23: Otto Heckmann , German astronomer († 1983)
  • June 23: Paul Verhoeven , German actor, director and theater director († 1975)
  • June 24th: Marcel Mule , French saxophonist and composer († 2001)
  • June 25: Chester Arthur Arnold , American paleobotanist and botanist († 1977)
  • June 26: Jean Boyer , French director and screenwriter († 1965)
  • June 26: Leon Raszeja , lawyer, younger brother of Franciszek Raszeja and Maksymilian Raszeja († 1939)
  • June 27: Merle Antony Tuve , American physicist and geophysicist († 1982)
  • June 27: Rudolf Zender , Swiss painter, graphic artist and draftsman († 1988)
  • June 28: Kurt Helbig , German weightlifter († 1975)
  • June 28: Alfred Müller-Armack , German economist and cultural sociologist († 1978)
  • June 30: Niklot Beste , bishop in the GDR († 1987)
  • June 30: Rex Waite , British Air Force officer († 1975)

July

August

Louis Armstrong, 1953

September

Enrico Fermi

October

Hermann Josef Abs, 1970s

November

Leopold III.

December

Walt Disney, 1954
  • 0December 5th: Walt Disney , American animated film producer, inventor of Mickey Mouse and Co († 1966)
  • 0December 5: Hanns Jelinek , Austrian composer and music teacher († 1969)
  • 0December 5: Franz Königshofer , Austrian composer and professor († 1970)
Werner Heisenberg, 1933
Marlene Dietrich, 1933

Exact date of birth unknown

Died

First quarter

Giuseppe Verdi, ca.1870
Benjamin Harrison

Second quarter

Third quarter

Johanna Spyri
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

Fourth Quarter

Web links

Commons : 1901  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : 1901  - album containing pictures, videos and audio files