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As poison ( medium high German pollutant , althochdeutsch handover ) or toxic substance is referred to a material , the living things on their metabolic processes , by penetration into the organism of a certain, low dose may cause damage. As the amount of exposure to an active ingredient increases, the likelihood that health damage will occur through poisoning increases . From a certain dose range onwards, almost every substance can be classified as poisonous ( toxic ).

The scientific discipline that deals with the study of toxic substances, their effects in different dose ranges and the treatment of poisoning is toxicology . It deals with substances, mixtures of substances, animals, plants and microorganisms and with the biochemical mechanisms of toxic effects in relation to quantitative aspects.

The damage caused by a poison can be temporary impairment, permanent damage, or death. In the case of persistent harmful effects of poison, one speaks of chronic poisoning , in the case of toxic effects that immediately lead to damage, one speaks of acute poisoning .

As hazardous substances , poisons are divided into very toxic and toxic as well as harmful to health (formerly less toxic ), depending on the amount of action .

The skull with crossed bones ( ) is the traditional icon for poison.


Historical permit to purchase poison (around 1910)

The word poison is a Germanic abstract formation ( * gef-ti- ) with a t suffix - and the resulting change from b to f - the Indo-European root of the word give . The original meaning "gift, present, donation", which poison still had in Goethe , has now disappeared in German (while it lives on in English "gift") and has only been preserved in the dowry ("marriage property of the bride, trousseau") .

The change in meaning from “gift” to “deadly gift, poison”, first documented in Old High German by Notker , is later influenced by the Greek-late Latin word dose , which means gift, “gift, certain amount of medicine”, but also as a covering ( euphemistic) expression for "poison" is used.

But even the Greek expression pharmacon in Homer stood for both the healing effect and the harmful effect of a substance and in Galenos there are medicines ( pharmaka ) whose effect as a poison depends on the dose.

Poison retains the originally feminine gender in both meanings for the time being, then becomes a “harmful substance” first masculine (beginning of the 15th century), later neuter (mid-16th century). The latter became more and more popular in the 18th century, but Schiller wrote in Kabale und Liebe in 1784 (5th act, 7th scene): I still don't feel the poison .

Related uses: Old High German (9th century), Middle High German, Middle Low German gift (feminine) 'the giving, gift, present, gift', Middle Dutch ghifte , ghichte , Dutch gift (feminine) 'Gabe, Gift', Old English gift , gyft (feminine , neutrum) 'gift, reward, bride price', plural 'wedding', Old Norse gipt , gift (feminine) 'gift, luck, marriage (of the woman)', Gothic fragifts (feminine) 'award', plural 'engagement'.

Delimitation of the term

In general, there is a difficult distinction between pollutants and toxins .

Toxins or waste products excreted by living beings are called toxins in toxicology . Pathogenic bacteria cause damage through the effects of their toxins. The characteristic clinical pictures in bacterial infections are caused by the action of bacterial toxins.

  • In gram-negative bacteria, these toxins are part of the cell membrane. They are released as endotoxins when the bacterial cells die .
  • In gram-positive bacterial pathogens, the toxins arise in the intermediate metabolism. They are excreted as exotoxins .

Toxoids are detoxified (inactivated) toxins, but they can still trigger an immune response in the vaccinated body. Toxoid vaccines are used in vaccinations against diphtheria and tetanus .

Viruses are pathogens , but they are not toxic themselves. Substances or objects that only damage a living being mechanically or through radiation are also not considered poison.


The tolerance of a substance is different for many living beings or groups of living beings. In principle, all substances supplied to the organism above a certain dose can cause damage and are therefore to be regarded as toxic from this effective level. Paracelsus wrote in 1538: “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; the dose alone makes sure that a thing is not poison. "

Toxicity is a measure of the harmful or lethal effect of a chemical substance or a physical effect (e.g. radiation; ionizing radiation, radiation exposure) on a living organism. A distinction is made between acute toxicity, which has an immediate effect, chronic toxicity, in which damage only occurs after a long period of exposure, and ecological toxicity (ecotoxicology), which has an impact on entire populations or ecosystems. The acute toxicity is determined by the amount (dose) of a poison required on average until a certain toxic effect is achieved, given either as the amount of poison per kg of body weight or in the form of a concentration-time product ( Haber's product ) in mg min −1 m - 3 . Chronic toxicity describes the toxic effects of a substance with long-term regular application of a certain dose. The enrichment (accumulation) of many pollutants in the air and soil falls under the field of ecotoxicology.

The absolute magnitude of the toxicity (toxic dose) depends on a number of factors. The most important are the type and location of the poison application ( inhalation , oral , subcutaneous or percutaneous , intramuscular , intravenous or intraarterial , intraperitoneal, etc.), the application vehicle (e.g. solvent), the physical condition of a living being (type, age and gender , individual characteristics of the living being, predisposition , state of health and living conditions) and chronobiological factors (time of application). In order to be able to compare toxicity information, these parameters must therefore always be given.

Nanotoxicology deals with the effects of nanoparticles, including nanomaterials, on living organisms. Due to miniaturization, nano-objects sometimes show significantly different physical and chemical properties compared to their original material. The smaller a particle, the greater its toxicity. Nanoparticles can cause bronchial and pulmonary inflammatory reactions , and pulmonary fibrosis has also been described in isolated cases .

The effects of toxic substances can be partially neutralized or mitigated by natural or artificially produced antidotes .

Poisonous effect

Toxic effect on humans

Poisons attack different receptors in the organism. Often affected organs in acute poisoning are the liver ( hepatotoxins , e.g. from paracetamol ), kidneys ( nephrotoxins ) as well as the brain and nerves ( neurotoxins such as botulinum toxin and warfare agents such as VX , sarin or soman ). Some toxins affect internal respiration , such as nitrites and carbon monoxide , which block hemoglobin , or potassium cyanide (cyanide), which blocks the cells' respiratory chain .

In order to be able to compare the toxicity of toxins with one another, animal experiments are used under standardized conditions. The frequently given LD 50, for example, indicates the amount of substance, based on body weight, which leads to death in half of a test animal population. LD stands for lethal dose .

Some of the most well-known toxins are grouped under the collective term botulinum toxin , and they can be found in spoiled canned meat and fish or in cheese.

Concentration poisons and summation poisons

According to the behavior of the toxin at the receptors, two types of toxins are distinguished:

  • In the case of a concentration poison, the effect increases as the concentration of the poison at the receptors increases. If the toxin, for example through metabolic processes or exhalation, is completely broken down again - without having damaged the blocked receptors - the effect also completely subsides.
  • In the case of a summation poison, also known as an accumulation poison or ct poison, the poison causes an irreversible change in the receptors. The effects persist even after the active substance is excreted from the body. With a further dose, the toxin molecules can irreversibly damage some of the remaining receptors. The individual effects can add up in this way. The absorption of toxins can take place continuously or in batches. The effect (W) results from the product of concentration (c) and exposure duration (t) as W = c · t (see Habersche rule ).
  • Tobacco smoke contains nicotine , which is very toxic in high concentrations . Nicotine is a typical concentration poison . It reversibly blocks the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors . After a short time, the receptors are released again. Even when taken over many years, nicotine shows only minor chronic damage to the organism in low doses.
  • Tobacco smoke also contains several carcinogenic compounds. The best known is benzo [ a ] pyrene , which has a lower acute toxicity than nicotine, but is a typical summation poison . The oxidation product benzo [ a ] pyrene-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxide, formed in the organism from benzopyrene, causes, when taken in very small doses over many years, a considerably increased risk of lung cancer and other types of cancer, since it is associated with a Part of the genetic material DNA reacts.

Examples of different toxic effects

  • Poison "cocktails", as they are sometimes put together with the intention of murder or suicide , are usually more "poisonous" than the sum of the individual substances ("potentiation"). This also applies to the combination of sub-toxic quantities of environmentally hazardous substances , which together can have a harmful effect.
  • Metallic mercury is less toxic if swallowed than if the vapors are inhaled .
  • A dose of ethanol that is consumed and tolerated in the form of beer in the course of an evening (i.e. subacute) can lead to more pronounced and potentially dangerous symptoms of poisoning if consumed as schnapps .
  • Ingesting 10 liters of water at once (distilled or not) can be fatal to an adult. Hyponatremia occurs (insufficient supply of sodium due to osmotic withdrawal). However, this is not a toxic effect of the water itself, but a harmful dilution effect.
  • An organism that has been damaged by illness reacts more sensitively to poisons than that of a healthy person.
  • A dose of digitoxin that is therapeutic in an adult can be fatal to a child or the elderly.
  • Ethanol is fatal to people with reduced or altered alcohol dehydrogenase in a much lower dose.
  • The LD 50 value for DDT is 113 mg / kg in rats , but only 1 mg / kg body weight in flies .
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin is acutely fatal in sheep; in humans, the same concentration only leads to the development of chloracne .
  • The theobromine of chocolate (or cocoa) is for dogs and cats toxic, see theobromine poisoning .
  • Repeated poisoning leads to the development of tolerance for many substances . For example, there used to be arsenic eaters who in some cases ingested several times the usually acutely lethal dose of arsenic (As 2 O 3 ) without (acute) impairment. Thallium salts have a similar effect on the human organism as arsenic . A closer example is heroin (an opioid ), to which humans develop a pronounced tolerance.
  • White germer , a highly toxic plant for most mammals, is consumed by red deer during the rut.
  • Poisoning with sleeping pills sometimes leads to death through disturbances in temperature regulation with cooling of the organism. If the cooling is counteracted (blanket, heating), an overdose can be tolerated that would have been fatal in the open air.

Classification of poisons

Toxic substance as a hazardous substance

While generally toxic pollutants as dangerous for the environment are classified (N) pulps are sent to the effect on people as hazardous substances in very toxic (T +), toxic (T) and harmful classified (Xn) (obsolete "less toxic").

Hazard symbol with
hazard designation
Classification for hazard symbols Examples
Hazard T.svg very poisonus T + if in very small quantities they lead to death or acute or chronic damage to health if they are inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin . The following limit values ​​apply
LD 50 oral, rat: <25 mg / kg
LD 50 dermal, rat or rabbit: <50 mg / kg
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for aerosols / dusts: <0.25 mg / l
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for gases / vapors: <0.50 mg / l
Atropine , sarin , thallium
Hazard T.svg toxic T if they can cause death or acute or chronic damage to health in small quantities if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin; All CMR substances are also marked with a T. The following limit values ​​apply
oral, rat: 25 mg / kg <LD 50 <200 mg / kg
dermal, rat or rabbit: 50 mg / kg <LD 50 <400 mg / kg
inhalation, rat, for aerosols / dusts: 0.25 mg / l <LC 50 <1 mg / l
inhalation, rat, for gases / vapors: 0.50 mg / l <LC 50 <2 mg / l
Methanol , carbon tetrachloride
Hazard X.svg harmful to health Xn if they can cause acute or chronic damage to health if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. The following limit values ​​apply
oral, rat: 200 mg / kg <LD 50 <2000 mg / kg
dermal, rat or rabbit: 400 mg / kg <LD 50 <2000 mg / kg
inhalation, rat, for aerosols / dusts: 1 mg / l <LC 50 <5 mg / l
inhalation, rat, for gases / vapors: 2 mg / l <LC 50 <20 mg / l
Dichloromethane , potassium chlorate

According to the more recent classification according to the globally harmonized system for classification and labeling of chemicals, there is a division into acutely toxic (symbol 06), health hazard (symbol 08) and various other health hazards (symbol 07).

GHS symbol with
signal word
Classification for hazard symbols Examples
GHS-pictogram-skull.svg danger if they can cause death or acute or chronic damage to health in small quantities if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin . The following limit values ​​apply
LD 50 oral, rat: ≤ 300 mg / kg
LD 50 dermal, rat or rabbit: ≤ 1000 mg / kg
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for aerosols / dusts: ≤ 1.0 mg / l
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for gases ≤ 2500 ppm
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for vapors: ≤ 10 mg / l
Atropine , sarin , thallium , methanol , carbon tetrachloride
GHS-pictogram-silhouette.svg danger if they can cause acute or chronic damage to health if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin. The following limit values ​​apply
LD 50 oral, rat: ≤ 2000 mg / kg
LD 50 dermal, rat or rabbit: ≤ 2000 mg / kg
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for aerosols / dusts: ≤ 5.0 mg / l
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for gases ≤ 20,000 ppm
LC 50 inhalation, rat, for vapors: ≤ 20 mg / l

or with carcinogenic or allergenic substances

GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg The “thick exclamation mark symbol” is used for the sole or additional identification of various categories that were previously mainly covered by the hazard symbol Xi for irritant. It may also be omitted. The signal word is selected depending on the context. Potassium chlorate

The regulations are EU-wide compliant. According to the Swiss Poison Act, the classification into poison classes was made , but the EU hazard symbols have also been in effect since 2005 .

As dangerous goods in transport, which are regulated by the ADR on the road , toxic substances have the dangerous goods class 6.1 - Toxic substances or, in the case of gases, 2 with the degree of danger T (toxic); TF (toxic and flammable); TC (toxic and corrosive); TO (toxic and oxidizing); TFC (toxic, flammable and oxidizing); TOC (toxic, oxidizing and corrosive) and a number to identify the hazard (Kemler number) 6.

Class of dangerous goods classification Examples
Dangclass6 1st svg Class 6.1 Toxic substances Substances which are known from experience or which can be assumed based on animal experiments that, if inhaled, swallowed or come into contact with the skin, a single or brief exposure in relatively small quantities can lead to health problems or human death. Hydrogen cyanide ( hydrogen cyanide ), arsenic , pesticides
DOT hazmat class 2.3 - (Alt 2) .svg Class 2, hazard groups T, TF, TC, TO, TFC, TOC Gases (toxic) Gases,

a) who are known to be so toxic and corrosive to humans as to pose a health hazard; or
b) who are believed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because of them when testing according to marg. 2600 para. 3 have an LC 50 value for acute toxicity of at most 5,000 ml / m³ (ppm)

Chlorine gas , hydrogen chloride , sulfur dioxide

As a toxic substance wear toxins typically the R-sets 20-28 ( Harmful / Toxic / Very toxic by inhalation / in contact with the skin / if swallowed ), R29, 31, 32 ( toxic gas on contact with other substances), as well as R50–59 (dangerous for the environment ). But a number of other R-phrases also describe toxic effects in a medical or legal sense (irritant effect, cancer risk, genetic damage, ...).

A list of the toxic and very toxic substances described in Wikipedia can be found in the category: Toxic substance .

Legal definition

According to the prevailing view, a poison is any organic or inorganic substance which, according to its type, the amount introduced, the form in which it was introduced and the nature of the victim's body, is likely to damage the health through chemical or chemical-physical effects.

Taught is a poison when a body fabric relationship was prepared.

The legislature expressly refers to the classification as a hazardous substance (e.g. Section 3, Paragraph 1, Item 6 and 7 of the ChemG 1996 , Austria), whereby substances designated as harmful are also included in particular (e.g., Section 35, Item 1 of the ChemG 1996). According to both the chemical laws and the hazardous substance ordinances, a sufficiently well-founded suspicion of toxicity is enough to classify a substance as a poison .

Bringing poison is punished (in Germany according to Section 224, Paragraph 1, No. 1 Alt. 1 StGB ) as dangerous bodily harm .

LD 50 table and logarithmic poison scale

Table of the LD 50 values ​​of some substances in different types:

substance Species, route of administration LD 50
{LC 50 }
LD 50  : g / kg
{LC 50  : g / L}
Individual proof
water Rat, oral > 90 g / kg > 90
Sucrose (sugar) Rat, oral 29.7 g / kg 29.7
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Rat, oral 16.6 g / kg 16.6
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Rat, oral 11.9 g / kg 11.9
urea Rat, oral 8,471 mg / kg 8,471
Cyanuric acid Rat, oral 7,700 mg / kg 7.7
Cadmium sulfide Rat, oral 7,080 mg / kg 7.08
Ethanol Rat, oral 7,060 mg / kg 7.06
Isopropylmethylphosphonic acid (IMPA, metabolite of sarin ) Rat, oral 6,860 mg / kg 6.86
melamine Rat, oral 6,000 mg / kg 6th
Melamine cyanurate Rat, oral 4,100 mg / kg 4.1
Sodium molybdate Rat, oral 4,000 mg / kg 4th
Sodium chloride (table salt) Rat, oral 3,000 mg / kg 3
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) Rat, oral 1,944 mg / kg 1,944
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Rat, oral 1,270 mg / kg 1.27
arsenic Rat, oral 763 mg / kg 0.763
Alkyldimethylbenzalkonium chloride (ADBAC) Rat, oral
fish, immersion
aquatic invertebrates, imm.
304.5 mg / kg
{0.28 mg / L}
{0.059 mg / L}
Coumarin (from Cinnamomum aromaticum and other plants) Rat, oral 293 mg / kg 0.293
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) Rat, oral 200 mg / kg 0.2
caffeine Rat, oral 192 mg / kg 0.192
Arsenic sulfide Rat, oral 185-6,400 mg / kg 0.185-6.4
Sodium nitrite Rat, oral 180 mg / kg 0.18
Uranyl acetate dihydrate Mouse, oral 136 mg / kg 0.136
Bisoprolol Mouse, oral 100 mg / kg 0.1
Mustard gas Man, dermal 100 mg / kg 0.1
Cobalt chloride Rat, oral 80 mg / kg 0.08
Cadmium oxide Rat, oral 72 mg / kg 0.072
Sodium fluoride Rat, oral 52 mg / kg 0.052
Pentaborane Human, oral <50 mg / kg <0.05
Capsaicin Mouse, oral 47.2 mg / kg 0.0472
Mercury (II) chloride Rat, dermal 41 mg / kg 0.041
Sarin Human, dermal
mouse, subcutaneous
28 mg / kg
172.23 µg / kg
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Rat, intravenous 16.5 mg / kg 0.0165
Arsenic trioxide Rat, oral 14 mg / kg 0.014
arsenic Rat, intraperitoneally 13 mg / kg 0.013
Nicotine Human, oral 6.5-13.0 mg / kg 0.0065-0.013
Sodium cyanide Rat, oral 6.4 mg / kg 0.0064
White phosphorus Rat, oral 3.03 mg / kg 0.00303
Strychnine Human, oral 1-2 mg / kg 0.001
Cantharidin Human, oral 0.5 mg / kg 0.0005
Aflatoxin B1 (from Aspergillus flavus ) Rat, oral 0.48 mg / kg 0.00048
Venom of the Brazilian wandering spider Rat, subcutaneous 134 µg / kg 0.000134
Inland Taipan Venom ( Venomous Australian Snake) Rat, subcutaneous 25 µg / kg 0.000025
Ricin Rat, intraperitoneal
rat, oral
22 µg / kg
20-30 mg / kg
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD, a dioxin ) Rat, oral 20 µg / kg 0.00002
VX Human, oral, inhalation, skin / eye absorption 2.3 μg / kg (estimated) 0.0000023
Batrachotoxin (from poison dart frogs ) Human, subcutaneous 2-7 µg / kg 0.000002
Abrin Mouse, intravenous
human, inhalation
human, oral
0.7 µg / kg
3.3 µg / kg
10-1000 µg / kg
Maitotoxin Mouse, intraperitoneally 0.13 µg / kg 0.00000013
Polonium-210 Human, inhalation 10 ng / kg (estimated) 0.00000001
Botulinum toxin (botox) Human, oral, injection, inhalation 1 ng / kg 0.000000001
logarithmic representation of LD 50 values

The LD 50 values ​​have a very wide range. The botulinum toxin as giftigster known material has a LD 50 ng value of 1 / kg, while the fabric ungiftigste water a LD 50 value of greater than 90 g / kg did. That's a difference of about 1 in 100 billion, or 11 orders of magnitude. As with all measured values ​​that differ by many orders of magnitude, a logarithmic view is recommended. Well-known examples are the indication of the earthquake strength using the Richter scale , the pH value , as a measure of the acidic or basic character of an aqueous solution or the volume in dB . In this case, the negative decadic logarithm of the LD 50 values, which is given in standardized form in kg per kg of body weight, is used.

-log LD 50 (kg / kg) = value

The dimensionless value found can be entered on a toxin scale. Water as the most important substance has the catchy value 1 in the toxicity scale obtained in this way.

Poisons effective in humans (examples)

LD Lo values ​​of some selected substances
substance Exposure path Amount in mg kg −1 source
Ethanol orally 1400
phosphorus orally 0001.4
bromine orally 0014th
nitric acid orally 0430
phenol orally 0140-1400
Pyridine orally 0500
Atropine unknown 0000.143
Potassium cyanide orally 0002.857
quinine unknown 0294
Mustard gas percutaneous 0064
Ciprofloxacin orally 0005.714
Sodium cyanide orally 0002.8
Parathion orally 0000.17
Phencyclidine orally 0014th
Mercury (II) chloride orally 0001
Diethylene glycol orally about 1000
Cantharidin orally 0000.03-0.5
Dichlorvos orally 0050
Lewisite percutaneous 0037.6
Picrotoxin orally 0000.357
Lead (II) carbonate orally 0571
Heptabarbital orally 0050
Gyromitrin orally 0020th


Toxins are poisons that are synthesized by living things.

Poisons produced by the human organism:

Herbal poisons :

Poisons produced by microorganisms :

Mushroom poisons (poisonous large mushrooms ):

Animal poisons :

Other poisons

Inorganic Compounds :

Organic compounds:

See also


  • Mechthild Amberger-Lahrmann, Dietrich Schmähl (Ed.): Poisons. History of toxicology. Berlin et al. 1988.
  • Karsten Strey: The world of poisons. Lehmanns Media, Berlin 2015. ISBN 978-3-86541-728-2 .
  • Eberhard Teuscher, Ulrike Lindequist: Biogenic poisons. Biology - Chemistry - Pharmacology. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-8047-2438-9 .
  • Louis Lewin: The poisons in world history , reprograph. Reprint of the edition Berlin, Springer 1920, Tosa 2007, Vienna ISBN 978-3-85003-152-3 .
  • Ludwig Sacha Weilemann, Hans-Jürgen Reinecke: Emergency manual poisonings. Stuttgart, Thieme 1996. ISBN 978-3-13-102591-3 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Poison  - Explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Toxstoff  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Poisons  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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  2. Pfeifer, Dr. Wolfgang , Etymological Dictionary of German , Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag (dtv) Munich, 5th edition 2000, p. 449.
  3. The ICD-10 differentiates between poisoning (T36-T50) and toxins (T51-T65) on the one hand and everything else including radiation sickness (T66) on the other. See Chapter XIX of the ICD-10 database ( Memento from April 12, 2015 in the Internet Archive ).
  4. Paracelsus: The third defension because of the writing of the new recipes . In: Septem Defensiones 1538. Werke Vol. 2, Darmstadt 1965, p. 510. zeno.org .
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  6. a b Toxicity. In: Spectrum Academic Publishing House, Heidelberg. December 4, 2014, accessed September 2, 2019 .
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  14. a b CLP (PDF) .
  15. ADR 2007, Annex A, Part 2 (PDF; 323 kB) Section (English).
  16. ADR 2007 , chapter 2.2 class specific provisions .
  17. ADR 2007 Annex A, Part 3, Table A: Dangerous goods list (PDF, English; 731 kB) .
  18. Material Safety Data Sheet Water MSDS. Section 11: Toxicological Information for the LD 50 verification. Archived from the original on September 2, 2012 ; accessed on September 5, 2019 (English).
  19. Safety (MSDS) data for sucrose
  20. Walker R, Lupien JR: The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate . In: Journal of Nutrition . 130, No. 4S Suppl, April 2000, pp. 1049S-52S. PMID 10736380 .
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  24. Data sheet cadmium sulfide at AlfaAesar, accessed on July 17, 2013 ( PDF )(JavaScript required) .
  25. Safety (MSDS) data for ethyl alcohol
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  28. Safety (MSDS) data for sodium chloride ( Memento from October 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  29. Safety (MSDS) data for 4-acetamidophenol
  30. LD50 values ​​of THC in fischer rats
  31. Safety data sheet arsenic .
  32. Frank T. Sanders: Reregistration Eligibility Decision for alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides (ADBAC) , United States Environmental Protection Agency
  33. ^ Coumarin Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Retrieved September 5, 2019 .
  34. Safety (MSDS) data for acetylsalicylic acid
  35. Safety (MSDS) data for caffeine ( Memento from October 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  36. Material Safety Data Sheet - Spent Metal Catalyst . Archived from the original on September 28, 2011.
  37. Safety (MSDS) data for sodium nitrite
  38. ^ Chemical toxicity of uranium
  39. Entry on bisoprolol in the DrugBank of the University of Alberta , accessed on November 18, 2019.
  40. Entry on poison in the ChemIDplus database of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM)
  41. Safety (MSDS) data for cobalt (II) chloride
  42. Safety (MSDS) data for cadmium oxide
  43. Sodium Fluoride MSDS
  44. ^ Pentaborane chemical and safety data
  45. Capsaicin Material Safety Data Sheet. (PDF) sciencelab.com, 2007, archived from the original on September 29, 2007 ; accessed on July 13, 2007 .
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