Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller , from 1802 by Schiller (born November 10, 1759 in Marbach am Neckar , † May 9, 1805 in Weimar ), was a doctor , poet , philosopher and historian . He is considered one of the most important German playwrights , lyric poets and essayists .
Friedrich Schiller was the only son of a Württemberg officer who also worked as a surgeon and grew up with his five sisters in Schwäbisch Gmünd , Lorch and later in Ludwigsburg . There he attended the Latin school and, after having passed the Evangelical State Examination four times, began studying law at the Charles School on January 16, 1773 . Three years later he switched to medicine and received his doctorate in 1780. With his theatrical debut, the play Die Räuber , premiered in 1782, Schiller made a significant contribution to the drama of Sturm und Drang and world literature.
In 1782, now a military doctor, he fled to Thuringia from the sovereign Duke Karl Eugen from Württemberg, because he was threatened with imprisonment and a writing ban for unauthorized removal from service . In 1783 Schiller began to work on Don Karlos . When his employment as a theater poet at the Nationaltheater Mannheim ran out, Schiller traveled to Leipzig in 1785 to meet his later sponsor Christian Gottfried Körner . In the following years he met Christoph Martin Wieland , Johann Gottfried Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Weimar . Together they shaped the Weimar Classic .
Friedrich Schiller was born in Württemberg and later became a citizen of Saxony-Weimar . In 1792 he was granted honorary French citizenship and thus also French citizenship - in recognition of his drama The Robbers , which was staged in Paris and was understood as a struggle for freedom against tyranny .
Origin, education and first successes
Friedrich Schiller was the second child of the officer , surgeon and head of the court gardening in Marbach am Neckar Johann Kaspar Schiller and his wife Elisabetha Dorothea Schiller , née Kodweiß, who was the daughter of a landlord and baker, was born in Marbach am Neckar in 1759. Friedrich was two years younger than his sister Christophine , with whom he developed a close relationship. Four more sisters followed six years apart; two of these died in childhood. Since the father got a job as a recruiting officer and worked in the imperial city of Schwäbisch Gmünd , the family moved to Lorch in 1764 . Shortly after Friedrich's second sister Luise was born in 1766, the family moved to Ludwigsburg . In the same year Friedrich entered the local Latin school . At the age of thirteen he wrote the plays Absalon and The Christians , both of which are no longer preserved.
On the ducal order and against the will of his parents, Schiller had to enter the Charles School on January 16, 1773 . When he joined, it was called the "Military Nursery School" for a short time, 54 days later, since March 11, 1773, it was called the Military Academy and was then housed in Solitude Castle near Gerlingen (Württemberg) and Stuttgart. Schiller first began to study law . The pupils were trained militarily, which may have contributed to the fact that he was still bed-wetting when he was fifteen ; he was severely punished for this twice. Schiller secretly sniffed tobacco and read prohibited literature with his comrades.
Medical studies and employment as regimental medicus
The military academy was relocated from Solitude Palace to downtown Stuttgart on November 18, 1775. Schiller changed the subject and turned to medicine . During this time he was fascinated by the works of the poets Sturm und Drang and the poems of Klopstock . In the same year he wrote the (no longer preserved) play The Student of Nassau. His first printed poem, Der Abend, appeared in 1776. Schiller studied the works of Plutarch , Shakespeare , Voltaire , Rousseau and Goethe . Also in 1776 he began work on the freedom drama The Robbers .
In 1779 he passed his first medical exams and asked to be released from the military academy to become a military doctor . However, this was only granted to him in December 1780, after the publication of his dissertation attempt on the connection between the animal nature of man and his spiritual nature. In it the young doctor reflected on the anthropologically justifiable connection between the emerging “ empirical soul science ” and a somatically oriented “medicinal science”. Schiller was therefore assigned to the contemporary “philosophical doctors”, which already indicated his later development. The doctor Friedrich Wilhelm von Hoven was one of Schiller's friends since his youth .
Schiller, who holds a doctorate in medicine, now joined the Duke of Württemberg Army as regimental medic in the von Augé grenadier regiment (formed in 1767 from the two grenadier companies of the (5th) Württemberg District Infantry Regiment , also with von Augé as head of the regiment , as well Teams of Grenadier Battalions 2, 3 and 4, which were disbanded between 1765 and 1767). He was probably dissatisfied with his professional situation from the start: Not only was the reputation of his regiment supposedly not very good, since, according to Schiller's description, it consisted of “240 almost exclusively disabled and cripples”. The comparatively meager salary of the regimental doctor was roughly equivalent to that of a prime lieutenant and allowed for only a modest lifestyle with 18 guilders per month (or 15 guilders in the 20 guilder convention rate). A realistic prospect of a future improvement of the situation did not exist because of the lack of advancement opportunities for troop doctors at the time.
In addition, the Duke had denied him the request to improve his earnings by treating civilians. Other Württemberg military doctors, however, were allowed to practice civilian practices on a case-by-case basis, as well as to wear civilian clothes, which Schiller had asked the Duke to do. But he was not allowed to do this either, although Schiller's father had already had an expensive civil suit tailored for his son.
At the Hohenasperg Fortress , Schiller met the poet Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart , who was imprisoned there, and who drew his attention to the subject of the robbers . In 1781 Schiller completed his play, which was anonymously printed that same year. On January 13, 1782, Die Räuber vom Mannheimer Theater was successfully premiered under the directorship of Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg . The play sparked storms of jubilation, especially among the young audience - in the following months, freedom-loving young people founded many "robber gangs" in southern Germany. Schiller was also present at the premiere with his friend Andreas Streicher and for this purpose had secretly left the Karlsschule without asking for official permission. When he traveled to Mannheim a second time four months later without a vacation permit, Duke Carl Eugen put the insubordinate poet under arrest for fourteen days in the Stuttgart main guard station (now overbuilt, Königstrasse 29) and forbade him to have any further contact with the ( Electoral Palatinate ) Abroad.
Escape from Stuttgart
At the beginning of 1782 the anthology appeared for the year 1782 with 83 poems, mostly written by Schiller. When a complaint was made to the Duke in August of the same year that Schiller and his robbers had vilified Switzerland (because he had one of the robbers insulted Graubünden as " Athens the crooks"), the conflict between the sovereign and the author came to a head. Schiller was threatened with imprisonment and all other non-medical writing was forbidden. This made it finally impossible for Schiller, who had previously hesitated to flee out of consideration for his father, who was dependent on the duke, to remain in Stuttgart. On the night of September 22nd to 23rd, 1782, while the Duke was giving a big feast with fireworks in honor of the Russian Grand Duke Paul , the later Tsar, and his wife , a niece of Carl Eugen, Schiller took advantage of the moment and fled the city with his friend Andreas Streicher . With this step, Schiller was taking a great personal risk, as he had officially deserted as a military doctor . He first traveled to Mannheim again , where he presented his new drama The Fiesco Conspiracy to Genoa to Dalberg . This was followed by trips to Frankfurt am Main , Oggersheim and Bauerbach in Thuringia. Streicher later described that time in his book Schiller's Flight from Stuttgart and his stay in Mannheim from 1782 to 1785.
Uncertain years 1783–1789
When rumors emerged that Duke Carl Eugen was trying to extradite Schiller , the poet, through the mediation of his college friend Wilhelm von Wolzüge (who married Caroline von Lengefeld in 1794 ), received an inconspicuous asylum with the pseudonym Dr. Knight in the Thuringian town of Bauerbach . Here he completed the work on Luise Millerin and began the first drafts for Don Karlos . In the nearby residential town of Meiningen from the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen , he met the librarian Wilhelm Reinwald during his visits to the court library of the ducal house . Reinwald provided Schiller with work materials and through him met his older sister Christophine , whom he married in 1786.
At the invitation of the theater director Dalberg, Schiller returned to Mannheim in July 1783 and took up the position of theater poet there in September . In the same month he fell ill with "nerve fever" ( malaria ), which was native to the then still swampy Rhine Valley. In Mannheim he met Charlotte von Kalb . In January 1784 the Fiesco was premiered , in April 1784 the drama Luise Millerin , which in the meantime, on the recommendation of the actor August Wilhelm Iffland , had received the more popular title Kabale und Liebe . In June 1784 Schiller gave a lecture to the Electoral Palatinate German Society in Mannheim on the question “ What can a good standing stage actually do? ". In December 1784, Duke Carl August von Sachsen-Weimar , who had previously witnessed Schiller's reading of Don Karlos ' first act at Darmstädter Hof, awarded him the title of Weimar Council. After a year as a theater poet in Mannheim, Schiller's contract was not renewed by Dalberg, which meant that Schiller's already precarious financial situation worsened and the acclaimed author almost ended up in debtors .
In April 1785 Schiller traveled to Leipzig to see Christian Gottfried Körner , who helped him out of the economic hardship. The acquaintance with Körner, who published a complete edition of Schiller's works from 1812 to 1816, began in June 1784 with an anonymous letter with four portraits: Körner and his friend Ludwig Ferdinand Huber were with the daughters Minna and Dora Stock of the Leipziger Kupferstechers Johann Michael Stock (1737–1773) was in a relationship and was criticized for this improper connection by her upper-class authoritarian fathers. This is why the two bridal couples were able to identify with the depiction of the inappropriate relationship in Schiller's drama Kabale und Liebe and expressed their unreserved admiration for Schiller’s courageous dramas in the anonymous letter mentioned: “At a time when art was changing increasingly degraded to the filing slave of rich and powerful voluptuous lusts, it is good when a great man appears and shows what man can still do now. "Schiller replied to this letter only six months later:" Your letters [...] met me in one of the saddest moods of my heart. "
In the summer and autumn of 1785, at Körner's request in the nearby village, today's district of Gohlis , and after September 13th in Körner's Weinberghaus in Dresden-Loschwitz , the poem To Joy was written for the table of the Masonic lodge To the three swords in Dresden. During his stay in Loschwitz, Schiller met the innkeeper's daughter, Johanne Justine Segedin , in a bar in the village of Blasewitz opposite the Elbe , whom he later immortalized in 1797 in Wallenstein's camp as " Gustel von Blasewitz ". In 1786 the story Criminals of Infamy appeared in the second issue of Thalia magazine. A true story that was later published under the title The Criminal of Lost Honor . From April 17th to May 21st 1787 Schiller stayed in Tharandt near Dresden and completed his Don Karlos there in the Gasthof zum Hirsch .
On July 21, 1787, Schiller traveled to Weimar , where he made the acquaintance of Herder , Wieland and the first Kantian , Carl Leonhard Reinhold , who convinced Schiller to start studying Kant with his writings from the Berlin Monthly Journal . During a trip through Rudolstadt, he met Charlotte von Lengefeld and her sister Caroline, who became known by her married name Caroline von Woliehen after she had published the novel Agnes von Lilien under a pseudonym in Schiller's magazine Die Horen , which was at times attributed to Schiller or Goethe would. In the same year the drama Don Karlos was printed and performed immediately. The first meeting of Schiller and Goethe took place on December 14, 1779 at the foundation festival of the Stuttgart Karlsschule in the New Palace . After Goethe returned from his trip to Italy in 1788, the two poets came into closer contact for the first time on September 7, 1788 in the garden of the von Lengefeld family in Rudolstadt, although Schiller was solely interested in getting to know each other better.
Economic consolidation 1789–1799
In 1789 Schiller accepted an extraordinary professorship in Jena - contrary to his hopes initially without a salary - and taught there as a historian , although he was a professor of philosophy. He qualified in particular with his story of the desolation of the United Netherlands. The news that the popular author Der Räuber was supposed to start teaching in Jena triggered a storm of enthusiasm. The whole city was in an uproar. The rush of interested students to his inaugural lecture What does it mean and at what end do you study universal history? on May 26, 1789, the capacity of the lecture hall was blown , so that the countless listeners had to move to the largest hall of the university at short notice. When the professorship showed signs of improvement in Schiller's economic situation - from February 1790 he received an annual salary of 200 thalers from the Weimar Duke - he wrote to Louise von Lengefeld in December 1789 to solicit her daughter Charlotte's hand. Louise von Lengefeld consented to the marriage by letter on December 22, 1789.
In the same year, the first book edition of the fragmentary novel Der Geisterseher appeared , and Schiller became friends with Wilhelm von Humboldt . On February 22, 1790, he married Charlotte von Lengefeld and was married in Wenigenjena , the Schiller Church, which has been named after him since then. Pastor was his colleague, the philosophy professor Carl Christian Erhard Schmid . During a visit to his sister Christophine and his brother-in-law Reinwald in Meiningen, Duke Georg I awarded Friedrich Schiller the title of Hofrat . Much now indicated professional improvements and family happiness.
But already towards the end of the year Schiller fell critically ill. On January 3, 1791, in Erfurt, he suffered a collapse, convulsive cough and occasional fainting. More attacks followed in late January and May. Schiller was probably suffering from tuberculosis , from which he never recovered. The rumor of his death spread throughout the country and reached Copenhagen in June , where the poet Jens Immanuel Baggesen had gathered a community of Schiller admirers around him. When it was heard that Schiller was still alive, in December of the same year Ernst Heinrich Graf von Schimmelmann and Friedrich Christian von Augustenburg , members of the Danish Circle of Friends, granted Schiller an annual pension of 1,000 thalers, which was limited to three years - a welcome relief in the way of life , which Schiller temporarily released from the duties of earning a living so that he could concentrate fully on his philosophical and aesthetic studies.
In 1792 Schiller became an honorary citizen of the French Republic for Die Räuber alongside Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , Johann Heinrich Campe , Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi , George Washington and Tadeusz Kościuszko . The occasion was more of Schiller's reputation as a rebel than his actual work. Although he was initially quite benevolent towards the French Revolution , he foresaw the change in the freedom and inhuman reign of terror of the Jacobins and deeply detested the later mass executions in revolutionary France.
In the same year he completed the story of the Thirty Years War , and the works Neue Thalia and Über die tragische Kunst appeared . In 1793, the book About Grace and Dignity followed . His son Karl was born on September 14th . In 1794 Schiller met the publisher Johann Friedrich Cotta , who agreed to continue to publish the monthly magazine Die Horen and later the Muses-Almanac published in 1796 in the first volume by Salomo Michaelis in Neustrelitz .
Friendly connection with Goethe
Before Goethe and Schiller became the legendary pair of friends of the Weimar Classicism , who visited each other almost every day and exchanged ideas, helped each other and motivated each other, not only literarily, but also philosophically and scientifically, they were competitors. Goethe felt oppressed by the younger man's growing fame. For him, Schiller was initially nothing more than an annoying reminder of his time in Werther and his own, now overcome, Sturm und Drang . And Schiller saw in the already established Goethe, who seemed aloof and arrogant to him at the first meeting specially arranged by Charlotte von Lengefeld (on September 7, 1788 in Rudolstadt ), a “proud prude who has to be made a child around her to humble before the world ”. What connected the two rivals later was the common work on their own work, because to promote each other in an intensive exchange of thoughts and feelings and to increase oneself was the declared purpose of this friendship, the history of which was no less than a ten-year “practical” Put the educational idea to the test in the age of classical music ”. When Schiller died, an era came to an end for Goethe. The relationship had become so close that when Schiller died - as he wrote in a letter to Carl Friedrich Zelter - Goethe believed he was losing half of his life, even himself.
After Schiller had moved to Jena in the spring of 1794 and in the summer of Goethe had agreed to work on the monthly magazine Die Horen , the first friendly correspondence between the two developed. After Schiller had written his second letter to Goethe on August 23, 1794, Schiller was invited by Goethe to Weimar in September 1794 and spent two weeks in his house . He kept to his usual daily routine, that is, he slept until noon and worked at night. Knowing about Schiller's conservative morality, Goethe and his long-time partner Christiane Vulpius hushed up their “ wild marriage ”. Christiane and her five-year-old son August stayed invisible in their own home. Schiller described the relationship with Mademoiselle Vulpius as Goethe's “only nakedness” and criticized him in a letter for his “wrong concepts about domestic happiness”. Goethe spoke of his "marriage without ceremony". Schiller's passion for card games and tobacco bothered Goethe, who could sometimes be malicious towards friends; the often rumored anecdote that Schiller could only write poetry by the smell of rotten apples also comes from him.
The Horen appeared for the first time in 1795 . Schiller also completed the treatise On Naive and Sentimental Poetry and his elegy The Walk . The most famous writers and philosophers of the time contributed to the magazine. These included Herder , Fichte , August Wilhelm Schlegel , Johann Heinrich Voss , Friedrich Hölderlin , Wilhelm von Humboldt and his brother, the natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt .
In 1796 both Schiller's father and sister Nanette died. His second son Ernst was born. From 1796 to 1800 Schiller published the literary magazine Musenalmanach , on which among others Goethe, Herder, Tieck , Hölderlin and August Wilhelm Schlegel collaborated. 1797 appeared in the Musenalmanach for 1797 the Xenien in which Schiller and Goethe jointly mocked literary grievances.
In March 1797 Schiller bought a garden house in Jena . He spent the summers there with his family from 1797 to 1799.
The year 1797 is known as the “ ballad year”, as many ballads by Goethe and Schiller were written in that year. Schiller in particular was extremely productive: The Diver , The Glove , The Ring of Polycrates , Knight Toggenburg , The Walk to the Iron Hammer , The Cranes of Ibykus ; In 1798 the ballads Die Bürgschaft and Der Kampf mit dem Drachen followed . In the same year, Schiller was finally sent the certificate that made him an honorary citizen of the French Republic.
Kant and Schiller
Metaphysics and ethics
With his Critique of Pure Reason , Kant had overcome the dogmatic form of metaphysics , with which he was “destined to be in love” . Metaphysics, if it wants to appear scientifically, can only be understood as a critical limitation of what brooding reason has always sought, the inevitable questions about God , freedom and immortality . Ultimately, as dogmatic metaphysics has long asserted, reason cannot make certain statements about these ideas beyond experience , but at best show the conditions of the possibility of experience - and this also means the limits of knowledge. It is not the things in themselves that are grasped, but their appearances . But what man brings into it on his own - a priori - were, according to Kant, forms of perception and categories of understanding. From this, Kant distinguished reason, more precisely the ideas of reason, which only have a “regulative” function and are therefore not “represented” in empirical reality. An indirect representation was only possible in the form of an analogy . From this perspective, Kant's definition of the beautiful is explained as a “symbol of the moral good”.
According to Kant, an action based on inclination could not be moral, since in this case the determinants of the will were heteronomous and therefore depended on external factors and could not be an expression of freedom. In a free act, the subject affirms the moral law of the categorical imperative out of insight , conveying the “rational” feeling of “respect for the law”.
The Kantian ethic turns against eudaemonism , which regards virtue as a source of happiness. One does not act morally in order to feel good, but in the awareness of freedom (of autonomous spontaneity) before the moral law one feels - as a consequence, not as a goal - a feeling of satisfaction and joy. Kant called this pleasure in virtue “complacency”. When a person is aware of the moral maxims and follows them - without inclination - he feels the "source of an [...] associated [...] unchangeable satisfaction". “Inclination is blind and servile, it may or may not be benign.” Even compassion seems “bothersome” to Kant when it precedes the consideration of what is duty.
Ethics and aesthetics
In the Critique of Judgment , Kant explained beauty in its effect on the subject and distinguished between two forms of “pleasure”. The pleasure was firstly "disinterested", that is, not based on the idea of the existence of the beautiful object and, secondly, related to a pleasure in the inner expediency of the beautiful object, without connecting it to a practical intention - for example in the use of the object.
According to Kant, the free judgment of taste is a creative achievement of the recipient . In 1791, Körner pointed out to Schiller that Kant only describes beauty in terms of its effect on the subject, but does not examine the differences between beautiful and ugly objects. Almost two years later, Schiller began to formulate his answers to these questions. As a “salary aesthetic”, he also defined beauty as the product of the spirit in the form of artistic beauty . In a letter to Körner in 1792 he wrote that he had found the “objective concept of the beautiful, which Kant despairs of”, but later limited this hope again.
In the first of the Kallias letters of January 25, 1793, Schiller found the difficulty "to objectively establish a concept of beauty and to legitimize it completely a priori from the nature of reason [...] almost unmistakable". Beauty lives “in the field of appearances”, where there is no room for platonic ideas. Beauty is a property of things, of objects of knowledge, and a “thing without properties” is impossible. Here Schiller also formulated his famous formula that beauty is "freedom in appearance".
In his philosophical treatise On Grace and Dignity , the first great reaction to Kant, in which he formulated his thoughts - albeit rhapsodically, not systematically and deductively - Schiller wrote: “In Kant's moral philosophy the idea of duty is presented with a harshness who recoils all graces and could easily try a weak mind to seek moral perfection in the way of a dark and monastic asceticism. However much the great worldly wise man tried to protect himself against this misinterpretation, [...] he [...] has a strong (although with his intention perhaps hardly to be avoided) through the strict and glaring opposition of the two principles that act on the will of man ) Reason given. "
In contrast to Kant, he represented the ideal of a morality that sought to combine inclination and duty . He saw this possibility in the field of aesthetics. Through art, the spiritual and sensual powers should develop harmoniously. Aesthetics is the way in which the sensual person is made sensible.
"So in a beautiful soul it is where sensuality and reason, duty and inclination harmonize, and grace is its expression in appearance."
Freedom in the Kantian sense means for the subject to be free from outside regulations and to be its own legislator. For Schiller, this self-determination appears in the autonomy of the work of art . In its harmony it does not seem to follow any external purpose, but only its own internal laws. While Kant determines the beautiful from the perspective of the observer, Schiller also concentrates on the essence of the beautiful art object.
Schiller wanted to establish a concept of beauty that conveyed nature and reason, the world of the senses and the moral world. Beauty is impossible without sensual appearance, but the sensual material - art - was only beautiful if it corresponded to the idea of reason. Beauty was therefore to be regarded as the “citizen of two worlds, one of which she belongs to by birth and the other by adoption; it receives its existence from sensual nature and gains citizenship in the world of reason ”.
In order to clarify the relationship between Kant and Schiller, the famous distich “conscience scruples” was often referred to: “I am happy to serve my friends, but unfortunately I do it with inclination / And so it annoys me often that I am not virtuous.”
Schiller, on the other hand, did not see Kant as an opponent, but as an ally and himself pointed out "misunderstandings" of Kant's teachings. Above all, Schiller assessed the interplay of rational and sensual elements differently than Kant. While Kant saw it as just one of many duties, it seemed to Schiller to be essential for virtue. The distich does not seriously reflect Schiller's opinion on Kant's ethics.
Weimar years from 1799
His daughter Caroline Henriette Luise was born on October 11, 1799, and on December 3, Schiller and his family moved to Weimar. In that year Schiller completed the Wallenstein and Das Lied von der Glocke .
In 1800 he finished work on the drama Maria Stuart , 1801 The Maid of Orléans . His poem The Beginning of the New Century was published. In 1802 he bought a house on the Esplanade in Weimar , which he moved into on April 29, 1802. His mother died that same day. On November 16, 1802, Schiller was ennobled and given the nobility diploma . From now on he was allowed to call himself Friedrich von Schiller .
In 1803 Schiller finished his work on the drama The Bride of Messina . On February 18, 1804, he completed Wilhelm Tell and immediately began his work on Demetrius , which he was no longer to complete. His daughter Emilie Friederike Henriette was born on July 25, 1804 . During this time he got sick more and more often.
A few months before Schiller's death, a newspaper spread the false report that he was dead. But in February 1805 Schiller actually fell seriously ill - he met Goethe for the last time on May 1 on his way to the theater. Shortly before his death, Schiller completed the translation of Jean Racine's classic tragedy Phèdre (1677).
On May 9th, Friedrich Schiller died at the age of 45 of acute pneumonia in Weimar , probably caused by tuberculosis . As the autopsy showed, Schiller's left lung was completely destroyed. The kidneys were almost dissolved too. The heart muscle had regressed and the spleen and bile were greatly enlarged. The autopsy was carried out by Wilhelm Ernst Christian Huschke and Gottfried von Herder . Ferdinand Jagemann drew Schiller on his deathbed. Johann Christian Ludwig Klauer made his death mask .
Schiller's body was first buried in the vault of the Jacobsfriedhof Weimar . In 1826 his bones were to be recovered. However, they could no longer be identified. Then those bones that were most likely to be considered were brought to the Duchess Anna Amalia Library . In the autumn of 1826, Goethe secretly borrowed the skull from there. He only revealed his friend Wilhelm von Humboldt , who, however, passed it on. In the sight of the skull, Goethe wrote the poem On Contemplation of Schiller's Skull . On December 16, 1827, the remains were transferred to the royal crypt in the new Weimar cemetery, where Goethe was later buried “at Schiller's side” at his own request.
Another skull was found in 1911, which was also attributed to Schiller. For years there was an argument about which one was the right one. In order to clarify this, the research project "The Friedrich Schiller Code" was started on behalf of the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR) and the Klassik Stiftung Weimar , in the context of which it was to be clarified whether one of the two skulls marked as Schiller skull in the Weimar royal crypt really was Schiller's. In spring 2008 the result was that neither of the two skulls could be assigned to Schiller. This was revealed by extensive DNA analyzes of the bones of Schiller's sisters and a comparison of this DNA with that from the teeth of the two princely crypt skulls.
At the same time, a facial reconstruction was carried out on the skull, which was previously considered to be authentic. This revealed a resemblance to Schiller's face, although the scientist did not know the aim of the project. However, since the DNA analyzes carried out by two independent laboratories are unambiguous, little attention was paid to the result of the facial reconstruction. The skeleton previously in Schiller's coffin was also examined. Its parts can be assigned to at least three different people; the DNA of the Schiller skull does not match the DNA of the skeletal parts.
The Klassik Stiftung Weimar decided to leave Schiller's coffin empty in the royal crypt. The foundation does not seek to find the real skull any further. Scientists from the University of Freiburg have also ended the search for the real skull after extensive examinations of the skull collection at the Eberhard Karls University in Tübingen without any results.
Schiller's early poetry was initially determined by models such as Klopstock and Schubart . Knowledge of the Bible , Ossian and reading the poets Ovid , Horace , Shakespeare and the young Goethe left traces of form and language that are easy to recognize. He was able to compensate for the as yet undefined individuality with two characteristics that soon made him very popular, especially among younger and enthusiastic audiences: the powerful and violent speech gestures and his feeling for the major current issues of society and humanity.
While many of his later classical verses were extremely popular and influential, voices ranging from critical to negative emerged as early as the beginning of the 19th century and ultimately led to an ambivalent assessment. Schiller himself also surprised with some sometimes rigorous self-assessments in which he devalued his own work and questioned its meaning. In a letter to Körner in 1796, for example, he wrote: “[…] I am against Göthen and I will remain a poetic rascal.” He sees the “lyrical subject” more as “an exile than for a conquered province”. It is "the pettiest and most ungrateful of all." Occasionally he wrote a few more verses, although the effort that the work The Artists had put off deterred him from further attempts, while he would certainly write a few more dramas.
On the other hand, one saw something exemplary in many of his frequently popular works, less because of their genuinely poetic qualities, but because something typical of the time could be found in them. The passionate poems of the anthology for the year 1782 , which was initially published anonymously, concluded the genius of the Sturm und Drang . Some of the following works, which are assigned to the middle period , were determined by the spirit of the Late Enlightenment and led over to the poems of the Weimar Classic , whose classification as thought poetry proved to be problematic for Schiller: It was precisely this that led to negative evaluations of Goethe's experiential poetry and influenced the later reception. Many of his ballads, however, were extremely popular with the general public and evoked imitations that were soon forgotten. Only Friedrich Hölderlin stands out as an original as well as tragic poet personality, in that his closeness to Schiller did not restrict him, but rather inspired him to have a powerful effect.
Schiller and Goethe
While Goethe's poetry is traced back to looking directly at things and the simple beauty of his verses is praised, critics often see Schiller as the overexerted will to pour philosophical principles and social demands into verse and thereby produce clichés and platitudes.
It was precisely the theoretically differentiated basis of his poetry that Schiller later tried to make fruitful for Goethe. With his last great philosophical work on naive and sentimental poetry , he also pursued the goal of reflecting on and justifying his own poetry. On the one hand, if he felt it to be deficient in comparison to himself, on the other hand, because of its philosophical foundation, he considered it to be more progressive. The painful comparison with the poet stylized as an Olympian, whom he had secretly hated for many years, led him to the self-critical question whether, after years of philosophical speculation, he might even be the “better poet”. He contrasted reflective and sentimental poetry with natural and naive poetry . While the naive poet, whose epitome is Goethe, imitates reality in the "state of natural simplicity" and refers to the beautiful , the sentimental poet in the "state of culture" represents the ideal.
In his lectures on aesthetics , Hegel already discussed the differences between Goethe and Schiller’s poetry and came to a judgment that was much milder compared to the later words of Nietzsche and Adorno . He warned against disparaging Schiller compared to Goethe. Although he recognized the "intentionality of abstract reflections and even the interest of the philosophical concept [...] in some of his poems"; However, it is unreasonable to play off his verses "against Goethe's unchallenged, unadulterated impartiality". Schiller's great achievement is to have overcome the Kantian subjectivity and abstraction of thinking and to have tried to think beyond them to grasp and shape reconciliation as the true. If Schiller immersed himself in the depths of the spirit, Goethe was on the trail of the natural sides of art and concentrated on nature with its plants and animals, crystals and clouds.
In 1830, Wilhelm von Humboldt emphasized Schiller's “intellectuality” as a special quality that had to develop over a long period of time. Taking up Schiller's “theoretical burden” from a psychological point of view, he was already questioning the dualistic scheme. It is unfair to see his great poems as mere thought poetry , because the intense experiences were linked to his thinking and thus his second nature. For Humboldt, his philosophical verses are no less experiential poetry than the poems of the young Goethe.
Hans Mayer , too , turned against the overwhelming standard of Goethe's experiential poetry and tried to determine the special value of Schiller's poetry. For him, the recurring alternation between "exuberance and resignation" is evident in his work. Unlike Goethe, he did not know the “highest fulfillment in the moment”, that special moment of lyrical experience that can only be understood as deep happiness. Schiller, on the other hand, discovered at the moment “above all his fleetingness” and “what is fading in him”. The sharp antitheses that pervade his entire work, give his prose the swing, his dramas the passion heightened to the extreme, illustrate this central question in his life. Already his melancholy youth work The Evening of 1776 juxtaposes the image of the setting sun - "perfect like the hero" - with that of happier worlds - worlds for which the face of the evening is the face of the morning.
According to Peter-André Alt , it would be fatal to maintain the usual “canon-building orientation towards the poetry of Goethe” with regard to Schiller. Although some of Schiller's poems would seem strange or even embarrassing to today's reader (so the song of the bell as a grateful example of the mockers), the reason is not the lack of poetic substance, but Schiller's inclination, "banal-sounding", to bourgeois standards of life to formulate oriented truths. Alt attributes the sociable claims, which are often mediocre, to Schiller's criticism of the consequences of the French Revolution . The poems in which he contrasted antiquity with modernity are more mature and testify to a deeper reflection . Unfortunately, Goethe often appears as a fixed star when nothing more is seen in Schiller's poetic development than a path to his visual language. The essence of his lyric poetry and its quality even in relation to Goethe can be recognized if one does not overlook the poetic meaning of allegory and the relationship between image and concept. Schiller illustrated the abstract by first ascertaining the possibilities of human reason, a path that, in Kant's sense, could be valued as a critical achievement .
Goethe's lyrical approach, on the other hand, is the symbol . He himself turned against Schiller's allegorical method and explained the differences years after his death. As a poet, Schiller was looking for “the particular about the general”, but he saw the particular in general, a method that corresponds to the actual “nature of poetry”, since it expresses “a particular” “without thinking about the general or referring to it ". Years before, Goethe had noticed that some “objects” had put him in a “poetic mood”. He declared that it was not the powers of imagination but the things themselves that would evoke feelings because they “stand as representatives of many others, include a certain totality [...] and, from the outside as well as from the inside, claim a certain unity and totality do". When he communicated this “happy discovery” to Schiller, who responded extremely laconically, he was initially disappointed. The symbolic character (of Goethe's poetry), according to Schiller, is not a natural property of the thing, but the result of fantasy and sentimental imagination. If the object is empty and poetically meaningless, the human imagination will have to try it. It was not the appearances that were important for Schiller, but the respective modes of perception, which have their own aesthetic value.
The root of Goethe's symbolism is his assumption that natural phenomena are (ideal and general) "deeply significant". Goethe's elegies of the 1790s such as Alexis and Dora and The Metamorphosis of Plants testify to his view of considering natural phenomena themselves as significant. If the symbol is explained by a sublime culture of perception, the allegory merely follows the imagination in order to be able to ascribe a deeper meaning to the appearances. Goethe's natural philosophy thus essentially contradicts Schiller's concept of allegory.
Schiller as a historian
Schiller's preoccupation with history is characterized by the appropriation and further development of the spectrum of universal historical ideas of the Enlightenment , which he consistently developed further , especially in his aesthetic writings On the Aesthetic Education of Man and On Naive and Sentimental Poetry . The aestheticization of history as a science, the anthropological turn and the emphasis on the human being as an object of history, the justification of the educational function of history and the proclamation of the method of historical analogy served as key elements not only for the further development of Schiller's historical thought in his historical works History of the Fall of the United Netherlands from the Spanish Government and History of the Thirty Years War , but also for the genesis of his classic historical drama.
Schiller's fame is not based on his stories - it was the dramas and his poetry that first made him famous. There is only a small supply of his prose , which contributed to the fact that he was less respected as a stylistically groundbreaking narrator, and even overlooked. The picture has only changed in the last few decades. Research now assumes that his theoretical writings are also included in this area, a perspective that is reflected, for example, in the concept of the Frankfurt edition , in which his narratives and historical writings are combined in a double volume.
Since the text Strange Example of Female Vengeance is a translation of an original by Denis Diderot and Haoh-Kiöh-Tschuen is a fragmentary adaptation of a novel translated from Chinese, there are only four stories from the pen of Schiller.
The fragmentary novel The Ghost Seer is one of the most influential works in horror literature and uses elements such as evocation of necromancy and spiritualism to describe the fears of an age against the uncanny .
With the stories Game of Fate , A Magnanimous Plot and The Criminal From Lost Honor , Schiller took up real events. In the sometimes very dense texts, he concentrated above all on the psychological development of the characters and was able to point out social grievances, including the penal system . The Magnanimous Act is a moral narrative. which developed as a separate genre in the 18th century. Schiller referred to the report of the mother of a classmate from the days of Charles school and wrote right at the beginning of his work that the anecdote had "an undeniable merit - it is true". As with his early dramas, Schiller wanted real people here. show and captivate the reader more emotionally than the sensitive writer Samuel Richardson with his novels Pamela or Sir Charles Grandison . He went so far as to explicitly mention this wish in his short story.
In this context, the question is also asked where the line between literary and historical or historiographical narrative is to be drawn. In a letter to Caroline von Wolhaben dated 10./11. In December 1788, Schiller spoke of the fact that historical truth could also be felt, although things had not actually happened that way. One learns “on this way to get to know the human being and not the human being, the species and not the individual who is so easily lost. In this great field the poet is lord and master. "
Significance in literary history
Schiller is a contemporary of the transition from the absolutist to the bourgeois age and the French Revolution . Since the bourgeoisie could not and was not allowed to articulate itself politically under the absolutism - often small-state in Germany - literature became a central medium for increasing bourgeois self-confidence in the second half of the 18th century. The pathos and sensitivity in Schiller's works up to around 1785 are an expression of the development of the human, a principle that is opposed to the aristocratic lust for power. The bourgeois tragedy as the predominant formal element (or its contrast between humanity and lust for power in the early dramas up to the cabal and love ) reflects this.
After the period between 1785 and 1795 with works such as Don Karlos and fundamental literary-theoretical treatises such as On the Aesthetic Education of Man and On Naive and Sentimental Poetry , between 1795 and 1805 mainly dramas that can be assigned to the Weimar Classics emerged. In them, Schiller implemented the program of aesthetic education for people - to combine understanding and feeling. He intended to shape the aesthetic person with the effect on the audience through the alternation of idyllic and drama - as a prerequisite for the non-violent transition to a reasonable state and as a counter-program to the French Revolution as well as to contemporary politics, in which he only had brute strength saw at work.
Schiller is therefore not only the author of dramas with strong language and images such as Die Räuber , Don Karlos , Die Jungfrau von Orleans or Wilhelm Tell . He also brought his German-speaking readership closer to the ideals of reason, humanity and freedom that had developed in his (the 18th) century. In Schiller's own words, the “building of a true political freedom” is the “most perfect of all works of art” ( On the aesthetic education of man. Second letter).
Schiller's works were enthusiastically received not only in Germany, but also in many other European countries, for example in the still ununited, oppressed Italy (cf. Giuseppe Verdi ), in Tsarist Russia and in Denmark. There Schiller's admirer Hans Christian Andersen set him a literary memorial in the art fairy tale The old church bell , which proclaims the young Friedrich as "one day [...] a rich man whose treasures the world will bless". Still others saw Schiller as a poet of freedom, soon as a defender of bourgeois morality. The linguistic catchiness of his verses and his point-safe stage dialogues ensured that many of them became winged words . In 1859 they celebrated their 100th birthday all over Europe , even in the USA. The publisher Johann Friedrich Cotta had sold a total of 2.4 million copies of the work by 1867.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the German bourgeoisie then treated Schiller's works more and more objectively . Since the school reformers of the 19th century had put them in the reading books, people have learned their Schiller by heart and used him more as “ cultural capital ” than to take note of him as an artist and thinker (cf. half -education ). He was also valued as a freedom poet in the German labor movement and in the workers' education associations . But also nationalist-oriented circles tried to co-opt the poet in their favor. In 1906 the German Schiller Federation was founded .
After they came to power, the National Socialists first tried to co-opt Schiller as a “German poet” in their own right. In 1941, however, the performance of Wilhelm Tell was banned on Hitler's orders. Hitler saw in it the glorification of a Swiss sniper who committed a tyrannicide. Don Karlos was also no longer performed.
In the GDR efforts were made to integrate Schiller ideologically. There he was considered a "progressive bourgeoisie" who helped prepare communism. On the occasion of his 200th birthday, lavish celebrations were held in 1959. The speech attempt about Schiller , which Thomas Mann gave on the 150th anniversary of the poet's death in May 1955 (shortly before his own death) in both parts of divided Germany, was a “declaration of love” to Schiller and at the same time an appeal to the Germans apparently had learned nothing from the last two wars.
In the Schiller Year 2005, however, it became clear that even in the reunified German republic, his work was honored with more calendar than enthusiastic approval. Schiller-related literary studies took off again, but the mass media dealt with the day of remembrance mainly biographically. In public events, however, his texts still had an impact. Travesties or updating edits, on the other hand, found it more difficult. The originals were no longer known enough. The type of educated citizen who is familiar with Schiller's works can no longer be taken for granted among theater audiences and readership in the 21st century.
The following Schiller prizes were donated:
- Schiller Prize (Prussia)
- People's Schiller Prize
- Schiller Memorial Prize of the State of Baden-Württemberg
- Schiller Prize of the City of Mannheim
- Schiller Prize of the city of Marbach am Neckar
- Schiller Prize from the Zürcher Kantonalbank
- Honorary gifts from the German Schiller Foundation
- Schiller Prize of the German Cultural Association of the European Spirit
- Grand Schiller Prize from the Swiss Schiller Foundation
- Schiller ring
- Friedrich von Schiller Prize (Berlin)
- The robbers (including the song of Hector ) (1781)
- The Fiesco conspiracy in Genoa (1783)
- Cabal and Love (1784)
- Körner's morning (1787, scenic joke, probably performed on Körner's 31st birthday)
- Don Karlos (1787)
- The Reconciled Misanthrope (unfinished, 1790)
- Wallenstein Trilogy (1799)
- Mary Queen of Scots (1800)
- The Maid of Orléans (1801)
- The bride of Messina (1803)
- Wilhelm Tell (1803/04)
- The Tribute to the Arts (1804)
- Demetrius (unfinished, 1805)
- A magnanimous act
- The Criminal of Lost Honor (1786)
- The ghost seer (fragment)
- Game of fate
- Duke of Alba having breakfast at Rudolstadt Castle. In 1547 (1788)
- The Chariot of Venus (1781)
- To Joy (1786)
- Resignation (1786)
- The gods of Greece (first version 1788, second version 1800)
- Hector's Farewell (1790)
- The veiled image of Sais (1795)
- The Walk (1795)
- The division of the earth (1795)
- The diver (1797)
- The Cranes of Ibycus (1797)
- Knight Toggenburg (1797)
- The Glove (1797)
- The walk to the iron hammer (1797)
- The Ring of Polycrates (1797)
- The fight with the dragon (1798)
- The guarantee (1798)
- The Song of the Bell (1799)
- Nänie (1800)
- The beginning of the new century (1800)
- The Victory Festival (1803)
- Philosophy of Physiology (1779)
- About the connection between the animal nature of man and his spiritual (1780)
- About contemporary German theater (1782)
- The walk under the linden trees (1782)
- The Young Man and the Old Man (1782)
- The Schaubühne viewed as a moral institution (1784)
- Philosophical Letters (1786)
- On the reason for enjoying tragic objects (1792)
- About tragic art (1792)
- Augustenburg Letters (1793)
- On grace and dignity (1793)
- Callias Letters (1793)
- On the aesthetic education of man (1795)
- On naive and sentimental poetry (1795)
- About amateurism (1799; together with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
- About the sublime (1801)
- History of the desertion of the united Netherlands from the Spanish government (1788)
- What does it mean and at what end does one study universal history? (Inaugural lecture on May 26, 1789)
- History of the Thirty Years War (1790), digitized version and full text in the German text archive
Translations and revisions
- Euripides : Iphigenia in Aulis
- Euripides : Scenes from the Phoenicians
- William Shakespeare : Macbeth (1800)
- Turandot (after Carlo Gozzi , 1801)
- The nephew as uncle (comedy based on Louis-Benoît Picard , 1803)
- The parasite or the art of making one's fortune (comedy based on Louis-Benoît Picard, 1803)
- Racine : Phèdre (1805)
- Denis Diderot : Jacques le fataliste et son maître , partial translation under the title: Strange example of female vengeance (1785)
Editions of works (selection)
- Christian Gottfried Körner (Ed.): Friedrich von Schiller's entire works. 12 volumes. Cotta, Stuttgart / Tübingen 1812–1815.
- All of Schiller's works. Complete edition in one volume. With the portrait of the poet, a facsimile of his handwriting and an appendix. Cotta, Munich / Stuttgart / Tübingen 1830.
- Karl Goedeke (Ed.): Schiller's all writings. Historical-critical edition. 17 volumes. Cotta, Stuttgart 1867–1876.
- Fritz Jonas (Ed.): Schiller's letters. Critical complete edition. 7 volumes. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart / Leipzig / Berlin / Vienna 1892–1896.
- Eduard von Hellen (Ed.): Complete works. Secular edition. 16 volumes. Cotta, Stuttgart / Berlin 1904/05.
- Conrad Höfer (ed.): Complete works. Listening edition. 22 volumes. Müller, Munich / Leipzig 1910–1914 (up to vol. 15) and Propylaea, Berlin 1920–1926.
- Schiller's works. National edition. Historical-critical edition. On behalf of the Goethe and Schiller Archives, the Schiller National Museum and the German Academy; The editors were, among others , Julius Petersen , Gerhard Fricke , Benno von Wiese and Norbert Oellers . 43 volumes. Böhlau, Weimar from 1943.
- Gerhard Fricke, Herbert G. Göpfert , Herbert Stubenrauch (eds.): Complete works. Based on the original prints. Five volumes. Hanser, Munich 1958/59.
- Complete Works. After the last edition with reference to the first prints and manuscripts. Introduction by Benno von Wiese, remarks by Helmut Koopmann. 5 volumes. Winkler, Munich 1968.
- Hans-Günther Thalheim et al. (Ed.): Complete works. Berlin edition. 10 volumes. Structure, Berlin / Weimar 1980–1990 (up to vol. 5) and Berlin 2005.
- Schiller. Works and letters in twelve volumes. Edited were among others Gerhard Kluge , Otto Dann and Norbert Oellers. Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992–2002.
- Friedrich Schiller, Works , CD-ROM, Digital Library Volume 103, Directmedia Publishing , Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89853-203-8 .
- Albert Meier , Peter-André Alt, Wolfgang Riedel (Eds.): Friedrich Schiller. All works in five volumes. dtv, Munich 2005.
- Peter-André Alt : Schiller. Life - Work - Time (2 volumes). Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-406-45905-6 and ISBN 3-406-46225-1 .
- Jörg Aufenanger : Friedrich Schiller. Artemis and Winkler, 2004.
- Jörg Aufenanger: Schiller and the two sisters. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-423-24446-1 .
- Friedrich Burschell : Friedrich Schiller in personal reports and photo documents. rororo 1958 and more.
- Sigrid Damm : The Life of Friedrich Schiller. Insel, Frankfurt 2004, ISBN 3-458-17220-3 .
- Friedrich Dieckmann : "This kiss of the whole world" - The young man Schiller . Insel, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-458-17244-0 .
- Frank Druffner, Martin Schalhorn: Gods plans and mouse shops - Schiller 1759–1805. Marbach Catalog 58, Marbach 2005, ISBN 3-937384-11-1 (catalog of the exhibition in the Schiller National Museum Marbach and Schiller Museum Weimar).
- Marie Haller-Nevermann: Friedrich Schiller. I cannot be a prince servant. A biography. Structure publisher, 2004.
- Helmut Koopmann (ed.): Schiller manual. Kröner, Stuttgart 1998, 2nd edition 2011.
- Helmut Koopmann: Friedrich Schiller (2 volumes). Metzler, Stuttgart 1966, 2nd edition 1977.
- Helmut Koopmann: Schiller and the consequences. Metzler, 2016, ISBN 978-3-476-02650-7 .
- Peter Lahnstein: Schiller's Life. Biography. List, Munich 1981.
- Johannes Lehmann : Our poor Schiller - a disrespectful approach. Biography. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2005, ISBN 3-499-23270-7 .
- Götz Lothar-Darsow: Friedrich Schiller , Metzler 2000.
- Norbert Oellers : Schiller. Reclam, Stuttgart 1993.
- Norbert Oellers: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 22, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-428-11203-2 , pp. 759-763 ( version ). In:
- Claudia Pilling: Friedrich Schiller. Biography. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2002, ISBN 3-499-50600-9 .
- Rüdiger Safranski : Schiller or The Invention of German Idealism. Biography. Hanser, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-446-20548-9 (also Darmstadt, Scientific Book Society).
- Rüdiger Safranski: Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship . Hanser, Munich et al. 2009, ISBN 978-3-446-23326-3 .
- Friedrich Schiller. Documentation in pictures. Schiller National Museum, Marbach 1979; Licensed edition Insel, Frankfurt am Main.
- Helmut Schmiedt: Friedrich Schiller. Literature Compact, Vol. 4. Tectum, Marburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8288-2970-1 .
- Emil Staiger : Friedrich Schiller. Atlantis, Zurich 1967.
- Gert Ueding : Friedrich Schiller. Becksche series, Munich 1990.
- Barbara Wais: The Schiller Chronicle. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-458-17245-9 .
- Benno von Wiese : Friedrich Schiller. Metzler / Poeschl, Stuttgart 1959, 3rd edition 1963.
Other, special topics
- Rostislav Danilevskij: Schiller in Russian literature. (= Writings on the culture of the Slavs. Volume 1). Dresden University Press, Dresden 1998, ISBN 3-931828-53-0 .
- Friedrich Dieckmann: "Freedom is only in the realm of dreams." Schiller's turn of the century. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-458-17455-4 .
- Thilo Dinkel, Günther Schweizer: Ancestors and family of the poet Friedrich Schiller. A genealogical inventory. Southwest German ancestral lists and pedigree volumes. 4, Association for Family and Heraldry in Württemberg and Baden e. V., Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-934464-08-4 .
- Nils Ehlers: Between beautiful and sublime. Friedrich Schiller as a thinker of the political. In the mirror of his theoretical writings. Cuvillier, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-86955-714-4 .
- Stephan Füssel : Schiller and his publishers. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-458-17243-2 .
- Georg Günther: Friedrich Schiller's musical impact history. A compendium. Part 1: Introduction and Register. Part 2: Directory of musical works. Metzler, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-476-04619-2 .
- Wolfgang Hach, Viola Hach-Wunderle: Of monsters, plague and syphilis. Medical history in five centuries. Schattauer, Stuttgart 2017, ISBN 978-3-7945-3210-0 , Chapter 6: Schiller's diseases and his burials. New findings from the surgeon's perspective, pp. 91–118 ( limited preview on Google Books ).
- Jonas Maatsch, Christoph Schmälzle: Schiller's skull - physiognomy of an obsession. (= Companion volume to the exhibition of the same name in the Schiller Museum Weimar, September 24, 2009 to January 31, 2010). Wallstein, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8353-0575-5 .
- Walter Müller-Seidel : Friedrich Schiller and politics: not the great, only the human happens. C. H. Beck, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-57284-5 .
- Wilfried Noetzel: Friedrich Schiller's philosophy of the art of living. On aesthetic education as a modern project. Turnshare, London 2006, ISBN 1-903343-91-7 .
- Norbert Oellers, Robert Steegers: Weimar. Literature and Life in Goethe's Time. (= Reclam Taschenbuch. No. 20182). 2nd, improved edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-15-020182-4 .
- Georg Ruppelt : Schiller in National Socialist Germany. The attempt to synchronize. Metzler, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-476-00410-4 .
- Georg Ruppelt: Hitler against Tell. The "equalization and elimination" of Friedrich Schiller in National Socialist Germany. (= Reading room - selected items from the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. Issue 20). Publishing house Niemeyer, Hameln 2005, ISBN 978-3-8271-8820-5 .
- Rüdiger Safranski: Schiller as a philosopher. An anthology. wjs-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-937989-08-0 .
- Heinz Stade: On the way to Schiller. Structure paperback, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-7466-8117-0 .
- Ferdinand Tönnies : Schiller as a temporary citizen and politician. First edition 1905. In: Ferdinand Tönnies complete edition . Tape. 7. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2009, ISBN 978-3-11-015840-3 , pp. 3-60 (see also Tönnies' essays on Schiller. Pp. 294-321).
To the work
- Georg Bollenbeck , Lothar Ehrlich (ed.): Friedrich Schiller: The underestimated theorist. 1st edition. Böhlau, 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-11906-5 .
- Julius Burggraf : Schiller's female figures. Carl Krabbe, Stuttgart 1897.
- Otto Dann, Norbert Oellers, Ernst Osterkamp (ed.): Schiller as a historian . JB Metzler, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-476-01333-2 .
- Arnd Meusburger: The bourgeois ideals of the 18th century in Schiller's dramas 1780–1804. Dissertation, University of Innsbruck 1985.
- Günter Saße (Ed.): Schiller. Work interpretations . Winter, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 978-3-8253-5037-6 .
- Gert Sautermeister: Idyllic and drama in Friedrich Schiller's work. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1971.
- Jutta Hecker : Joy of beautiful sparkles from the gods. A Schiller novel. Salzer, Heilbronn 1998, ISBN 3-7936-0291-5 .
- Gerhard W. Menzel : Escape from Stuttgart. Biographical story about Friedrich Schiller. Urania Universum, Volume 5, 1959, pp. 361-371.
Schiller's dramas and poems have inspired numerous composers to set them to music - partly in the original and partly in an edited version. Here is a selection:
- The guarantee, a song by Franz Schubert based on the guarantee
- Die Bürgschaft , an opera fragment by Franz Schubert based on Die Bürgschaft
- Don Carlos , opera by Giuseppe Verdi based on Don Karlos
- Giovanna d'Arco , opera by Giuseppe Verdi after The Maiden of Orléans
- The Maid of Orléans , opera by Pyotr Tchaikovsky based on The Maiden of Orléans
- Luisa Miller , opera by Giuseppe Verdi based on Cabal and Love
- I masnadieri , opera by Giuseppe Verdi based on The Robbers
- Die Räuber, opera by Giselher Klebe based on Die Räuber
- Guillaume Tell , opera by Gioachino Rossini after Wilhelm Tell
- Maria Stuarda , opera by Gaetano Donizetti after Maria Stuart
- Wallenstein, musical tragedy by Jaromír Weinberger based on Wallenstein
- Nevěsta messinská, opera by Zdeněk Fibich based on The Bride of Messina
- Oratorios by Andreas Romberg and Max Bruch after Das Lied von der Glocke
- Final movement of the 9th symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven : To joy
- Choral works by Johannes Brahms , Hermann Goetz and Carl Orff based on Nänie
- Scene and monologue from Marfa for soprano and orchestra by Hermann Reutter from Demetrius
Schiller's life was filmed several times:
- 1923: Friedrich Schiller - Director: Curt Goetz
- 1940: Friedrich Schiller - The Triumph of a Genius - Director: Herbert Maisch
- 2005: Schiller (TV film) - Director: Martin Weinhart
- 2014: The Beloved Sisters - Director: Dominik Graf
- German Schiller Society
- German Schiller Foundation
- German Literature Archive Marbach
- Schiller Festival
- Schillerhaus (Rudolstadt) , first meeting with Goethe and Charlotte von Lengefeld
- Schiller (film)
- (3079) Schiller , an asteroid named after him in 1985
- Schiller National Museum
- Schiller route
- Swiss Schiller Foundation
- Weimar Schiller Club
- Schiller House
- Schiller Tower
- Literature by and about Friedrich Schiller in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Friedrich Schiller in the German Digital Library
- Hermann Fischer : Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 31, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890, pp. 215–245.
- Lydia L. Moland: Friedrich Schiller. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , 2021.
- Friedrich Schiller in the Internet Archive
- Schiller - From Politics and Contemporary History (APuZ 09-10 / 2005) (Federal Agency for Political Education, February 28, 2005; PDF download possible)
- Annotated link collection of the University Library of the Free University of Berlin ( Memento from December 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) ( Ulrich Goerdten )
- Schiller's family in the picture
- Essays on Schiller in the Goethezeitportal
- Portraits and illustrations of the works of Friedrich Schiller in the Goethezeitportal
- German Education Server: Dossier on the Schiller Year 2005
- ARD: Information page on Schiller's life and work on the occasion of the Schiller Year 2005 ( Memento from November 18, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Friedrich Schiller in the reception
- TV film “Schiller” on IMDb
- The Friedrich Schiller Code ( Memento from May 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) on the website of the Freiburg University Medical Center
- Riddle about Schiller's double skull on Spiegel Online
- Schiller's estate in the Goethe and Schiller Archives
- Institute for Ludology: Political Change and the Aesthetic Game
- Schiller in Bauerbach
- Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von. Hessian biography. (As of May 9, 2020). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Schiller, Friedrich (von) in the Frankfurter Personenlexikon
Works in full text
- Works by Friedrich Schiller at Zeno.org .
- Works by Friedrich Schiller in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Works (as digital copies and full text) by Friedrich Schiller in the German Text Archive .
- Schiller's dramas, poems, writings and letters in the Friedrich Schiller Archive
- Schiller: The gods of Greece. 1788; in the poetry theory project
- Schiller: About Bürger's poems. 1791; in the poetry theory project
- Goethe / Schiller: About epic and dramatic poetry. 1797; in the poetry theory project
- Works at: gutenberg.org.
- Works by Friedrich Schiller as audio books at: librivox.org.
- Works by Schiller at: DigBib.Org. Freely available, also as HTML and PDF.
- Works by Friedrich Schiller at: Wissen-im-netz.info.
- Poems (German-Latin) at: pantoia.de.
- Friedrich Schiller, Avantures of the New Telemach. A humoresque for Gottfried Körner.
- Ballads as an audio book at: Vorleser.net.
- limited preview in Google Book search
Individual references and comments
- Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller: De discrimine febrium inflammatoriarum et putridarum. Medical dissertation, Stuttgart 1780; also (with translation from Latin by A. Engelhardt) in: Friedrich Schiller: Medical writings. Edited by Deutsche Hoffmann-LaRoche AG, Grenzach-Wyhlen 1959, pp. 63-134.
- ^ Matthias Luserke-Jaqui: manual: Life - Work - Effect . 2011, ISBN 978-3-476-02406-0 , pp. 607 _
- Ingo von Münch : The German citizenship: past - present - future. De Gruyter , Law, 2007, p. 187. The page at Google Books .
- Ecclesiastically, the Evangelical Lutheran residents of Solitude belonged to the parish of Gerlingen, only from 1852 to 1942 was the Solitude residential area also secularly part of what was then the village of Gerlingen. On April 1, 1942, the Solitude residential area was incorporated into Stuttgart
- Wilfried Noetzel: Friedrich Schiller - philosopher and physician. International journal for philosophy and psychosomatics 1/2009. PDF , accessed on August 16, 2010.
- cf. for example T. Stettner: Zwei Jugenfreunde Schiller's in Franconia. In: Franconian homeland. Volume 15, 1936, pp. 267-269.
- Gisela Seidel: Schiller memories. Life review in autobiographical form. Engelsdorfer Verlag, second, revised edition, 2009. Schiller memories At: Schiller-Biografie.de.
- Gustav Wais : Stuttgart in the nineteenth century. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1955, p. 19.
- Spiegelberg says in Act 2, 3rd appearance to Razmann: "... Grütz wants to be a rascal - it also needs a national genius of his own, a certain, that I say, rascal climate , and then I advise you, you go there Graubündner Land, that is the Athens of today's crooks. "
- Ellen Strittmatter: Schiller's portraits - a European visual language? A look at the Marbach holdings. In: Peter-André Alt, Marcel Lepper : Schiller's Europe. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-044004-1 , pp. 174–216, here p. 195.
- Better known under the title of the publication: The Schaubühne viewed as a moral institution.
- In a letter to Körner, Schiller wrote that Johann Christoph Bode wanted to induce him to join Freemasonry . Körner, who was a Freemason himself, advised him against, since Bode only wanted to win him over to the Order of Illuminati . Cf. Lenning: General Handbook of Freemasonry. Second volume. Max Hesse's publishing house. 1901. - In his tenth letter to Don Karlos , Schiller wrote in 1787 that he was neither an Illuminate nor a Freemason. However, Schiller's great-grandson Alexander von Gleichen-Rußwurm stated that Wilhelm Heinrich Karl von Gleichen-Rußwurm had brought the writer to the Rudolstadt Masonic Lodge Günther to the standing lion . Incidentally, Johann Gottlieb Fichte also became a member of it in 1794, see Internetloge.de. In 1829 two Freemasons from Rudolstadt complained about the dissolution of the lodge, pointing out that even Schiller had been accepted into it. Certificates of Schiller's membership, however, have not been found. Cf. Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner, Dieter A. Binder: Internationales Freemaurer Lexikon. 5th edition. Herbig Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-7766-2478-7 .
- It is today's Schillergarten .
- See Wallenstein's camp , end of the 5th appearance.
- Today the inn is called Schillereck .
- So by August Wilhelm Schlegel . Compare with Rüdiger Safranski: Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship. Hanser, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-446-23326-3 , p. 58.
- Rüdiger Safranski: Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship. Hanser, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-446-23326-3 , p. 17.
- Thomas Prüfer: The formation of the story. Friedrich Schiller and the beginnings of modern history. Cologne 2002, p. 77 ff.
- Peter-André Alt : Schiller. Life-work-time. A biography. C. H. Beck Verlag. Munich 2000, ISBN 3-406-45905-6 , p. 645.
- Steffen Raßloff : The sick poet. Schiller and Erfurt. In: Thuringian General. 17th November 2012.
- Cf. on this Rüdiger Safranski: Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship. Hanser, Munich 2009, pp. 89-90.
- See Friedrich Schiller's letter to Gottfried Körner. Weimar, February 2, 1789.
- Rüdiger Safranski: Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship. Munich and others, Hanser 2009, p. 14.
- See letter from Goethe to Schiller. Weimar, June 24, 1794.
- Günter Schulz: Schiller's Horen. Politics and education. Analysis of a German magazine . Heidelberg 1960.
- Andreas W. Daum : Social Relations, Shared Practices, and Emotions: Alexander von Humboldt's Excursion into Literary Classicism and the Challenges to Science around 1800 . In: Journal of Modern History . tape 91 , 2019, p. 1-37 .
- : New Literature Lexicon. Vol. 14. Friedrich Schiller: About grace and dignity. S. 941, Kindler, Munich 1991.
- Immanuel Kant: Critique of Practical Reason. Critical suspension of the antinomy, p. 247, works in twelve volumes, Volume VII, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 1974.
- ^ Matthias Luserke-Jaqui Schiller manual. Life - work - effect. Callias, or about beauty. Metzler, Stuttgart 2005, p. 385.
- Quoted from Matthias Luserke-Jaqui: Friedrich Schiller. The essayistic work. 5.7. Callias Letters and On Grace and Dignity. A. Francke Verlag, Tübingen 2005, p. 245.
- ^ Matthias Luserke-Jaqui: Schiller. The essayistic work. 5.7. Callias Letters and On Grace and Dignity. A. Francke Verlag, Tübingen 2005, p. 247.
- Friedrich Schiller: About grace and dignity. S. 262. Complete works, Volume V, Philosophical writings, mixed writings, Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart.
- Volker Spierling : A short history of philosophy. Modern times. In the area of German idealism. P. 151, Piper, Munich 2004.
- Friedrich Schiller: About grace and dignity. Complete works, Volume V, p. 265. Philosophical writings and mixed writings, Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart.
- Kindler's New Literature Lexicon. Vol. 14. Friedrich Schiller: About grace and dignity. S. 942, Kindler, Munich 1991.
- Friedrich Schiller: About grace and dignity. Complete works, Volume V, p. 240. Philosophical writings and mixed writings, Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart.
- Friedrich Schiller: Poems. Classic lyric. Complete works, Volume III., P. 256. Poems, stories, translations, Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart.
- LW Beck: Kant's "Critique of Practical Reason". P. 297, Notes, XII. The aesthetics of pure practical reason. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich, 1974.
- Preparation of the diploma in the Austrian State Archives ( online )
- Foundation ends search for Schiller skull. ( Memento of July 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Ralf G. Jahn: Schiller's Genealogy: The Friedrich Schiller Code. Grin Publishing House. Munich 2014, ISBN 3-656-70236-5
- Norbert Oellers: Friedrich von Schiller. The lyric work. In: Kindlers New Literature Lexicon. Vol. 14, Munich, 1991, p. 916.
- Quoted from Norbert Oellers: Friedrich von Schiller. The lyric work. In: Kindlers New Literature Lexicon. Vol. 14, Munich, 1991, p. 915.
- Quoted from Walter Schaferschik: Friedrich Schiller. In: Literaturwissen, Friedrich Schiller, Interpretations, Poetry. Reclam, Stuttgart 1999, p. 37.
- Rüdiger Safranski: Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich 2009, p. 131.
- Carsten cell: About naive and sentimental poetry. In: Schiller Handbook, Life - Work - Effect. Metzler, Ed. Matthias Luserke-Jaqui, Stuttgart 2001, p. 452.
- Carsten cell: About naive and sentimental poetry. In: Schiller Handbook, Life - Work - Effect. Metzler, Ed. Matthias Luserke-Jaqui, Stuttgart 2001, p. 468.
- Quoted from Peter-André Alt . In: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 253.
- Norbert Oellers: Friedrich von Schiller. The lyric work. In: Kindlers New Literature Lexicon. Vol. 14, Munich, 1991, p. 918.
- Walter Schaferschik: Friedrich Schiller. In: Literaturwissen, Friedrich Schiller, Interpretations, Poetry. Reclam, Stuttgart 1999, p. 37.
- Peter-André Alt: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 253.
- Quoted from Peter-André Alt. In: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 254.
- Quoted from Peter-André Alt. In: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 255.
- Peter-André Alt: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 255.
- Quoted from Peter-André Alt: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 255.
- Peter-André Alt: Schiller. Life - work - time. Second volume, seventh chapter, CH Beck, Munich 2009, p. 256.
- Matthias Luserke-Jaqui: Schiller. A. Francke Verlag, Tübingen and Basel 2005, p. 171.
- Rein A. Zondergeld : Friedrich Schiller. In: Lexicon of fantastic literature. Suhrkamp, Fantastic Library, Frankfurt 1983, p. 218.
- Gero von Wilpert : The German ghost story. Motif, shape, development (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 406). Kröner, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-520-40601-2 , p. 151.
- Friedrich Schiller: A generous act. From the latest story. In: Complete Works. Volume III: Poems, Stories, Translations. Deutscher Bücherbund, Stuttgart, p. 455.
- ^ Matthias Luserke-Jaqui: Schiller. A. Francke Verlag, Tübingen and Basel 2005, p. 172.
- Quoted from Matthias Luserke-Jaqui: Friedrich Schiller. A. Francke Verlag, Tübingen and Basel 2005, p. 170.
- Georg Ruppelt: Hitler against Tell. Schiller's Wilhelm Tell premiered 200 years ago, and Hitler had it banned 63 years ago. ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Hannover 2004, on: mediaculture-online.de.
- Interestingly in the sociology of literature , Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy pointed out that in the course of social change , entire cultural holdings can disappear from the memory of new generations after around 130 years. Measured against this, in 2005 Schiller's texts were at least remarkably close to a section of the German educated elite - at least closer than Schiller's contemporaries were from the then just as distant but almost forgotten German baroque literature .
- Heike Bungert: Festival culture and memory. The construction of a German-American ethnicity 1848–1914. Schöningh, Paderborn 2016, ISBN 978-3-657-78185-0 , p. 407.
- Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - extended edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
- On the national edition in the Marbach literature archive
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich (full name); Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von (from 1802); Schiller, Friedrich von|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German poet, playwright and historian|
|BIRTH DATE||November 10, 1759|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Marbach am Neckar|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 9, 1805|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Weimar|