Troop doctor (TrArzt) is the military post designation for the medical officer ( human medicine ) commissioned with the medical treatment and care of a unit . In addition to troop doctors, the military also has troop dentists as well as specially qualified aviation doctors and ship doctors .
There were also troop doctors in the medical services of the German concentration camps .
Since the last Bundeswehr reform, troop doctors in the medical service of the Bundeswehr have mainly been stationed in regional medical facilities of the Central Medical Service , where they are responsible for the care and treatment of the local military services and their soldiers . The number of troop doctors belonging to a regional medical facility depends on the number of troops to be looked after. The troop doctors remaining with the armed forces and the supporting medical staff are assigned to an association of the respective armed forces. According to Section 1 VorgV , the troop doctors report to the head of the regional medical facility, in the medical services of the armed forces to the respective commander , in terms of specialist services in regional medical facilities to the head of the department and in the medical service of the armed forces to the chief medical officer (LSO). In order to fulfill their tasks, the troop doctors are subordinated to appropriate medical personnel (§2 VorgV). The superior relationship with the patient is based on the special area of responsibility (§3 VorgV).
Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
In the standing armies of modern times were the German Nation Holy Roman Empire called regiment army surgeons (surgeons and surgeon ) and company Feldscherer and their assistants responsible for the sick, less often university- educated regiment of medicine (the actual doctors ). The regimental soldiers and medics often received a salary similar to that of the prime lieutenant , but were not officers until well into the 18th century. The wages of the company sergeants corresponded to that of sergeants or sergeants. In the stage, hospitals took over the reception of sick and wounded soldiers.
Since the beginning of the 18th century, the professional training of senior surgeons has improved noticeably. The regimental field shearers received academic training in Prussia from 1724 at the Collegium medico-chirurgicum , and in Austria from 1784 at the Josephinum Medical and Surgical Academy . In Württemberg it had been the High Charles School since 1770 , and one of its graduates was the poet Friedrich Schiller , who then served for a short time as regimental medicine . The Josephinum in Vienna was closed in 1874, and since then the army has only employed licensed medical professionals.
At the same time, the entire military medical staff was upgraded, as they were gradually placed on an equal footing with soldiers from the middle of the 18th century, which also led to ethical questions regarding the compatibility of the professions of doctor and soldier. In Austria the regimental field physicians were given the rank of officer, subsequently in Prussia also the regimental physicians, initially that of ensigns or lieutenants, later that of captains. The recruitment of staff physicians (Prussia) and rod field physicians (Austria) at Army, corps and division level was begun in the late 18th century its own military medical career.
The medical services of the armies in Austria and Prussia have been supervised by general medici or general staff physicians since the early 18th century , initially still in the rank of colonel. In Prussia a general surgeon was subordinate to the respective general medicus of a branch of arms (infantry, cavalry, artillery) .
At that time, the terms Feldscher / Chirurgus and Medicus were no longer used in a selective manner, but were often used synonymously . With the standardization of medical education in the middle of the 19th century, its previous division into two ends. The modern, comprehensively educated military doctor (at first often "only" a senior military officer, later then a "full" medical officer) combined the tasks of the traditional medicus and field surgeon and replaced them.
- Reinhard Platzek: Deadly violence and life-saving healing. Considerations for the doctor's activity in the service of the military. In: Specialized prose research - Border Crossing 8/9, 2012/2013, pp. 455–466.