Carlo Gozzi

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Carlo Gozzi

Carlo Gozzi (born December 13, 1720 in Venice , † April 4, 1806 in Venice ) was an Italian theater poet . At the age of 41 he wrote his first play The Love of the Three Oranges and wrote another nine fairy tale dramas over the next four years, on which his fame is based to this day. In his scenic fairy tales, Gozzi wanted to prove that even absurd magic pieces and scenes of transformation can convey truth of life and have dramatic powers of persuasion. He polemicized against Carlo Goldoni and Pietro Chiariwhom he accused of betraying the Commedia dell'arte .


After initial success, Gozzi fell into oblivion, but was rediscovered in German Romanticism and later in the Italian Theater of the Absurd . While Friedrich Schiller initiated the rediscovery of Gozzi with his adaptation of the Turandot at the beginning of Romanticism , it was Schiller's compatriot, the Swabian Karl Gustav Vollmoeller , who in 1911 created a new translation of the Turandotobtained from the Italian and edited the piece Gozzis for the stage. Vollmoeller wrote in his introduction: “Gozzi's work is dead. Never has a poet and his work been forgotten more quickly and cruelly in his own fatherland than Carlo Gozzi. His plays have never reappeared on the stages of the new Italy, and no publisher in his homeland has dared to attempt a reprint since the editions of 1772 and 1802. One of his works has seen a modern edition in Italy itself - but it is the German adaptation of Friedrich Schiller's »Turandot«, which has been translated back into Italian. ”The Austrian writer Otto Zoff also produced an adaptation of Gozzi's comedy at the Zurich Schauspielhaus in 1956 The king deer for world premiere, this piece is still very popular for school performances.

Gozzi's Turandot gained such popularity again through Karl Gustav Vollmoeller's 1911 work, for which Ferruccio Busoni composed the incidental music, that Busoni wrote and composed his own version of the opera Turandot . Even Giacomo Puccini's unfinished opera Turandot is based on Gozzi's piece.

Georg Büchner draws a parody of Gozzi in his play Leonce and Lena (1838).

Gozzi's piece La donna serpente was one of the models for Richard Wagner's first completed opera Die Feen . It was also set to music by Alfredo Casella in 1932 ( La donna serpente ). Sergej Prokofjew set The Love of the Three Oranges to music in 1919 , Il re cervo was the model for Hans Werner Henze's opera König Hirsch , composed 1953–1956.


The fairy tale plays ( fiabe teatrali ):

  • L'amore delle tre melarance 1761 (The love of the three oranges)
  • Il Corvo 1761 (The Raven)
  • La donna serpente 1762 (The woman as a snake)
  • Il re cervo 1762 (King Deer)
  • Turandot 1762
  • La Zobeide 1763
  • I pitocchi fortunati 1764 (The happy beggars)
  • Il Mostro turchino 1764 (The blue monster)
  • L'augellino bel verde 1765 (The beautiful green bird)
  • Zeim, re de 'geni 1765 (Zeim, the king of spirits)

Other works:

  • Amore assottiglia il cervello (being in love makes you stupid)
  • La Marfisa bizzarra. Poema faceto 1772 (German about: the bizarre Marfisa. Fun poem)
  • Memorie inutili della vita di Carlo Gozzi, scritte da lui medesimo, e da lui pubblicate per umiltà 1797 (useless memoirs of Carlo Gozzi, written down by himself and published humbly)


  • Carlo Gozzi: Le fiabe teatrali (= Biblioteca di Cultura. 261, ZDB -ID 1085225-6 ). Testo, introduzione e commento a cura di Paolo Bosisio. Bulzoni, Rome 1984.
  • Carlo Gozzi: Theatrical Works. Translated from the Italian. 5 volumes. Typographische Gesellschaft, Bern 1777–1779.
  • Carmelo Alberti (Ed.): Carlo Gozzi, scrittore di teatro (= La fenice dei teatri. 1). Bulzoni, Rome 1996, ISBN 88-7119-880-8 .
  • Alberto Beniscelli: La finzione del fiabesco. Studi sul teatro di Carlo Gozzi (= Collana di saggistica. 19). Marietti, Casale Monferrato 1986, ISBN 88-211-6571-X .
  • Michele Bordin, Anna Scannapieco (eds.): Antologia della critica goldoniana e gozziana. Marsilio, Venice 2009, ISBN 978-88-317-9822-8 .
  • Helmut Feldmann: Carlo Gozzi's Fiabe. The emergence of a genre and its transposition into the system of German Romanticism (= Studi italiani. Vol. 11). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 1971, ISBN 3-412-31171-5 (At the same time: Cologne, university, habilitation paper).
  • Antje Gessner: Carlo Gozzi and ETA Hoffmann. ( Memento from March 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg i. Br. 1995.
  • Bodo Guthmüller, Wolfgang Osthoff (eds.): Carlo Gozzi. Letteratura e musica (= La fenice dei teatri. 4). Bulzoni, Rome 1997, ISBN 88-8319-135-8 .
  • Gérard Luciani: L'œuvre de Carlo Gozzi et les polémiques théâtrales contre les Lumières. In: Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century. Vol. 89, 1972, ISSN  0435-2866 , pp. 939-974.
  • Robert Perroud: La défense et l'utilisation des 'masques' de la commedia dell'arte dans l'oeuvre de Carlo Gozzi. In: Roger Bauer, Jürgen Wertheimer (ed.): The end of the impromptu play - the birth of the national theater. A turning point in the history of European drama. Fink, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-7705-2008-4 , pp. 9-16.
  • Jean Starobinski : Ironie et mélancolie (I): Le théâtre de Carlo Gozzi. In: Critique. Année 22, No. 227, 1966, ISSN  0011-1600 , pp. 291-308.
  • Jörn Steigerwald: Serendipità or self-enlightenment in the medium of the theater: Carlo Gozzi's “Il re cervo”. In: The Eighteenth Century. No. 35.1, 2011, ISSN  0722-740X , pp. 73-89.
  • Frederik D. Tunnat: Karl Vollmoeller. Poet and cultural manager. A biography. tredition, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-86850-000-4 (read about Vollmoeller's commitment and work for Gozzi and his work).
  • Susanne Winter: Of illusionary reality and true illusion. On Carlo Gozzi's Fiabe teatrali (= Analecta Romanica. H. 73). Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-465-03509-1 .
  • Friedrich Wolficket: Fairy tales, enlightenment and ' anti- enlightenment': on the 'fiabe teatrali' Carlo Gozzis. In: Roland Galle, Helmut Pfeiffer (Ed.): Enlightenment. Fink, Paderborn et al. 2007, ISBN 978-3-7705-4298-7 , pp. 117-145.

Web links

Commons : Carlo Gozzi  - collection of images, videos and audio files