Calendar overview 1720
South Seas bubble in Great Britain is bursting, as is the
speculative bubble with Mississippi shares in France .
|Ulrika Eleonore, Friedrich I of Hesse becomes King of Sweden .||Villasur expedition to the Great Plains is wiped out by Indian warriors.|
|1720 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1168/69 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1712/13 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1125/1126 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2263/64 (southern Buddhism); 2262/63 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1082/83 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4053/54 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1132/33 (turn of the year 1st / 2nd November)|
|Jewish calendar||5480/81 (September 3-4)|
|Coptic calendar||1436/37 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2030/31 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2031/32 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1776/77 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- February 1st : Sweden concludes the peace of Stockholm with Prussia in the Great Northern War : Prussia receives Stettin , Western Pomerania to the Peene and the islands of Usedom and Wollin against payment of 2 million thalers.
- February 29 : Ulrika Eleonore abdicates as Queen of Sweden . Her husband Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel ascends the throne .
- April 24 to May 8 : Russian devastation in Sweden 1719 to 1721 : The Russian galley fleet under General Admiral Fedor Apraxin makes forays on the east coast of Sweden. The city of Umeå and 41 villages are burned to the ground.
- May 3 : Frederick I is crowned King of Sweden.
- July 14th : The Peace of Frederiksborg ends the Great Northern War between Denmark and Sweden . Denmark-Norway returns Rügen and Western Pomerania north of the Peene to Sweden, as well as the rule of Wismar , who paid 600,000 thalers for it and waived duty-free in the Sund .
- August 7th : In the Great Northern War in the sea battle at Grönham, a Russian galley fleet defeats Swedish sailing ships in the Åland Islands .
Quadruple Alliance War
- February 20 : The war of the Quadruple Alliance is settled by the peace treaty in The Hague. The Kingdom of Spain gave in at the end of last year when it realized that it would not prevail against the overwhelming power of its four allies Great Britain , France , Austria and the Netherlands . In Sicily , the fighting ceased shortly afterwards through the Palermo Convention . Philip V of Spain must vacate all conquered territories. However, Karl , the son of his wife Elisabeth Farnese , was awarded the duchies of Parma , Piacenza and Tuscany , which should fall to him after the male Farnese line soon died out . Pensacola in the Spanish colony of Florida is returned to Spain by France .
- The House of Habsburg exchanges the Kingdom of Sardinia against the possession of the House of Savoy located Sicily . This creates the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont under Viktor Amadeus II , the previous Duke of Piedmont. The Duchy of Savoy ruled from now on Viktor Amadeus' son Karl Emanuel III. The Kingdom of Naples is united with Sicily and in future ruled from Austria .
- August 14th : The Spanish Villasur expedition to the Great Plains is mostly killed in a battle by Indian warriors in North America.
- Brandenburg-Prussia gives up its St. Thomas colony in the Caribbean.
- Emperor Kangxi from the Chinese Qing dynasty conquered Lhasa , had the regent Tagtsepa installed by the Djungarian prince Tsewangrabtan executed and put the Dalai Lama Kelsang Gyatsho back on the throne. The Chinese Empire claims formal sovereignty (military protectorate of the Manchu ) in Tibet - while granting internal autonomy (regime of the lamas ).
- The Dutch West India Company takes over the remaining Prussian possessions in Africa under a contract with King Friedrich Wilhelm I. However, the chief known as Jan Conny continues to defend the Groß Friedrichsburg fortress and the surrounding colony against the attacking Dutch .
Trading companies and speculative bubbles
- February 1st : The General Society of Brazil Trade is officially liquidated by the Portuguese Crown.
- The South Sea Bubble , a British speculative bubble with shares in the South Sea Company , will begin to burst on August 18th . The result is a recession .
- November: After the failure of paper money and the bursting of the speculative bubble, France returns to the coin standard with shares of the Mississippi company . John Law , responsible for introducing paper money , leaves the country.
- December 29th : Floriano Francesconi opens the Bottega Alla Venezia Trionfante on the Piazza San Marco in Venice . After the owner, the restaurant will soon only be called Caffè Florian .
- A Swabian canvas dealer opens a shop in Vienna, which is soon to be named Zur Schwäbische Jungfrau because of its three daughters .
- Wilhelm Aschendorff founds a bookstore in Münster and publishes his own publications there .
- Christoph Späth founds the Berlin tree nursery Späth .
- A brewery is built in Schwarzbach .
science and technology
- December 21 : Margrave Wilhelm Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach declares the previous princely house library to be a public state library .
Architecture and fine arts
- July 2nd : On behalf of the Palatine Elector Karl III. Philipp laid the foundation stone for his future residence, Mannheim Castle . Master builder Johann Kaspar Herwarthel takes over the construction management, the construction plan probably comes from Louis Remy de la Fosse , the court architect of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt .
- The Dresden Kupferstichkabinett emerged as an independent museum for graphics and drawings from the Wettin art chamber founded in Dresden around 1560 .
- Daniel Defoe novel The Life, Adventures and Piracies of the Famous Captain Singleton ( Captain Singleton ) appears.
Music and theater
- January 22nd : Johann Sebastian Bach begins to compile a piano booklet for his eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann .
- April 19 : The world premiere of the musical drama Caio Gracco by Leonardo Leo takes place at the Palazzo Reale in Naples.
- April 27 : At the King's Theater in London is carried out in the presence of King George I. The first performance of the opera Radamisto by George Frideric Handel with libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym , which the libretto L'Amor tirannico, o Zenobia of Domenico Lalli as a model took.
- September 4th : The libretto Angelica , written by Pietro Metastasio on the occasion of the birthday of Empress Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel on August 28th and set to music for the first time by Nicola Antonio Porpora , will be premiered in Naples.
- October 12 : Lucio Vero by Pietro Torri with the libretto by Apostolo Zeno is premiered in Munich.
- November 4 : The world premiere of the opera Apollo in cielo by Antonio Caldara takes place at the Court Theater in Vienna.
- November 19 : The opera Astarto by Giovanni Bononcini is premiered in London.
- The Christmas Oratorio The Biggest Child in an Oratorio Auff Weynacht by Johann Mattheson will be premiered at the Opera am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. The poet of the libretto is unknown.
- Johann Sebastian Bach wrote the fair copy of the sonatas and partitas for solo violin in Köthen .
- After the death of the founder Eleonore Magdalene von Pfalz-Neuburg on January 19th, the Austrian Order of the Slaves of Virtue is dissolved.
- Paul von Kreuz founds the Catholic Passionist Order .
- Six nuns from the Bressanone Clarisse monastery move into the new Clarisse monastery in Hall in Tyrol .
- The St. Joseph Monastery in Altötting is founded.
- May 25 : The plague is introduced into Marseille by the merchant ship Grand-Saint-Antoine arriving from Syria . The great plague of Marseille killed around 50,000 people, half of the city's population. It then spreads to Aix-en-Provence , Luberon and the Alpilles . In the following year, a plague wall is built for reasons of protection . On August 21, the vice-legate Rainier d'Elci forbade the papal Comtat Venaissin to trade with the southern parts of Provence. All traffic in the mountains of what is now the Vaucluse department is prohibited.
- December 31 : An onset of severe storm surge causes considerable damage on the German North Sea coast . On Heligoland , the dune is separated from the main island in the sea, which also rages on the New Year .
Historical maps and views
- January 2 : José de Gálvez y Gallardo , Marqués de Sonora, Spanish nobleman, civil servant and minister († 1787 )
- January 4 : Johann Friedrich Agricola , German musician, composer and music writer († 1774 )
- January 25 : Johann Peter Snell , German Protestant theologian († 1797 )
- January 27 : Samuel Foote , English actor and playwright († 1777 )
- February 8 : Sakuramachi , 115th Emperor of Japan († 1750 )
- February 10 : Carl De Geer , Swedish industrialist, scientist and entomologist († 1778 )
- February 10 : Friedrich Bernhard von Prittwitz , Silesian landowner († 1793 )
- February 19 : Andreas Westphal , Swedish-Pomeranian anatomist and archiater († 1788 )
- February 22 : Jürgen Christian Findorff , German hydraulic engineer and peat colonizer († 1792 )
- February 26 : Giovanni Francesco Cardinal Albani , Italian Cardinal Dean († 1803 )
- February 28 : Matthias Desubas , French preacher and evangelical martyr († 1746 )
- March 3 : Joachim Günther , German sculptor and plasterer, court sculptor in the Prince Diocese of Speyer († 1789 )
- March 8 : Paul von Natalis , Prussian major general († 1789 )
- March 12th : Ernst von Apfaltern , Austrian Jesuit and philosopher († 1767 )
- March 13 : Charles Bonnet , Swiss scientist and philosopher († 1793 )
- March 15 : Philip , Duke of Parma and Duke of Piacenza and Guastalla († 1765 )
- March 22nd : Nicolas-Henri Jardin , French architect († 1799 )
- April 4 : Georg Michael Frank von La Roche , German politician († 1788 )
- April 26 : George Frost , American politician († 1796 )
- April 27 : Cosmo Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon , British nobleman († 1752 )
- Bernhard Joachim Hagen , German composer, violinist and lutenist († 1787 ) April:
- May 11th : Hieronymus Carl Friedrich von Münchhausen , German nobleman from the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and storyteller, "Baron of Lies" († 1797 )
- May 14 : Matthias Obermayr , German sculptor († 1799 )
- May 14th : Agnes Sophie Reuss zu Ebersdorf , landowner in Upper and Lower Lusatia († 1791 )
- May 15 : Maximilian Hell , Austrian Jesuit and astronomer († 1792 )
- May 30th : Henrik Adam Brockenhuus , Danish nobleman († 1803 )
- June 28 : Johann Christian Hebenstreit , German doctor and botanist († 1795 )
- June 30 : Giovanni Cornaro , Cardinal of the Catholic Church († 1789 )
- July 24th : Luise Ulrike of Prussia , Queen of Sweden († 1782 )
- July 31 : Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon , French statesman († 1788 )
- August 4th : Samuel Werenfels , Basel architect († 1800 )
- August 11th : Martin Gerbert , German Benedictine, theologian, philosopher, musicologist († 1793 )
- August 11th : Johann Michael Strickner , Tyrolean painter († 1759 )
- August 12 : Conrad Ekhof , German actor († 1778 )
- August 14 : Friedrich II , Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel († 1785 )
- August 17 : Charles Eisen , French painter († 1778 )
- August 18 : Johann Rudolph Anton Piderit , German Protestant theologian, clergyman and educator († 1791 )
- August 28 : Johann Anton Tischbein , German painter († 1784 )
- September 18 : Johann Joachim Busch , German architect and sculptor († 1802 )
- September 22 : Alexander Georg von Humboldt , Prussian officer and businessman, father of Wilhelm and Alexander Humboldt († 1779 )
- September 22nd : Adolf Karl Kunzen , German composer and organist († 1781 )
- September 27 : François de Broglie , French officer († 1757 )
- September 30 : Carl Fredrik Adler , Swedish naturalist and doctor († 1761 )
- October 3 : Johann Peter Uz , German poet († 1796 )
- October 4 : Giovanni Battista Piranesi , Italian engraver, archaeologist, architect and architectural theorist († 1778 )
- October 16 : Johann Georg Sulzer , German philosopher († 1779 )
- October 17 : Maria Teresa Agnesi Pinottini , Italian composer and harpsichordist († 1795 )
- October 17 : Geneviève Thiroux d'Arconville , French writer, translator and chemist († 1805 )
- October 19 : John Woolman , North American traveling preacher and author († 1772 )
- November 4 : Jean Baptiste Christophe Fusée Aublet , French botanist and pharmacist († 1778 )
- November 7th : Erekle II , Georgian ruler in the Kingdom of Kakheti († 1798 )
- November 10 : Honoré III. , Prince of Monaco († 1795 )
- December 7th : Henriette Amalie von Anhalt-Dessau , German nobleman and donor († 1793 )
- December 13 : Carlo Gozzi , Italian author and playwright († 1806 )
- December 13 : Johann Heinrich Schüle , German entrepreneur († 1811 )
- December 14 : Justus Möser , German writer and politician († 1794 )
- December 25 : Anna Maria Pertl , mother of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart († 1778 )
- December 31 : Charles Edward Stuart , "Bonnie Prince Charlie", exiled heir to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland († 1788 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Amarsanaa , prince of the jungle from the tribe of the Khoit († 1757 )
- Giovanni Battista Andreoni , Italian opera singer († 1797 )
- Giovanna Astrua , Italian opera singer (soprano) († 1757 )
- Anton I , Patriarch of the Georgian Orthodox Apostle Church († 1788 )
- Johann Friedrich Camerer , German lawyer, court officer, folklorist and archaeologist († 1792 )
- Maria Theresia von Eltz-Rodendorf , mistress of Bourscheid († 1803 )
- Madeleine de Puisieux , French writer and early feminist († 1798 )
- Johann Schobert , German composer, pianist and harpsichordist († 1767 )
- Melchior Dittmar von Wittgenstein , Mayor of Cologne († 1784 )
Born around 1720
- Cornstalk , leader of the Shawnees († 1777 )
- Franz Karl von Kressel von Gualtenberg , Bohemian civil servant († 1801)
- Mohlomi , philosopher and head of a group of the Bakoena that later formed the Basotho with other ethnic groups († 1816 )
- January 4 : Friedrich Wilhelm Leyser , German legal scholar and municipal councilor of Magdeburg (* 1658 )
- January 10 : Ramon Perellos y Roccaful , Grand Master of the Order of Malta (* 1637 )
- January 19 : Eleonore Magdalene von Pfalz-Neuburg , Empress of the Holy Roman Empire (* 1655 )
- January 20 : Giovanni Maria Lancisi , Roman physician and naturalist (* 1654 )
- February 6 : Johann Christoph Pfaff , Lutheran theologian from Württemberg and dean of the University of Tübingen (* 1651 )
- February 8 : Orazio Marinali , Italian sculptor (* 1643 )
- February 29 : François de Langes , governor of Orange, Prussian colonel and governor of Neuchâtel (* 1664 )
- March 1 : Johann Hektor von Klettenberg , German alchemist (* 1684 )
- March 1 : Johann Heinrich van Lennep , Dutch engraver, mathematician and engineer (* around 1635 )
- March 6 : Samuel Jenner , Swiss architect (* 1653 )
- March 13 : Giovanni Battista Alliprandi , architect of Italian descent, who mainly worked in Bohemia (* around 1665 )
- March 14 : Burchard von Suhm , Polish and Saxon diplomat (* 1666 )
- March 19 : Johann Ernst Gründler , German missionary in India (* 1677 )
- March 21 : Bernhard von Zech , minister and writer at the Saxon court in Dresden (* 1649 )
- March 23 : Hans Heinrich von Ahlefeldt , master of Gut Seestermühe (* 1656 )
- March 23 : Lorenz Werder , Mayor of Sankt Gallen (* 1646 )
- March 30 : Nils Gyllenstierna , Swedish field marshal and governor general of the duchies of Bremen and Verden (* 1648 )
- April 2 : Joseph Dudley , colonial governor in Massachusetts (* 1647 )
- April 6 : Pieter van Bloemen , Flemish painter (* 1657 )
- April 20 : Johann Wolfgang Jäger , German Protestant theologian and Chancellor of the University of Tübingen (* 1647 )
- April 21 : Anthony Hamilton , French lieutenant general and writer of Scottish origin (* around 1645 )
- April 23 (buried): Hinrich Klausing , German organ builder (* 1642 / 43 )
- April 25th : Johann Rodde , German lawyer and Council Secretary of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1692 )
- April 29 : Erdmuth Dorothea von Sachsen-Zeitz , Duchess of Sachsen-Merseburg (* 1661 )
- May 2 : Claude Delisle , French geographer and historian (* 1644 )
- May 16 : Jacob Vallan , Dutch medic (* 1637 )
- May 18 : Johann Carl Trumler , imperial court stonemason master, master builder for St. Stephan in Vienna (* 1657 )
- May 27 : David Hoyer , German painter (* 1667 )
- June 14 : Johann Zacharias Grundig , Kreuzkantor in Dresden (* 1669 )
- June 19 : Robert Knox , English navigator (* 1641 )
- June 27th : Guillaume Amfrye de Chaulieu , French libertine poet (* 1639 )
- July 4th : Johann Diecmann , German educator and Lutheran theologian (* 1647 )
- July 7th (buried): Maria Barbara Bach , wife of Johann Sebastian Bach (* 1684 )
- July 16 : Johann Gottfried von Bequerer , priest and official of the Archdiocese of Cologne (* around 1650 )
- July 24th : Kilian Stumpf , German Jesuit and priest in the China mission (* 1655 )
- July 27 : Johann Samuel Welter , German composer (* 1650 )
- July 30 : Bernhard Matfeldt , German lawyer, councilor and mayor of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (* 1661 )
- July 31 : Asmus Bremer , Mayor of Kiel (* before 1652)
- August 5 : Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea , English poet (* 1661 )
- August 17th : Anne Dacier , French writer (* 1647 )
- August 20 : Johannes Sembach , Mayor of Karlsruhe (* 1671 )
- August 21 : John Leake , English admiral (* 1656 )
- August 26th : Johann Christoph Volkamer , German businessman, manufacturer and botanist (* 1644 )
- August 30th : Leander Anguissola , Italian cartographer, educator, engineer and lieutenant colonel (* 1653 )
- August 30 : Jón Vídalín , Protestant bishop of Skálholt in the south of Iceland (* 1666 )
- August 31 : Johann Ernst Henfling , German businessman, lawyer and promoter of higher education in Meiningen (* 1691 )
- September 3 : Henri de Massue , French Huguenot nobleman (* 1648 )
- September 6th : Hugo Franz von Königsegg-Rothenfels , Bishop of Leitmeritz (* 1660 )
- September 9th : Philippe de Courcillon , French officer, diplomat and author as well as the Grand Master of the Order of Lazarus (* 1638 )
- September 18 : Martin Charbonnier , French horticultural artist (* around 1655 )
- October 10 : Antoine Coysevox , French sculptor (* 1640 )
- October 25 : Nicolas de Fer , French cartographer (* 1646 )
- Augustinus Fink , German clergyman and abbot of the St. Blasien monastery in the Black Forest (* before 1670) October:
- November 2 : Johann Alexander Böner , engraver in Nuremberg (* 1647 )
- November 3 : Frederik Dekkers , Dutch medic (* 1644 )
- November 6th : Benno Haan , Danish-German art sticker (* 1631 )
- November 12th : Peter Wessel Tordenskiold , Danish Vice Admiral (* 1690 )
- November 13 : Johann Kaspar Herwarthel , German architect and builder (* 1675 )
- November 16 : Mateo de la Mata Ponce de León , Spanish lawyer and viceroy of Peru (* before 1650)
- November 17th : Jack Rackham , English pirate captain (* 1682 )
- November 18 : Kaspar Waldmann , Tyrolean painter (* 1657 )
- December 20 : Anselm Schramb , Austrian Benedictine monk, historian, philologist and librarian (* 1658 )
- December 24th : Georg Friedrich Dinglinger , German painter and enamelur (* 1666 )
- December 28 : Johann Christian Neu , German historian and philologist, rector of the University of Tübingen (* 1668 )
- December 29th : Maria Margaretha Kirch , German astronomer (* 1670 )
- End of the year: Edward England , Irish pirate (* around 1685 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pietro degli Antonii , Italian composer and conductor (* 1639 )
- Robert Bruce , Scottish-born general in the Russian army and first commander of St. Petersburg (* 1668 )
- Theodor Hecht , margravial Baden-Durlach printer (* 1650 )
- Thomas Lefèbvre , painter and court architect from Baden (* 1636 )
- Tagtsepa , Tibetan regent during the Djungarian rule
Died around 1720
- Conradi , German singer and star of the Hamburg Opera