Erik XIV becomes
King of Sweden .
Charles IX. becomes
king of France .
|1560 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1008/09 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2103/04 (southern Buddhism); 2102/03 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||922/923 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3893/94 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||967/968 (turn of the year 21/22 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5320/21 (September 20/21)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1870/71 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1871/72 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1616/17 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
France / Scotland
- March 17th : Huguenots and discontented nobles dare the decisive blow in the Amboise conspiracy . The storming of Amboise Castle to bring the French King Francis II into their power, however, fails. Hundreds of conspirators died in the days that followed.
- July 6th : The Treaty of Edinburgh ends the 12th century Auld Alliance between Scotland and France . Presbyterian Scotland after the reform by John Knox would like to lean more towards England, which was also Protestant.
- December 5th : After the death of 16-year-old King Franz II , his 10-year-old brother Karl IX. new ruler in France . As a guardian, his mother Katharina von Medici took over government affairs . The widowed Queen Maria Stuart has little support at court and returns to Scotland in August 1561 .
- September 29th : Erik XIV becomes king of Sweden after the death of his father Gustav I. Wasa . Erik, who had plans to marry the English Queen Elizabeth I, cancels a planned trip to England . He also quickly tries to consolidate his power, especially with regard to his brothers Johann , Magnus and Karll , who have received large duchies from their father's will, but whose position in relation to the king is not clearly defined.
- May 14th : The five-day naval battle of Djerba comes to an end. An Ottoman fleet under the command of Piale Pascha prevails against the fleet of a Christian alliance under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria . The devastating defeat with the loss of 60 galleys and around 20,000 people on the Christian side brought about a climax of Turkish naval rule in the Mediterranean.
- A Portuguese fleet destroys Fort Coligny in the bay of Rio de Janeiro , founded by Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon to protect the colony of France Antarctique . The colony is broken up by the Portuguese in 1567 .
Certificates and foundations
science and technology
- April 20 : In St. Catherine's Monastery in Stralsund is a new school opened. Lorenz Wydeman becomes the first rector.
- Giambattista della Porta founds the Academia Secretorum Naturae in Naples , one of the first scientific academies in Europe.
The Dutch Renaissance painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder produced the painting The Children's Games in oil on wood . 80 different children's games from the Netherlands in the 16th century are shown. It is not known whether Bruegel himself gave the painting a name.
- The Italian chess master Giulio Cesare Polerio analyzes for the first time the double knight game in chess afterwards .
- The Italian chess master Giovanni Leonardo da Cutri is defeated in Rome by the Spaniard Ruy López de Segura .
- July 6th : After the peace agreement with England , the Scottish Parliament sets up a commission of six theologians , which, under the leadership of John Knox, summarizes the Reformation doctrine in just four days in 25 articles. When the Catholic party, called upon to comment, did not submit a reply, Parliament passed the Confessio Scotica almost unanimously in August , albeit against the resistance of Maria Stuart . As a result of this resolution, the Scottish Reformed Church comes into being . That is up Scottish Confession related to a year earlier incurred Confessio Gallicana the French Huguenots and the Confessio Belgica of 1561 .
- Jean Calvin and Pierre Viret try - initially in vain - to introduce Holy Communion stamps in Geneva .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 17th : Caspar Bauhin , Swiss botanist and university professor († 1624 )
- January 23 : Ortolph Fomann the Elder , German philosopher and legal scholar († 1634 )
- March 13 : Wilhelm Ludwig , Count of Nassau-Dillenburg and governor of Friesland († 1620 )
- June 25 : Wilhelm Fabry , city doctor in Bern and founder of scientific surgery († 1634 )
- June 25 : Juan Sánchez Cotán , Spanish painter († 1627 )
- July 9 : Karl Ludwig zu Sulz , Imperial Feldzeugmeister and President of the Court War Council († 1616 )
- August 7 : Elisabeth Báthory , Hungarian nobleman, the blood countess († 1614 )
- August 10 : Hieronymus Praetorius , German organist and composer († 1629 )
- August 11 : Theodosius Fabricius , German Lutheran theologian († 1597 )
- September 4 : Karl I , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld († 1600 )
- October 29 : Christian I , Elector of Saxony († 1591 )
- November 3 : Annibale Carracci , Italian painter († 1609 )
- November 27 : Domenico Tintoretto , Venetian painter († 1635 )
- November 28 : Baltasar of Marradas , Spanish nobleman, Knight of Malta, Imperial Field Marshal, governor in Bohemia († 1638 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Robert Abbot , English clergyman († 1618 )
- Felice Anerio , Italian composer († 1614 )
- Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona , Cardinal († 1612 )
- William Brade , English composer, violinist and viol virtuoso († 1630 )
- Markantun de Dominis , mathematician, Jesuit, Bishop of Senj and Archbishop of Split († 1624 )
- Gilbert Gifford , English double agent († 1590 )
- Jean Le Clerc French geographer, engraver, printer and publisher († 1621 )
- Anthony Munday , English author († 1633 )
- Anton Praetorius , reformed pastor, fighter against witch trials and torture († 1613 )
Born around 1560
First half of the year
- January 1 : Joachim du Bellay , French writer (* around 1522 )
- January 8 : Johannes á Lasco , Reformation theologian (* 1499 )
- January 15 : Franz Burchart , German scholar and politician (* 1503 )
- before February 7th : Baccio Bandinelli , Italian sculptor (* 1488 or 1493 )
- February 14 : Philip I , Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast (* 1515 )
- February 16 : Jean du Bellay , Cardinal and Archbishop of Paris (* 1492 )
- March 4 : Albrecht VII , Count von Mansfeld (* 1480 )
- March 9 : Caspar Landsidel , German pedagogue and rhetorician (* 1514 )
- March 9 : Katharina von Tecklenburg , abbess of the Essen monastery (* 1517 )
- March 28 : Christoph Zobel , German lawyer (* 1499 )
- June 11 : Marie de Guise , Queen of Scotland (* 1515 )
- June 21 : Rudolf von und zu Frankenstein , Prince-Bishop of Speyer (* 1523 )
- June 25 : Konrad Nesen , German humanist and mayor of Zittau (* around 1495 )
Second half of the year
- July 25 : Nikolaus Bardewik , Mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1506 )
- August 1st : Melchior Volmar , German lawyer, philologist and humanist (* 1497 )
- August 7th : Anastassija Romanovna Sakharjina , first Russian tsarina (* around 1523 )
- November 12th : Caspar Aquila , German theologian (* 1488 )
- November 15 : Dominico de Soto , Spanish theologian and philosopher (* 1494 )
- November 25th : Andrea Doria , Genoese admiral and prince of Melfi (* 1466 )
- December 2 : Georg Sabinus , founding rector of the University of Königsberg (* 1508 )
- December 5 : Francis II , King of France 1559–1560 (* 1544 )
- December 7th : Ernst von Bayern , administrator of Passau and Salzburg (* 1500 )
- December 22nd : Caspar Voigt von Wierandt , Dresden fortress builder (* around 1500 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Onna Attena , wife of Count Otto III. and the mother of Johann II.
- Aman Isa Khan : Uyghur Muqam master, poet and musician (* 1526 )
- Sébastien de Montfalcon , Bishop of Lausanne (* 1489 )
- Agustín de Zárate , Spanish historian (* around 1492 )