Stralsund high school
The Stralsund grammar school , also (Stral) Sundisches grammar school , Latin grammar school Sundense , grammar school in the Katharinenkloster , was a humanistic grammar school founded in Stralsund in 1560 , which existed until 1945.
In his Stralsund church ordinance of 1535, Johannes Bugenhagen suggested that the three parochial schools be united. But it was not until 1559 that the council made a corresponding decision. The school was established in the former Dominican monastery of St. Katharinen and included a Latin school and a German class. It was called "New School", "Big School", also "School at St Katharinen"; the term “grammar school” was not used until the end of the 16th century. When it opened on April 20, 1560, the school had seven Latin classes with a total of 300 students and one German standard class (200 students). Under the Rector there was a Conrector , a Subrector, two Comcentores and a Succentor ; there was a preceptor for the German class .
School supervision and patronage were with the city council; ecclesiastical foundations served as funding. In 1561 the school received its first school regulations from Mayor Nikolaus Gentzkow , in which catechism and church service, especially singing at funerals, took up a large part. The school regulations were revised in 1591; a third version came into force in 1643.
In 1630 the school had 106 Latin and 105 German students. After 1680 (300 students) the German class died. Due to the effects of the Great Northern War , the number of pupils fell to around 120 in the first quarter of the 18th century, of which only five to six were in the Prima. In the last half of the 18th century the church service of teachers was abolished.
In 1764, Christoph Andreas Büttner, as rector, changed the curriculum so fundamentally that he could speak of a new facility for the grammar school. He set up mathematical and geographical classes as well as the writing and accounting class and a conduit , dance and fencing class . The aim was to gain access to all high-class professions , not just university studies.
In 1815 the school came under Prussian sovereignty and supervision, which led to the introduction of the Abitur exams in 1819 . 1834 taught Ernst Heinrich Zober , an early follower of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , a gymnasium and began to turn hours. The two real classes (IV and III) established in 1844 were branched off in 1852 to form an independent (upper) real school. Since then there have been six high school and one preparatory class. In 1808 the institution had 128 students in the grammar school classes; the number rose to 255 by 1855. In 1863 there were 217 students, 214 of whom were Protestant, one Catholic and two Jewish; four students were foreigners . From 1819 to 1856, 305 students successfully passed the Abitur.
Stralsund celebrated the 300th anniversary of the school in 1860 with commemorations, parades, church services, theater performances and balls. At the same time negotiations began for the Prussian state to take over the grammar school, but these were unsuccessful. From 1882 the curriculum, which was binding for all secondary schools in Prussia, was in effect.
Under the Rector of Rudolf Peppmüller on was Sedan Day 2 September 1900 by the Berlin sculptor courtyard Albert Manthe created Ernst-Moritz-Arndt unveiled -Büste, which was financed by donations since 1895th Arndt had attended the grammar school from 1787 to 1789, but suddenly left it. In the 1920s there were also plans to name the grammar school after Arndt, but these were never implemented.
127 teachers and (former) students of the grammar school died during the First World War. In her memory, a memorial in the form of an artistically designed window in the anteroom of the auditorium was inaugurated on December 22, 1931, connected to name boards and a memorial book; after 1945 it was eliminated.
In 1933, the high school served as the backdrop for the youth film Mature Youth . During the Nazi era , the school had 233 pupils in 1935, which has steadily decreased since then. The gymnastics club and rowing team fell victim to service in the Jungvolk and Hitler Youth , to which 90% of the students belonged in 1935/36. From 1936 the upper prima was dropped and there were only eight classes. During the Second World War , numerous teachers were drafted, the gymnasium was used as a granary, and in 1943 the lower classes were relocated to the Rügen National Political Education Institute , the former educational center in Putbus . In the summer of 1944, they then moved to the Seebad Prora children's area deportation camp . In December 1944, the students returned to Stralsund, but there was no longer any orderly instruction. After the Red Army took Stralsund on May 1, 1945 , the grammar school was not reopened. Existing pupils from the grammar school were assigned to the Ferdinand Schill Oberschule in Pencil Street and both schools were merged into the Schiller Oberschule on November 10, 1945 . In 1947 the Schiller-Oberschule was again merged with the Hansa-Oberschule for girls to form a new coeducational high school (from 1959: Extended Oberschule ), today's Hansa-Gymnasium Hansestadt Stralsund . After 385 years, the Stralsund grammar school no longer existed.
When it was founded, the school occupied the greater part of the Black Monastery of St. Katharinen, while the city orphanage and later a girls' middle school moved into the south-eastern part in 1619. The monastery church was used by the Swedes as an arsenal from 1678, also as the armory of the Swedish General Government , and from 1815 by the Prussians.
In the monastery rooms, the classrooms were on the first floor and the teachers' apartments on the upper floor, with the exception of the rector, who lived in his own house on the school premises (rector's house).
From 1711 to 1716, during the Northern War, the rooms were used as barracks, a warehouse and a hospital, as well as in 1758/59 during the Seven Years' War . Even during the Napoleonic Wars from 1805 to 1815, the entire monastery grounds served as a Swedish military hospital; the lessons took place mainly in the teachers' apartments. From 1815 the classrooms were restored. To celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Reformation in Stralsund, the large lecture hall was set up as an auditorium in 1823. He received the Latin inscription from Rector Karl Kirchner :
- “Ardua tecta vides, operosaque fulcra, viator? Sta, venerare: Deus vindicat hancce domum. Fundarat pietas: ipsique et moribus illam Doctrinaeque patres instituere sacram. ”
“ Wanderer, steep roof and laboring supports here you see. / Stand and worship; for God calls his this house! / Piety founded this for HIM and also for morals. / The doctrinal fathers then built the holy building. "
The auditorium, presumably the winter refectory of the monastery, a two-aisled room with five yoke ribbed vaults on octagonal pillars, received two new large pointed arch windows in 1840 and the interior was restored in 1878 by the city architect Ernst von Haselberg . For the school anniversary in 1910, former students donated new, artistically designed lead glazing in the two auditorium windows with depictions of Nikolaus Gentzkow , Lorenz Rhodomann , Johannes Bugenhagen and Christian Ketelhot , which were inaugurated in 1912 and completely removed after 1945.
From 1832 to 1839 the upper floor was expanded into classrooms, giving the school a drawing room and a physics room for the first time. From 1868 the previous Rector's House was also redesigned into a classroom and received a new, neo-Gothic gable with large windows.
In 1913 the grammar school got a gym on the north side of the Katharinenkirche for common use with the upper secondary school. It served as a granary during World War II.
In November 1919 a vault collapsed in the Remter ; the school was then relocated to an alternative quarter on the corner of Frankenwall and Weidendamm. Only after years of security work was the school able to return to the Katharinenkloster in 1925. At the same time, as early as 1924, the local history museum moved into the southeastern part of the building with the remter and chapter house, and new museum rooms were built by 1931.
The building was slightly damaged in the air raid on Stralsund on October 6, 1944 . In 1945 refugees found temporary accommodation in the school rooms. After the school was not reopened after the end of the war, the Stralsund Cultural History Museum used part of the classrooms, especially the auditorium, which - now known as the Winter Remter - housed the city history department.
With the establishment of the Oceanographic Museum from 1951, it received the former drawing room and the two teachers' rooms.
Books have been acquired and collected since the school was founded in 1560. Johann Carl Dähnert reports that the oldest donation entry is in a Tertullian edition from 1528, which the preacher Jonas Staude gave to the library when it opened on September 23, 1562. But it was not until 1627 under Rector Andreas Helvigius that the grammar school library was formally established . The council ensured that she received an acquisition budget through the allocation of fines ; In addition, she repeatedly received gifts of books and money from teachers, pastors, booksellers, councilors and others. In 1644 the council transferred a collection of 112 volumes that it had acquired in 1579 from the heirs of the poet Zacharias Orth . In his library Orth had brought together his own works as well as those of well-known contemporaries such as Johannes Bugenhagens , Philipp Melanchthon and well-known poets at the time. Many volumes have his own signature and the inscription ZOPL (Zacharias Orthus poeta laureatus) on the book cover . The inventory includes works of the Greek and Latin classics, including a Basel print of the New Testament in Greek from 1533. Orth's own titles include two Carmina (Rostock 1556 and 1562), a funeral poem for the Pomeranian Duke Philip I (Greifswald 1560) and Trium Romanorum imperatorum… vita… (Wittenberg 1577). The high school library was continuously expanded. Christian (von) Staude, the son of the rector Johann Hieronymus Staude , who had been raised to the Swedish nobility as a Swedish chancellery, bequeathed an important coin collection to her in her will, which is now kept as a high school collection in the Kulturhistorisches Museum Stralsund . In 1755, Johann Carl Dähnert estimated the holdings to be over 1,000 volumes, including more than a third folios . The request of the rector Christian Heinrich Groskurd to the Prima pupils to donate a book to them when they left school became important for the further rapid growth of the library . Under his leadership, the library became a cultural urban meeting place . In the 19th century, Ernst Heinrich Zober created the first catalog of the holdings, which at that time had already grown to around 4,000 volumes.
The library, which contained an important old stock of Pomeranica , was transferred to the Stralsund City Archives in 1945 and thus became archive material ; At that time, after the inventory for the handbook of historical book collections, it still comprised 2,630 titles. The incunabula were placed in the archival library's cradle print holdings. In 2012 the city of Stralsund sold almost all of the remaining inventory to an antiquarian. It was initially unclear whether the volumes from Orth's library belonged to the inventory sold.
The sale was announced on October 17, 2012 at a press conference. The buyer had informed the city of the poor condition of the volumes . The sale was then made known to the general public through protests by the historian Klaus Graf . According to the public agenda, the sale of the 5926 volumes from the archive was based on a non-public resolution of the Main Committee of the Citizenship of the Hanseatic City of Stralsund on June 5, 2012.
On November 20, 2012, the opinion of the historians Nigel F. Palmer and Jürgen Wolf on the sale of the high school library was published. As a result of this report, the Hanseatic City of Stralsund initiated the reversal of the sale and has now completed it.
Of the 5,926 volumes sold in 2012, 5,278 volumes were bought back by the antiquarian. Another 63 volumes were returned to the city or purchased on the open market. As of February 2014, another 585 volumes are missing, of which at least three are offered by a New York antiquarian. The price of the equivalent of 182,000 euros for a volume of works by Johannes Kepler alone doubled the proceeds achieved by the city for all volumes. This volume was returned to the Stralsund library in April 2014 for 44,000 euros, the purchase price of the New York auction house.
- Lorenz Wydeman (1560–1562)
- Nicolaus Strokrantz (1562-1565)
- Joachim Illies (1565–1569)
- Kaspar Jentzkow (1569–1598)
- Lorenz Rhodomann (1598–1601)
- Lorenz Zircman (1601-1606)
- Joachim Drenckhan (1607–1616)
- Andreas Helwig (1617–1643)
- Benedikt Bahr (1643–1655)
- Johann Hieronymus Staude (1655–1663)
- Barachias Spradler (1664–1667)
- Lorenz Bünsow (1668–1679)
- Peter Behr (1681-1691)
- Jakob Wolf (1697–1723)
- Christoph Pyl (1723–1739)
- Adolf Gideon Bartholdi (1740–1755)
- Christoph Andreas Büttner (1755–1774)
- Carl Gotthelf Unger (1775–1778)
- Christian Heinrich Groskurd (1779–1804)
- Adolf Friedrich Furchau (teacher) (1804–1819)
- Karl Kirchner (1820–1831)
- Johann Ernst Nizze (1832–1865)
- Albert Karl Ernst Bormann (1866–1873)
- Ferdinand Winter (1873–1888)
- Rudolf Peppmüller (1889–1904)
- Wilhelm Hahn (1904–1913)
- Ernst Faulstich (1913–1925)
- Heinrich Stengel (1926–1945)
- Christoph Gottlieb Groskurd , 1797–1823
- Karl Lappe , 1801-1817
- Ferdinand Hasenbalg , 1823–1836, then director of the Putbus pedagogy
- Ernst Heinrich Zober , 1824–1869
- Carl Freese , 1832-1834
- Johannes von Gruber , 1834–1875, also vice rector
- Theodor Horn
- Christian Andreas Cothenius (until 1728)
- Johann Joachim Spalding
- Thomas Heinrich Gadebusch (until 1728)
- Paschen von Cossel (until 1731)
- Johann Carl Dähnert (until 1738)
- Ehrenfried Christian Colberg (until 1748)
- Johann Christoph Ziemssen (until 1766)
- Johann Jacob Grümbke (1783 to 1790)
- Johann Erichson (1783 to 1795)
- Ernst Moritz Arndt (1787 to 1789)
- Arnold Ruge (1787 to 1789)
- Adolph Wilhelm Picht (1787 to 1790)
- Carl Genzken (until 1802)
- Karl Gustav Fabricius (until 1806)
- Albert Theodor Wossidlo (until 1814)
- Karl Ferdinand Fabricius (until 1818)
- Ferdinand Piper (1818 to 1829)
- Johann Friedrich von Pommer Esche (until 1822)
- Adolf von Pommer Esche (until 1823)
- Hermann Burmeister (1813 to 1825)
- Ferdinand Picht
- Karl Hellmuth Dammas
- Magnus Boettger
- Rudolf Baier (1827 to 1846)
- Ernst von Haselberg
- Heinrich Kruse
- Otto Fock (1834 to 1837)
- Friedrich Spielhagen (1834 to 1837)
- Otto Heyden (until 1839)
- Carl Hermann Theodor Haase
- Aurel Meinhold , changed to Stargard
- Carl Friedrich Tamms (until 1847)
- Wilhelm Büchsel (until 1865)
- Julius von Platen (until 1870)
- Ernst Siemerling (until 1877)
- Carl Ludwig Schleich (until 1879)
- Hermann Lietz (until 1879)
- Julius Rollmann (1875 to 1885)
- Richard Karutz (until 1886)
- Ernst Heinrich Zober : On the history of the Stralsund high school.
- First contribution: The time of the first three rectors (1560–1569). Stralsund 1839
- Second contribution: The period from 1569 to 1616. Stralsund 1841
- Third contribution: The period from 1617 to 1679. Stralsund 1848
- Fourth contribution: The period from 1680 to 1755. Stralsund 1858
- Fifth contribution: The period from 1755 to 1804.Stralsund 1859
- Digitized version of the five parts , copy from Harvard University (ex library of Naumburg high school)
- Sixth contribution: The period from 1804 to 1860.
All six contributions were published together in 1860 as:
- Documented history of the Stralsund grammar school: from its foundation 1560 to 1860. Stralsund: Löffler 1860
- Digitized from Stanford University copy
- Ludwig Wiese (Hrsg.): The higher school system in Prussia: historical-statistical representation, on behalf of the Minister of the clergy, teaching and medicinal matters. Wiegandt and Grieben, Berlin 1864, p. 155 ( digitized version )
- Hermann Wähdel: On the history of the Stralsund high school. 7. The period from 1860-1890. School program 1891.
- Ernst Kasten: Festschrift to celebrate the three hundred and fifty years of existence of the Stralsund grammar school on April 20, 1910. Stralsund 1910
- Ulrich Albrecht (Ed.): Memories of the Stralsund high school. Plön: Association of former Stralsund high school students 1985
- Franz Kössler: Personal lexicon of 19th century teachers: professional biographies from school annual reports and school programs 1825 - 1918 with lists of publications , preprint of the University Library of Giessen, Giessen 2008 ( digitized version )
- Chronicle of the events from 2012 onwards at www.stralsund.de
- Literature about the Stralsund high school in the state bibliography MV
- Christoph Andreas Büttner: Preliminary news of the new facility of the Stralsundischen Gymnasium. 1764
- Albrecht (lit.), p. 23
- After Wiese (lit.)
- Rudolf Peppmüller: The Arndt ceremony in the gymnasium at Stralsund occasion of the inauguration of the monument of the Celebrated on September 2, 1900. 1901
- Albrecht (lit.), p. 21
- According to Albrecht (Lit.), p. 52
- According to the annual school report, see Albrecht (lit.), p. 49
- Hans-Joachim Hacker: Schill and Stralsund. In: Veit Veltzke (ed.): For freedom - against Napoleon: Ferdinand von Schill, Prussia and the German nation. Cologne / Weimar: Böhlau 2009 ISBN 978-3-412-20340-5 , pp. 391-400, here p. 398
- Albrecht (lit). P. 66
- Johann Carl Dähnert: Pomeranian Library . Volume 4, Greifswald 1755 ( online ), p. 72
- See the description of the holdings of the Stralsund archive library in the handbook of historical book holdings
- (Fabian manual)
- See Klaus Graf's request for information to the city of Stralsund
- meeting with agenda , accessed on October 31, 2012 (archive version, accessed on December 8, 2017)
- Save the Stralsund archive library , accessed on November 15, 2012, at this point in time 2,361 signatures on openPetition
- Causa Stralsund: Partial success: Antiquarian stops selling , accessed on November 15, 2012
- Opinion on the cultural and historical value of the Stralsund "Gymnasialbibliothek" is available (11/20/2012) , accessed on November 20, 2012
- Expert opinion on the cultural and historical value of the Stralsund high school library ( Memento of the original from January 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Books from Stralsund in the USA turned up ( memento of the original from March 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Report in the 'Magazin Art from February 25, 2014, accessed on February 25, 2014
- 400 year old doctoral publication: Kepler returns to Stralsund. In: Schweriner People's Newspaper , April 10, 2014; In the Press - Rare Kepler Book Returns to Stralsund, Germany. In: International League of Antiquarian Booksellers (website), April 25, 2014.
- Wittenberg matriculation
- Gymnasium zu Stralsund 1840 - invitation to public examination and speech practice , p. 18 ff. ( The Rectors from 1569-1616 ), supplement in: Sundine: Unterhaltungsblatt für Neu-Vorpommern and Rügen , Volume 14, Hauschildt, 1840 (digitized version)
- On the history of the Stralsund grammar school , Verlag der Löffler'schen Buchhandlung, Stralsund 1839