Ernst Moritz Arndt

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Ernst Moritz Arndt
Arndt's desk, Stralsund Museum

Ernst Moritz Arndt (born December 26, 1769 in Groß Schoritz ; † January 29, 1860 in Bonn ) was a German nationalist and democratic writer , historian and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly . As a publicist and poet, he mainly devoted himself to mobilizing against the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte in Germany. Therefore he is also called a freedom fighter . He is considered an important poet of the era of the Wars of Liberation . The extent to which his statements about Judaism are to be assessed as anti-Semitic is controversial.

EM Arndt as an assistant figure at the equestrian monument for Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia on the Heumarkt in Cologne


Youth and student days

Arndt's birthplace

Ernst Moritz Arndt was born between the Seven Years' War and the French Revolution . His father Ludwig Nikolaus Arndt (1740-1808) could, although he was only the son of a shepherd in the lordship of Putbus in Swedish Pomerania , on March 28, 1769 for the high sum of 80 thalers from the serfdom of Count Malte Friedrich Putbus ransomed and at the time Arndt was born he worked as an inspector on the Count's estate. In 1776 the father became a tenant of various properties on Rügen.

His mother Friederike Wilhelmine (née Schumacher, 1747–1804), daughter of a farmer, shaped his early upbringing significantly through folk legends and Bible stories.

The father sent his free-born son after lessons from private tutors from February 1787 to 1789 to the high school in St. Catherine's Monastery in Stralsund . Ernst Moritz Arndt moved into the house made available by the city of Stralsund to the respective vice principal of the grammar school ( Adolf Friedrich Furchau during Arndt's school days ) in today's Mönchstrasse  45, opposite the library. Today the house is used by the German Maritime Museum and serves as a memorial for Hermann Burmeister .

From 1788 Arndt visited the Prima with Rector Christian Heinrich Groskurd . In autumn 1789 he was publicly praised for successfully passing the autumn exams. However, he himself no longer saw any point in studying at grammar school, left Stralsund and went to Zemmin outside of Swedish Pomerania . After the intervention of his father, who gave him the choice between continuing his studies or working on his parents' estate in Löbnitz , Arndt returned to his parents and stayed there until Easter 1791, where he practically finished the grammar school in "distance learning".

From May 1791 he studied at the universities of Greifswald and later Jena in addition to Protestant theology , history, geography and ethnology, languages ​​and natural sciences. After serving as candidate and private tutor with Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten , he undertook an educational trip through Austria , Northern Italy , France , what is now Belgium and part of northern Germany in 1798/1799 . He described his impressions in various travel reports.

Professorship in Greifswald

Arndt on the Rubenow monument erected in Greifswald on the occasion of the university's 400th anniversary in 1856

In April 1800 , Arndt completed his habilitation in history and philology in Greifswald with a text in which he spoke out against the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau . He married Charlotte Marie Quistorp, the daughter of Professor Johann Quistorp , who died of puerperal fever in 1801 after the birth of her son Karl Moritz . On April 22, 1800 Arndt asked the University of Greifswald to the teaching license of History and Philology to him on May 5, 1800 by the Governor General and University Chancellor Hans Henrik von Essen was granted later its the Arndt attempt at a history of serfdom in Pomerania and Rügen dedicated .

Arndt became a private lecturer at the university in 1801 . In 1803 he was sued by aristocratic landowners after his attempt at a history of serfdom appeared in Pomerania and Rügen . In it he was outraged and criticized the farming practices and serfdom in the past and present. Arndt wrote in his autobiography that the 1806 abolition of serfdom and patrimonial jurisdiction in Swedish Pomerania by the Swedish king was a result of reading his study. In the same year Arndt wrote the first part of his anti-Napoleonic pamphlet Geist der Zeit . After a stay in Sweden in 1803/1804, he received an extraordinary professorship at the Philosophical Faculty in Greifswald on April 11, 1806 at his request in November 1805.

In 1805, Arndt drafted an ordinance for the Swedish government on the establishment of a Landwehr in Swedish Pomerania, which came into force on April 30, 1806. From the summer of the same year Arndt worked more often for the government, which required his stay in Stralsund . There he made friends with Christian Ehrenfried Weigel, who had been working as a doctor since 1799 . He came with a Swedish officer named Gyllensvärd each other, which he imputed anti-German remarks, and dueled with him on July 12, 1806 where he was wounded by a bullet in the abdomen.

Escape and fight against Napoleon

After the defeat of Prussia in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt , Arndt had to flee from Napoleon's troops to Sweden. He arrived in Stockholm on December 26, 1806 , where he wrote the second part of Geist der Zeit , which was supposed to show the way out of the "foreign domination of Germany". Arndt worked in Sweden on the translation of the Swedish code of law so that it could be introduced in Swedish Pomerania.

After the fall of King Gustav IV Adolf , Arndt left his asylum in 1809 and returned illegally to Germany. At first he lived with his siblings in the country and then went to Berlin to Georg Andreas Reimer , where he was introduced to a patriotic circle to which u. a. Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , Hermann von Boyen , August Neidhardt von Gneisenau and Friedrich Schleiermacher belonged.

When in 1812 Napoleon Friedrich Wilhelm III. Forced into an alliance by Prussia to war against Russia , numerous German opponents of France went to Russia. Among them was Freiherr vom Stein , who saw in Arndt a companion to support the German national consciousness against French foreign rule and invited him to become his private secretary. Arndt followed him via Prague to Saint Petersburg . His duties included, above all, correspondence with England and Germany, especially regarding the Russian-German Legion and a coalition between England and Russia . During this time Arndt published most of his patriotic songs and poems and his writings against France.

At the beginning of the Liberation War, Arndt wrote the short catechism for the German soldier and the catechism for the German warrior and military man . In this script he castigates the "war of the tyrants":

"But whoever fights for the tyrant and draws the murderous sword against justice, his name is cursed by his people and his memory never blossoms among people."

- Catechism for the German warrior and military man, Cologne 1815, p. 10

"It was often bloody tyrants who stood to destroy freedom and justice ..."

- Catechism, p. 24

His example of a tyrant in this writing is Napoleon Bonaparte. This work contains, among other things, eloquent descriptions of the battles that were fought against Napoleon:

“But behind him he left almost all of his artillery, and more than 100,000 dead, wounded, prisoners and dispersed; in addition, all hospitals full of tens of thousands of sick and wounded from previous battles. On his flight from Leipzig to Mainz he lost almost half of the rest of the army through fighting, exhaustion and hunger and brought no more than 80,000 men across the Rhine of the 400,000 men he had rounded up in Germany since the previous winter. in such a miserable condition that half of them will certainly perish from disease. So in Germany, too, God had judged the wicked. "

- Catechism, pp. 23/24

In this writing, as in numerous poems by him, the striving for the greatest possible freedom (which, however, did not represent a democracy, but a constitutional monarchy ) is expressed:

“Man should obey with freedom and do what is right because it pleases his heart. And there are many vices to be called shameful, but the most shameful of all is a servile mind. For whoever lost freedom lost all virtue, and shame cled to broken courage. Who with dog-like sense of the word withholds the right, soon sneaks around the right with the wrong. "

- Catechism, p. 8

He writes about war, soldiers and the behavior of soldiers:

"Because war is an evil and violence is the greatest evil."

- Catechism, p. 32

“Whoever bears the sword should be kind and pious like an innocent child, for I was girded around him as a shield for the weak and to humiliate the arrogant. That is why there is no greater disgrace in nature than a warrior who abuses the defenseless, compels the weak, and kicks the defeated in the dust. "

- Catechism, p. 31

“Such a soldier, who is predatory, hard-hearted and cruel, is rightly called much worse than a mugger and should be punished like other disgraceful boys with the gallows and wheels. Because he dishonors the holy state of the citizen and makes strength and courage, which the people should protect, their curse "

- Catechism, p. 34

Alongside the attempt at a history of serfdom in Pomerania and Rügen , this work is one of the most important, and Arndt's statements in it were revolutionary at the time.


After Napoleon's defeat in the Russian campaign and the beginning of the wars of liberation, Arndt returned to Swedish Pomerania in 1813. From summer 1816 to March 1817 he was in Stralsund, which has been Prussian since 1815, and met u. a. his long-time friend Gottfried Christian Mohnike , his former vice-principal Furchau and his son Adolf Friedrich . He continued to support the national unity movement through various writings, u. a. The Rhine, Germany's river, but not Germany's border , where he called for the German-speaking Rhineland to be separated from France.

To support Protestant Pietism , he published the German People's Catechism . Arndt also wrote against French politics, philosophy and the way of life, for example in leaflets such as Über Volkshass und über die Sprachhass und über die Fremdsprache (1813), About the relationship of England and France to Europe (1813) and one more word about the French and about us (1814). In the text Das Prussische Volk und Heer (1813) he recommended Prussian leaders "to let the spirit free and to make the people war-trained". His Kriegs- und Vaterlandslieder, Lieder für Teutsche (1813) and Kriegs- und Wehrlieder (1815), date from the same period . In 1813 he published the third part of Geist der Zeit , in which he outlined the main features of a new constitution for Germany.

Arndt was very positive about the establishment of the original fraternity , which wanted to overcome the previous student country teams in favor of a national organization. Alongside Jahn and the Jena professors Jakob Friedrich Fries and Karl Wilhelm Stark, he is considered to be one of their ideas. In his work Student State , published in 1815, he transfigured the student way of life in an antinomy to any bourgeois narrowness as “poetic freedom and equality, a self-sufficient and self-ruling life without coercion and without sin, where the immeasurable expanse of the spiritual world is open”. The establishment of student courts of honor also goes back to his polemics against student duels.

Professorship in Bonn, National Assembly

Arndt at an advanced age
Arndt's second wife "Nanna" Schleiermacher

In April 1817, Arndt got engaged in Berlin to Anna Maria Schleiermacher, a sister of the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher , whom he married on September 18 of the same year. In this year his fairy tales and memories of the youth and the fourth part of Spirit of Time were published . He went to the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität , established by Prussia in Bonn , where he became professor of history in 1818. His annual salary was 1,500 thalers.

In 1819 Arndt published the poem The Rock of Salvation in his work Von dem Wort und dem Kirchenliede . It is based on the Bible passage "I know who I believe in" from 2 Timothy 1:12  LUT . The song was included in numerous hymn books during Arndt's lifetime. It is now in the Evangelical Hymn book under the title I know what I believe in. The melody comes from Heinrich Schütz from 1628 in a slightly modified version from 1661.

Arndt's academic work in Bonn was short-lived. In 1819 his papers were confiscated as part of the so-called demagogue persecutions as a result of the Karlovy Vary resolutions for the fourth volume of Spirit of Time and Private Statements, and he himself was suspended from his teaching post on November 10, 1820. In February of the following year a case of "demagogic activities" was opened against him. It ended with no result. Arndt's demand for a declaration of honor was not met, but neither was he declared guilty. If he continued to receive his salary, his permission to give lectures at the university was withdrawn.

In 1826 Arndt had to completely resign from his professorship. It was not until 1840 that he was rehabilitated by Friedrich Wilhelm IV . Arndt gave a description of the process in the compulsory report from my life, from and with documents of the demagogic and anti-demagogic activities (1847).

Arndt also had to deal with blows of fate in his private life. In 1834 his youngest son Wilibald drowned in the Rhine. His son Sigerich Arndt became a member of the Corps Rhenania Bonn against the bitter resistance of his father, who was inclined to the fraternity and strictly rejected the principle of political neutrality . In 1841 Arndt became rector of Bonn University and taught and published until his retirement in 1854.

On May 18, 1848, Arndt entered the Frankfurt National Assembly as a member of Solingen . He remained non-attached, but was a member of the Imperial Deputation . Even before the assembly was constituted, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV had written to Arndt that he would not accept the crown offered by a democratic parliament. On May 20, 1849 Arndt resigned his mandate and devoted himself again to academic life.


Grave site in the old cemetery in Bonn

Arndt remained active as a patriotic writer. He wrote sheets of remembrance, mostly around and from the Paulskirche in Frankfurt (1849), a reminder to all German districts regarding the Schleswig-Holstein affair (1854), Pro populo Germanico (1854), blossom harvest from old and new (1857) and mine Walks and changes with the baron HK Fr. vom Stein (1858). Arndt was summoned to the jury court in Zweibrücken and sentenced to prison in absentia because of a field marshal General Carl Philipp von Wrede and the position in which the Bavarian military was defamatory .

In 1858 Hermann and Moritz Schauenburg dedicated the first edition of the General German Kommersbuch to Arndt . This dedication and a facsimile of his answer are printed in every edition of the Kommersbuch to this day. Arndt celebrated his 90th birthday in 1859 with general public participation. He died shortly afterwards on January 29, 1860. His grave is in the old cemetery in Bonn.

Relationship to France and Judaism

Ernst Moritz Arndt as a member of the Frankfurt National Assembly

Arndt's image of the German is based on an originally "pure" state of the people, which must be preserved:

“The Germans have not been polluted by foreign peoples, they have not become hybrids, they have remained in their innate purity more than many other peoples and have been able to develop slowly and quietly from this purity of their kind and nature according to the constant laws of time; the happy Germans are an original people [...]; every people will only become the best and noblest and be able to produce the best and noblest by always picking out the strongest and most beautiful of its tribe and allowing it to beget one another. "

Arndt is already arguing in fundamentally racial categories when he writes:

"First of all, every too frequent mixture of peoples with foreign substances is definitely a ruin, which produces conflicting instincts and dispositions and destroys the peculiarity and strength of the character of a people."

Arndt carried out very sharp anti-French propaganda in which he urged the Germans to hate the French people :

“When I say, I hate French carelessness, I disdain French delicacy, I dislike French talkativeness and flightiness, I may be expressing a deficiency, but a deficiency which I have in common with all my people. I can also say: I hate the English arrogance, the English brittleness, the English isolation. These hated and despised and censured qualities are not in themselves vices; in the people who wear them, they are perhaps connected with great virtues that I and my people lack. Let us therefore hate the French only freshly, let us hate our French, the dishonors and devastators of our strength and innocence, even more freshly, where we feel that they soften and unnerve our virtue and strength. "

He also warned against too close contact with Judaism : Although the "seed of Abraham " was barely recognizable due to the conversion to Christianity in the second generation , the "thousands that the Russian tyranny are now teeming with from Poland every year are harmful." will chase on the neck ”,“ the unclean flood from the east ”. He warned of an alleged Jewish-intellectual conspiracy , "Jews or baptized and ... anointed Jewish comrades" had "probably taken over half of the literature" and spread "their cheeky and desolate noise, whereby they ... every holy and human state order as a lie and Want to blow silliness into the air. ”The long“ unsettled existence ”would have lured out of them“ the mean, petty, cowardly and geeky ”, they were“ impatient with every hard effort and hard work ”and would therefore become“ light and fleeting ”after every one Strive for profit. Arndt described demands for dialogue, humanity and tolerance towards Jews as "universal philosophy and universal love", which are signs of "weakness and miserable". Even in old age, Arndt turned against the "restless, curious Hebrews who touch and stir everything".

His hatred of the French and the Jews merged; he called the French "the Jewish people". The French were to him "refined bad Jews". He accused them of human trafficking : “In all circles […] of the German tongue (were) orders were issued to send lists of the manly German virgins who shone through their wealth, beauty and grace. These should be taken to France and given to the French. This would have to be carried out as soon the noble German type would be on this side of the Rhine verbastardet been. "He said that most French women were" verbuhlt and lewd [...] in the hissing and whispering and gurgling snake language itself is already the slippery, track end [ for: Gleissende], seductive and sinful. "If people from west of the Rhine wanted to enter the country, then one should levy tariffs , as with cattle:" An article which serves more the liveliness than the cattle breeding is introduced annually in Germany, namely French and Jews. But it is extremely harmful to German human discipline, both in terms of the poisoning of the genuine German customs and the deterioration of the noble German tribe. ”He went on to write:“ I will work my whole life that the contempt and hatred of this people die In 1815 Arndt said of the French: "Jews [...] I call them again, not just because of their Jewish lists and their tightness, but even more because of their Jewish-like sticking together." Arndt also had contact with Heinrich Eugen Marcard and expressed approval in a personal letter to his anti-Semitic journalism.

The fatherlands song of the wars of freedom, which Arndt poems to be martial or militaristic from today's perspective, was also often criticized :

The god who made iron grow
wanted no servants,
so he gave the saber, sword and spear to
the man in his right hand;
therefore he gave him the bold courage,
the wrath of free speech,
that he would endure to the blood,
to the death the feud.

In Arndt's work, this was accompanied by an almost sacral exaggeration of Germanness and the national. So he lets God speak in a script:

"And because you should be the heart of Europe, you were dear to me, like my own heart, and you will remain dear to me forever."

- Spirit of Time I. Berlin 1912, p. 18

With regard to German personalities, he asked the question: "Where is the people, where is the man in Europe who does not bow down in adoration in front of these German names?" To call for the fight against the French and Napoleon, he referred to the Varus Battle and the Battles of the Teutons against the Romans: "So we go out to Hermann's battle / And want to practice vengeance" At another point, however, he expresses himself skeptical about an exuberant return to Teutons and the Middle Ages:

“There is a strange madness running through our German history, which I cannot make any sense of. When the Germans complain about the sad present, they like to fill their mouths with the omnipotence and insurmountable fearfulness and strength of their ancestors in the Middle Ages. I've looked around for it, but haven't found it anywhere. Of course, if in the oldest time everything that is Germanic was called German [...] "

- Geist der Zeit I, p. 97 f.

Effect and evaluation

Ernst Moritz Arndt Monument Alter Zoll (Bonn) (2017)

During his lifetime

What is the German fatherland

During his lifetime Arndt was highly revered and celebrated. His writings led to the founding of patriotic associations. a. in Giessen , Heidelberg and Marburg , which can be seen as the predecessors of the fraternities. His song What is the German Fatherland? was for a long time the unofficial anthem of the German unification movement. A number of monuments were erected for Arndt, including a. in Bonn and Stralsund.

Arndt's declared aim was to have an effect with his texts beyond the circle of the educated; he therefore tried to find a language that was easy to understand. He was aware that some of his publications, such as the Spirit of the Times , would only find readers in the educated classes, and therefore worked parts of them into a simpler popular book. Its editions were out of print within a few months in 1813/1814. The pamphlets Arndt should the educated as well as appeal to the uneducated reader. He consciously used a language that was "simple-minded, clear and devoid of any cleverness of the word".

The broad impact of Arndt is often emphasized, but it is difficult to differentiate between them. While Arndt's anti-French resentment fell on fertile ground, the success of his national commitment can hardly be measured. In research, the prevailing opinion is that the rural population may have had a “vague communal German feeling”, but that the country's patriotism and solidarity with the respective ruler dominated.

In National Socialism

The National Socialists regarded Arndt as one of their masterminds, for example because of such statements:

"Hopefully there will one day come a happy German hour for the world and also a god-born hero [...] who with a sharp iron and a heavy stick, called a scepter, can strike [the empire] into a great, worthy whole."

Shortly after the National Socialists came to power , the local director of the Stahlhelm applied for the Greifswald University to be named after Arndt. The Prussian State Ministry granted the permit in May 1933, since Arndt had “always fought for the freedom, honor and power of the German fatherland on the first front”. The church, consecrated in Berlin-Zehlendorf in 1935, was named Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Kirche ; In view of the strengthening of neo-paganism , Arndt was seen by those in charge as a key witness that one could very well be a good Christian and a patriot. In July 1943, Adolf Hitler's opponents in the Wehrmacht at the founding meeting of the National Committee for Free Germany also appealed to Arndt, who had written:

"Because if a prince orders his soldiers to use violence against innocence and justice, [...] they never have to obey."

post war period

Arndt and the Freiherr vom Stein in the "National Liberation Struggle" stamp series of the GDR Post (1963)
Special stamp of the Deutsche Bundespost (1969) with a portrait of Arndt

The GDR also claimed Arndt as a fighter against feudalism and a role model for friendship with Russia. The National Council of the GDR awarded cultural workers the Ernst Moritz Arndt Medal , which showed Arndt's portrait above the words The whole of Germany should be . Well-known recipients of the medal were u. a. Johannes R. Becher and Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler .

The Ernst Moritz Arndt plaque is the highest award given by the Federation of Expellees , the State Association of North Rhine-Westphalia.

In 1992 the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Gesellschaft e. V. founded, which promotes and conducts scientific research into the life and work of Arndt in the context of his time and in the aftermath of later epochs.

In 2001 the asteroid (16714) Arndt was named after him.

In addition to some streets, the following objects bear the name Arndts in Germany:


Scientific assessment

In research today, Arndt is seen as an important pioneer of German nationalism, and in some cases also of anti-Semitism. The historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler describes the sense of mission among the early German nationalists using the example of Arndt, who “elevated nationalism to a substitute for religion”. They did not see the nation as an ultimate goal, but as a means for the cultural ennoblement of all humanity. In this respect, Arndt's nationalism was connected with a "cosmopolitan idealism that saw in the unified nation the instrument for solving universal cultural tasks". This includes the belief in German superiority, but no idea of ​​a mastermind or German world domination . Like Arndt's emphasis on internal freedom, to which he attached as much value as national unity, was wiped away at the end of the 19th century by extreme nationalism, which always referred to Arndt.

The historian Heinrich August Winkler calls Arndt a “classic of German nationalism” alongside Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Johann Gottlieb Fichte . He quotes from Arndt's Über Volkshass of 1813 Francophobic statements (“I don't just want the hatred of the French for this war, I want it for a long time, I want it forever”) as well as his commitment to democracy, because I have for him there is no opposition between unity and freedom. Nonetheless, he saw the people, language and culture as objective factors and used them to justify his demands that Alsace or Switzerland belong to Germany.

The Germanist Jürgen Schiewe sees in Arndt's writings Über Volkshaß (1813) and Draft of a Teutschen Gesellschaft (1814) an "extremely problematic instrumentalization of language for nationalistic purposes": Arndt used the German language not only to construct a German national consciousness, but also to assert their superiority over French . For Arndt, public opinion is expressed in the German language , but he does not understand this in a liberal way, but as an expression of the German “ Volksgeist ” - if necessary also forced . According to Arndt, public communication should not take place freely, but purposefully, namely "towards an ideal of a 'holy German fatherland' laid down in history" ".

Christian Jansen also refers to the “biologization of political categories” by Arndt, whom he describes as the “mastermind” of German nationalism. With his concept of language as the “only valid natural boundary” of a people, he opposed the French notion of geomorphological demarcation. This ethnic definition of what is German not only led to hatred of France, but also to manifest hostility towards Jews. He had "excluded Jews and cosmopolitan intellectuals from the community of good Germans".

The anti-Semitism researcher Clemens Escher points to Arndt's national passion, which has become a religion for him. In this context, Arndt had "also raved about blood purity and national characters" and also published anti-Semitic polemics, in particular the Eastern Jews , that "unclean flood from the east", he accused of making the "Germanic tribe" unclean. His hostility towards Jews was not, like that of the National Socialists, biologically based, so Arndt could not be called a forerunner of racial anti-Semitism.

Discussion about the renaming of Greifswald University

In 2009, the Ernst Moritz Arndt University collected 1,400 signatures for the university to be renamed “University of Greifswald”. His anti-Semitic statements were given as the reason. Around 23 percent of the 12,300 students took part in the vote from January 11-15, 2010. With 56 percent of those who voted, the majority spoke out against the intended renaming. For now, the Senate ended the dispute on March 17, 2010, when 22 of 36 Senators voted to keep the name. On January 18, 2017, the Senate of the University of Greifswald voted again on the namesake. This time, 24 of 36 senators spoke out in favor of dropping the name Ernst Moritz Arndt . Due to legal defects in the procedure, the Ministry of Education refused to approve the Senate's decision. On January 17, 2018, the Academic Senate of Greifswald University again decided to drop the name Ernst Moritz Arndt, whereby, according to a compromise formula, Arndt's name can be placed in front of the official name University of Greifswald on certain occasions . This change took effect on June 1, 2018.

Renaming of Arndtstrasse in Leipzig

On January 22nd, 2020, the Leipzig city council accepted a motion from the MP Thomas Kumbernuss ( Die PARTEI , member of the left-wing parliamentary group ), in which the renaming of Arndtstrasse to “ Arendtstrasse ” was demanded. Arndts cited " anti-Semitic , racist , nationalist , francophobic and militarist tirades" as the reason .


In addition to political writings, Arndt published collections of fairy tales and sagas as well as religious poems, two of which are in the Evangelical Hymnbook (EG 213 Come here, you're invited and EG 357 I know what I believe in ).

Poetry, prose and drama

Political and historical writings

Title page of the history of serfdom
  • Attempt a history of serfdom in Pomerania and Rügen - In addition to an introduction to the old German serfdom. Berlin 1803, 277 pages, GoogleBooks .
  • Spirit of the times. Part 1, 1806 (2nd edition: 1807), 466 pages, GoogleBooks .
  • Spirit of Time 2. 1809.
  • The Rhine, Germany's river, but not Germany's border. 1813.
  • About hatred of the people and the use of a foreign language. 1813.
  • About the relationship between England and France and Europe. 1813.
  • The Prussian people and army. 1813, GoogleBooks .
  • The bell of the hour in three strokes. 1813.
  • Spirit of the Time 3. 1814.
  • One more word about the French and about us. 1814.
  • Views and prospects of German history. 1814.
  • Spirit of the Time 4. 1818.
  • A word about the care and maintenance of forests and farmers in the sense of a higher d. H. human legislation. Royal Deaf-Mute Institute, Schleswig 1820.
  • Swedish stories under Gustav the third: Excellent but under Gustav the fourth Adolf. Weidmann, Leipzig 1839.
  • Another small outpouring into the deluge. Decker, Berlin 1848.
  • Spirit of the Time 5. 1854.
  • Warning call to all German districts regarding the Schleswig-Holstein matter. 1854.
  • Pro populo germanico. 1854.
  • A word from Ernst Moritz Arndt, dedicated to the celebration on May 1st, 1814 in Rödelheim. S. l. 1814.

Philosophical and theological writings

  • Fragments on human education I. 1805.
  • Fragments on human education II. 1805.
  • Fragments on Human Education III. 1809.
  • Short catechism for German soldiers with an appendix of songs. 1813, digitized version , Bavarian State Library .
  • Catechism for the German warrior and military man. 1813.
  • About the word and hymns, along with spiritual hymns. 1819.
  • Attempt in comparative international histories. Weidmann, Leipzig 1842.

Autobiographical and letters

Commemorative plaque at the time with David and Josua Hasenclever in Remscheid
  • Travels through part of Germany, Hungary, Italy, and France in 1798 and 1799. Four parts. Gräff, Leipzig 1804².
  • Journey through Sweden in 1804. Reissued and introduced by Heinz von Arndt. With a foreword by Uno Willers. Horst Erdmann, Tübingen / Basel 1976, ISBN 978-3-7711-0227-2 .
  • Letters to friends. Joh. Friedr. Hammerich, Altona 1810.
  • Memories from Sweden. A Christmas present. Realschule bookshop, Berlin 1818.
  • External life memories. 1840. 2nd ed. , GoogleBooks .
  • A compulsory report from my life. 1847.
  • Sheets of memory, mostly around and from the Paulskirche in Frankfurt. 1849.
  • Blossom harvest from old and new. 1857.
  • My wanderings and changes with the baron Heinrich Carl Friedrich vom Stein. Weidmann, Berlin 1858.
  • My wanderings and walks with the Baron von Stein. Weidemann, Berlin 1858; Excerpted from senior teacher A. Otto, Schwann, Düsseldorf 1910 (digitized) ; with a foreword by Ricarda Huch . Grethlein, Leipzig 1925; Hoof, Warendorf 2013, ISBN 978-3-936345-52-0 .
  • Unprinted letters from Ernst Moritz Arndt from 1814–1851 to the businessman and factory owner Josua Hasenclever in Remscheid-Ehringhausen. In: Supplement to the Allgemeine Zeitung. Munich 1905, pp. 1-18 (digitized version) .
Selection of works

Most famous poems


Web links

Commons : Ernst Moritz Arndt  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Ernst Moritz Arndt  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Antonius Lux (ed.): Great women of world history. 1000 biographies in words and pictures. Portrait of Friederike Wilhelmine Arndt. Sebastian Lux Verlag, Munich 1963, p. 31.
  2. ^ Wolfgang Hardtwig : Student Mentality - Political Youth Movement - Nationalism. The beginnings of the German fraternity. In: Historische Zeitschrift , 242, issue 1 (1986), p. 593 f. and 602 (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
  3. Beate and Winrich Scheffbuch : Singing grief from your heart - this is how well-known songs were created. 7th edition Hänssler Verlag, 2001, pp. 79, 80.
  4. Sabine Gruber (T.), Helmut Lauterwasser (M.): 357 - I know what I believe in . In: Wolfgang Herbst , Ilsabe Seibt (Hrsg.): Liederkunde zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch . No. 15 . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-525-50339-3 , p. 31–35 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  5. Commons : I know what I believe in  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
  6. Weltgeschichte im Aufriss , Volume 2. Verlag Diesterweg, Frankfurt 1978, p. 191. Further evidence on “bastardization” according to Arndt bei Henschel 2008, s. Lit., p. 211.
  7. Ernst M. Arndt: A look from time into time. (1814), pp. 180-204. (Quoted from
  8. Geist der Zeit , 4th part, 1818
  9. a b c d
  10. EM Arndt: A look from time into time. (1814), pp. 180-214. (Quoted from
  11. Sources: Ernst Moritz Arndt: One more word about the French and about us. o. O. 1814, p. 13 ff. and appendix p. 1–4; ders .: The word from 1814 and the word from 1815 about the French. 1815, p. 71; many other references in Henschel 2008, see Ref.
  12. Arno Herzig: Arndt and the Jewish pogrom in Minden.
  14. Spirit of Time II , p. 235.
  15. ↑ The Spirit of Time I , p. 101.
  16. The most famous monuments are:
  17. ^ Karl Heinz Schäfer: Ernst Moritz Arndt as a political publicist. Studies in journalism, press politics and collective consciousness in the early 19th century. Bonn 1974, p. 123.
  18. Peter Brandt : The Wars of Liberation from 1813 to 1815 in German history. In: Michael Grüttner u. a. (Ed.): History and Emancipation. Festschrift for Reinhard Rürup . Frankfurt am Main / New York 1999, pp. 17–57, here p. 34.
  19. Niels Hegewisch: Purity in Diversity. Elements of racist theory formation in the journalism of early German nationalism. In: Birgit Aschmann , Thomas Stamm-Kuhlmann (eds.): 1813 in a European context. Stuttgart 2015, p. 79 f.
  20. Niels Hegewisch: Past that does not pass. Continuity lines Greifswalder Arndt reception 1931–1985. In: Niels Hegewisch, Karl-Heinz Spieß , Thomas Stamm-Kuhlmann (eds.): History in Greifswald. Festschrift for the 150th anniversary of the Historical Institute of the University of Greifswald . Steiner, Stuttgart 2015, pp. 202–211.
  21. Press release: Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Gemeinde decides to change its name. Evangelical Ernst Moritz Arndt Church Congregation, May 7, 2019, accessed on May 19, 2019 (English).
  22. ^ Hans-Ulrich Wehler: German history of society. Volume 1: From Feudalism of the Old Empire to the Defensive Modernization of the Reform Era 1700–1815. CH Beck, Munich, 1987, p. 520 f.
  23. ^ Heinrich August Winkler: The long way to the west , Vol. 1: German history from the end of the Old Empire to the fall of the Weimar Republic. CH Beck, Munich 2000, p. 61.
  24. ^ Jürgen Schiewe: Nationalistic instrumentalizations - Ernst Moritz Arndt and the German language. In: Walter Erhart, Arne Koch (eds.): Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860). German Nationalism - Europe - Transatlantic Perspectives. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-484-35112-7 , pp. 113-120.
  25. Christian Jansen with Henning Borggräfe: Nation - Nationality - nationalism. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2007, p. 45 f.
  26. ^ Clemens Escher: Arndt, Ernst Moritz. In: Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbuch des Antisemitismus . Volume 2: People. De Gruyter Saur, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-44159-2 , p. 34. (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
  27. ^ Arndt working group at the University of Greifswald Pros and Cons arguments, information from the Arndt working group at the University of Greifswald.
  28. ^ Article in Neues Deutschland
  29. Greifswald students vote for Ernst Moritz Arndt (NDR) ( Memento from March 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  31. Message on the homepage
  32. Ernst's problem. Die Zeit , No. 6/2017, February 2, 2017.
  33. The Senate of the University of Greifswald takes a position on the name discussion. March 15, 2017, accessed March 13, 2018.
  34. University Senate opts for a compromise solution for the university name. (No longer available online.) University of Greifswald, January 17, 2018, archived from the original on January 23, 2018 ; accessed on January 22, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  35. ↑ The name will be changed to “University of Greifswald” on June 1, 2018. Greifswald University, May 31, 2018, accessed on June 1, 2018 .
  36. The God who made iron grow (Liedertafel - Kameradschaftliche Mundorgel) ( Memento from August 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  38. Are we united at a good hour (Liedertafel - Kameradschaftliche Mundorgel) ( Memento from August 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  39. What is the German Fatherland? (Liedertafel - Kameradschaftliche Mundorgel) ( Memento from October 19, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  40. ^ Battle song in the Gutenberg-DE project