1860


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Gustave Le Gray : Giuseppe Garibaldi in Palermo
1860
Abraham Lincoln 1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the United States . Emma Livry in Le PapillonThe ballet Le Papillon by Jacques Offenbach will be premiered with Emma Livry in the title role.
Battle of Calatafimi, C. Perrin lithograph, 1861Garibaldi's “red shirts” defeat
the troops of the Kingdom of Naples in the Battle of Calatafimi .
Garibaldi (left) meets Victor Emmanuel II (right), painting by Sebastiano De Albertis, around 1870
Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted Victor Emmanuel II as King of Italy during the Risorgimento .
1860 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1308/09 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1852/53 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 16/17 (20/21 March)
Bengali solar calendar 1265/66 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2403/04 (southern Buddhism); 2402/03 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 75th (76th) cycle

Year of the Metal Monkey庚申 ( at the beginning of the Earth-Sheep year 己未)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1222/23 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4193/94 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1238/39 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1276/77 (July 19-20)
Jewish calendar 5620/21 (September 16/17)
Coptic calendar 1576/77 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1035/36
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1275/76 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2170/71 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2171/72 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1916/17 (April)

The year 1860 becomes the decisive year of the Italian Risorgimento . After unsuccessful attempts at unification on the Italian peninsula in previous years, the so-called “ Train of Thousands ” embarked on May 5th, under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, in Quarto near Genoa for Sicily . Garibaldi's troops, known as “red shirts”, defeat the troops of the Kingdom of Naples in several battles, advancing further and further north. On October 26th, Garibaldi finally met Victor Emanuel II , the King of Sardinia-Piedmont near Naples , after he had already annexed large parts of the previous Papal State. At this meeting Garibaldi renounces power in the new state of Italy in favor of Viktor Emanuel .

The opposite trend is emerging in the United States . In the presidential election , a Republican is elected president for the first time after the split in the Democratic Party , Abraham Lincoln . Although Lincoln has always campaigned that the decision on slavery is a matter for the individual states, he is perceived as a staunch opponent of slavery and is therefore not acceptable as President of the United States to the slave-holding southern states . On December 20, South Carolina became the first state to leave the Union. The following year, then breaking American Civil War from.

Civil wars or civil war-like hostilities are also taking place in several Latin American countries. However, while they are already drawing to a close in Mexico and Ecuador , they are only just beginning to break out in other countries such as Venezuela and Colombia.

The Chinese Empire subject in the Second Opium War the European powers after four years and will have the Beijing Convention ratify an unequal treaty in which the victors many discounts are granted. After the capture of Beijing, numerous Chinese cultural assets are destroyed by the Europeans. The Spanish-Moroccan war over the Spanish possessions in northern Africa continues and ends with a decisive victory for the Spanish. And in Australia there is a race between the expedition of Burke and Wills and John McDouall Stuart in an attempt to cross the continent from south to north.

chronology
January 1st

Switzerland : Friedrich Frey-Herosé becomes Federal President for the second time .

10. January

Federal War in Venezuela : Liberal General Zamora falls during the siege of San Carlos .

January 19th

Pope Pius IX publishes the encyclical Nullis certe verbis .

February 4th

Morocco / Spain : Spanish troops capture Tétouan .

March 23

Morocco / Spain : Battle of Tétouan

March 24th

Japan : Tokugawa shogunate, Ii Naosuke is murdered.

March 24th

Kingdom of Sardinia / France : Treaty of Turin , Victor Emanuel II joins Savoy and the county of Nice to Napoleon III. from.

4. April

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies : A popular uprising against King Francis II breaks out in Palermo .

April 22

France / Switzerland : plebiscite in Haute-Savoie about belonging to France or Switzerland

April 25

Morocco / Spain : Peace of Tétouan

1st of May

Pretoria becomes the capital of the South African Republic .

5th of May

Italy : The " Train of Thousands " embarks under Giuseppe Garibaldi near Genoa for Sicily.

May 15

Italy : Battle of Calatafimi

May 18

United States : Abraham Lincoln is nominated by the Republicans as a candidate for the November presidential election.

May 27th

Ecuador : Gabriel García Moreno starts an offensive against the elected government in Guayaquil .

June 7th

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies : Founding of the daily newspaper Giornale officiale di Sicilia in Palermo

2nd July

Russian Empire : Vladivostok is founded.

20th of July

Italy : Battle at Milazzo

13 August

Montenegro : After the murder of his uncle Danilo I, Nikola becomes Prince of Montenegro.

20th of July

Italy : Garibaldi crosses from Sicily to the mainland.

20th of August

Australia : Burke and Wills' expedition begins.

August 21

China : Europeans conquer the Second Opium War , the Taku Forts .

September 6th

Friedrich Wilhelm (II.) Becomes Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz .

7th of September

Italy : Giuseppe Garibaldi moves into Naples.

September 18

Italy : Battle of Castelfidardo

September 24th

Ecuador : The coup leaders under Gabriel García Moreno conquer Guayaquil .

September 24th

Ecuador gets a new flag .

September 29th

Italy : The last troops of the Papal States surrender to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia.

October 1

Italy : Battle of the Volturno

October 6th

China : Europeans conquer Beijing in the Second Opium War .

October 18

China : Second Opium War , Beijing Convention

the 20th of October

Austrian Empire : Decree of the October diploma

October 26th

Italy : Giuseppe Garibaldi meets Victor Emmanuel II.

28th of October

Swiss parliamentary elections 1860

November 6th

Presidential election in the United States, 1860

December 18th

United States : Crittenden Compromise

20th of December

United States : South Carolina declared its withdrawal from the Union .

Ongoing events
Federal War in Venezuela (since 1859)
New era in Prussia (since 1858)
Civil War in Mexico (since 1858)
Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)
Nian Uprising (since 1853) and Taiping Uprising (since 1850) against the Qing Dynasty in China (since 1644)
Bakumatsu (since 1853) of the Edo period in Japan (since 1603)
Second French Empire in France (since 1852)
Founding period in Germany and Austria (since around 1840)
Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)
Victorian Age in Great Britain (since 1837)

Events

Politics and world events

Risorgimento in Italy

Italy after the Congress of Vienna

At the beginning of 1860 Italy remained in a state of political fragmentation. In the south of the peninsula is the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , which has consisted of the island of Sicily and the former Kingdom of Naples since 1816 and is ruled by Francis II , a descendant of a side line of the House of Bourbon . To the north of this is the Papal State under the rule of Pope Pius IX. who sharply criticized the Italian agreement in an encyclical last year. The north of Italy consists of several duchies, most of which are still in Habsburg hands despite the defeat of the Austrians in the Sardinian War . Only the Lombardy could after the Peace of Zurich for the Kingdom of Sardinia -Piemont be won.

At the instigation of the Prime Minister of Sardinia, Count Camillo Benso be in March referendums in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , the Duchy of Modena , the Duchy of Parma , in Piacenza , Bologna and other areas of Emilia-Romagna on connecting to the Kingdom of Sardinia held all of which - probably also because only certain sections of the population are allowed to vote - go out in favor of joining the House of Savoy under Victor Emmanuel II . The French Emperor Napoleon III. acknowledges the results for which he has received from Sardinia in the Treaty of Turin Savoy and the county of Nice .

Depiction of Garibaldi's departure from Genoa at Quarto

Angry about this approach, the sale of his hometown Nice to France and Cavour's hesitant, pragmatic approach, the republican Giuseppe Garibaldi decided to take the Italian unification into his own hands. On May 5th - secretly supported by Sardinia and Great Britain - under his leadership in Quarto al Mare near Genoa, the so-called " Train of Thousands ", also known as "Red Shirts" because of their uniforms , embarked for Sicily with the aim of To fight for the unity of Italy. The Genoese district is later renamed Quarto dei Mille in honor of this event . With the two merchant ships Lombardo and Piemonte , chartered by the Sardinian government , they first go to Talamone and Porto Santo Stefano in Tuscany , where they receive provisions, weapons and coal and in this way also avoid the Neapolitan fleet. On May 11, the red shirts landed under the protection of two British warships near the western Sicilian city of Marsala to reach Palermo on their way through the interior. Already in the first days Garibaldi's troops received numerous Sicilian insurgents who had been fighting the rule of Francis II and the Bourbons in the kingdom since April.

Garibaldi's units encounter the Bourbon army earlier than hoped. At Calatafimi Segesta , a place near the western Sicilian provincial capital Trapani , they are discovered by reconnaissance units and put to battle by General Landi on May 15th. In the Battle of Calatafimi , the "red shirts" are on the verge of defeat, and Garibaldi's general Nino Bixio is already proposing to withdraw, which Garibaldi does with the famous words No, Nino, qui si fa l'Italia o si muore. ( No, Nino, here we make Italy or we die here. ) Refuses. Garibaldi's victory is due in large part to the fact that Landi underestimates both the determination of the "red shirts" and Garibaldi's strategic abilities, who can fall back on years of experience in various South American wars of freedom.

Palermo's plan during the late May uprising

Garibaldi's fighters are too exhausted after the victory to pursue the fleeing enemy, but the way to Palermo is clear. After minor skirmishes, Garibaldi moves into the city in early June, where an uprising against the Bourbons broke out at the end of May. On the way he received further influx of insurgents as well as adventurers from other countries. Among others, the photographer Gustave Le Gray and the writer Alexandre Dumas the Elder take part in Garibaldi's procession on Palermo. Shortly after Garibaldi's invasion of Palermo, on June 7th the daily newspaper Giornale officiale di Sicilia appears for the first time , today one of the oldest daily newspapers in Italy. On July 20, there was a final battle at Milazzo near Messina . With his victory Garibaldi can get Sicily completely under his control, where on July 22nd he gives his companion Giuseppe Sirtori dictatorial power.

Exactly one month later, on August 20th, the "train of a thousand", which has now grown tenfold, crosses over to the Italian mainland. The royal troops put up only half-hearted resistance to his advance north. On September 7th, Giuseppe Garibaldi entered Naples to the cheers of the population . King Francis II retreats to the fortress of Gaeta , where he prepares for a decisive battle.

In Turin, developments in the south of the peninsula are viewed with mixed feelings, because Garibaldi's successes endanger the leading role of Sardinia-Piedmont in the Italian unification process. King Victor Emanuel II finally decides to take action himself and sends the Piedmontese army south to "assist" Garibaldi. After Prime Minister Cavour met Napoleon III. has reassured that France will not intervene in an attack on the Papal States unless Rome itself is attacked, the army marches under General Enrico Cialdini in the Marche and Umbria .

Battle of Castelfidardo

On September 18, the Piedmontese army won the battle of Castelfidardo decisive over the papal troops under the command of the French general Louis Juchault de Lamoricière . The victory paves the way for the union of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont with the Kingdom of Naples. In Ancona , the last troops de Lamoricières emerge on September 29, the Piedmontese forces, resulting in the annexation of large parts of the Papal States entails. Pope Pius IX Only the old core area of Latium of the Patrimonium Petri remains as a property.

After a battle near Capua on September 19, in which Garibaldi's General Wilhelm Rüstow remained victorious, on October 1, around 24,000 red shirts met an army of the Kingdom of Naples almost twice as large near the Volturno River . With the defeat in the decisive battle of the Volturno , the fate of Francis II as King of the Two Sicilies is finally sealed. He was able to stay for a few more months in the fortress of Gaeta, but in February 1861 he signed the surrender and went into exile in Rome.

On October 21st, a plebiscite was held in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , in which an overwhelming majority voted for annexation to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. Giuseppe Garibaldi thereupon resigns from his claim to power and the desire to found a republic . On October 26th, Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II met in Teano near Naples , in which Garibaldi addressed Victor Emmanuel as King of Italy .

Switzerland / France

Location of the Haute-Savoie department between Geneva and Valais

Between Switzerland and Emperor Napoleon III. of France it comes to so-called Savoyerhandel : Earlier this year, leads the Swiss envoy in Paris, Johann Konrad Kern , talking with the aim of annexation of Haute Savoie to Switzerland. The French Foreign Minister informed him that in the event of the still very dubious annexation, which would have to be preceded by a vote by the Savoyards , the Emperor would take pleasure in leaving Chablais and Faucigny as its own territory out of sympathy for Switzerland.

Jakob Stämpfli , an influential member of the Federal Council and chairman of the Swiss military department , distrusts this declaration, insists on written guarantees and at the same time sparked a campaign that campaigned for the military occupation and annexation of Haute-Savoie. On the radical wing of the liberals he found great echo, with voices being voiced to give up Swiss neutrality as a “relic of the restoration ”, but the willingness of the population to let it come down to a war is much less than in the previous Neuchâtel trade the years 1856 and 1857 , when a general popular movement took place to militarily counter the Prussian threat of intervention.

Friedrich Frey-Herosé , representing the liberal-radical faction in the Federal Council elected and since January 1 for the second time after 1854 , Federal President of Switzerland, still falls in the course of its first expressed only in confidential discussions conviction under political pressure, Switzerland should not interfere in the question of the cession of Savoy to France, even if a territorial claim is legally justifiable. In December, Frey-Herosé only just managed to get re-election.

On March 24, King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont ceded Savoy and the county of Nice to France in the Treaty of Turin . Stämpfli then asked the Federal Assembly to give the government authority to forestall the French occupation by invading Haute-Savoie. The assembly decides against it and votes in favor of the proposal of the moderate-liberal politicians Alfred Escher and Jakob Dubs , rapporteurs of the commission set up to clarify the legal questions. This motion declares that diplomatic resources are not exhausted and obliges the government to continue negotiations. As the crisis progressed , an incident occurred on March 30th when 150 militants, Genevans and Savoyards, hijack a steamboat and land it in Evian . You will be escorted back immediately by the regular Swiss military.

Napoleon III organizes the announced plebiscite on April 22nd , at which Haute-Savoie promises a free trade zone with Switzerland. In view of this prospect and the already fait accompli, the majority of those eligible to vote (adult men) vote in favor of joining France . The annexed areas are combined to form the Haute-Savoie department , which still exists within these boundaries today.

In the Swiss parliamentary elections in 1860 on October 28, there are 120 seats in the National Council . A majority vote is used for voting. The previously dominant liberals (or radical liberals) only achieve a narrow absolute majority of the seats, while the moderate liberals can gain significantly - a consequence of opposing positions in railway and foreign policy. In all cantons, elections to the Council of States are indirect and take place through the respective cantonal parliaments . The newly elected parliament will meet for the first time in the 5th legislative period on December 3rd .

Empire of Austria

Emperor Franz Joseph I shall, on 20 October , the October Diploma as a manifesto for the Empire of Austria . The strongly federalist law contains the main features of a new constitution, with which the form of government of a constitutional monarchy is introduced. A Reichsrat with 100 members will be created, which will have an advisory role in financial and economic policy issues, but will have little significance in legislative terms. This is the first time that Franz Joseph I turns away from the system of neo-absolutism , which was declared with the New Year's Eve patent in 1851 . Foreign and war policy, however, remains in the sole decision-making authority of the emperor. The compromise between the centralist tendencies of the German-speaking population and the federalist aspirations of the other nationalities cannot, however, satisfy neither the German liberals nor the Magyars in the Reichsrat , which is why the October diploma was revised four months later with the more centralized February patent . The responsible minister of state, Agenor Gołuchowski , appears to be overwhelmed by the implementation of the law, not least because of this resistance, and is replaced on December 13 by the liberal Anton von Schmerling .

Prussia

Prussian constitutional conflict

The conflict over the constitution of 1848 begins in Prussia : Regent Wilhelm and his new war minister Albrecht Graf von Roon present a plan to reorganize the Prussian army . Instead of the previous 40,000 men, 65,000 recruits are to be drafted annually, and the number of active regiments is to be increased by 39 infantry and 10 cavalry regiments . The peace army would thus have 200,000 instead of 140,000 men. The active period of service, which is three years according to the law and which was tacitly limited to two years in the previous years, is to be increased to the old level. At the same time, the Minister of War no longer wants to base the armaments of Prussia on the Landwehr , but on a standing army , because the Landwehr has not proven itself and is no longer up to date. In the first year, an amount of nine million Reichstalers is to be made available for this reform .

The Prussian House of Representatives , dominated by the liberals around Georg von Vincke , which, as co-owner of the budget law, is also authorized to make decisions on the military budget , wants to formally limit general conscription to two years, prevent the weakening of the Landwehr and the funds to be approved for the reform Reduce the first budget year from nine to two million thalers . Nevertheless, the House of Representatives approved nine million thalers provisionally for the first year of this reform.

Jülich Fortress
Breaches in the Jülich Citadel on September 26, 1860

After the decision to demolish the Jülich Fortress was decided in the previous year , there was resolute resistance from the citizens of the city, who owed their livelihood to a not inconsiderable part to the maintenance of the fortifications and the orders from the garrison. The citizens submitted petitions to Regent Wilhelm, asking for the fortress or at least the garrison to be preserved. Then remains Jülich garrison town , and it will set up a Unteroffiziervorschule, in the citadel takes quarters. In September the Prussian army carried out a large siege exercise in Jülich , during which new artillery pieces and rifles and new methods of attack were tested. The citadel was damaged in the process, but it was retained, while the outer works and the city fortifications were demolished in the following years.

Further events in the German Confederation

After the death of his father Georg on September 6th, Friedrich Wilhelm (II.) , Whose name always appears without a dynastic count in the literature due to an old mistake in the Mecklenburg regent count , becomes the new Grand Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Strelitz region . His reign, which lasted until 1904, is characterized by a frugal economy bordering on all public spending. Necessary investments in the economy , infrastructure and education are largely omitted. Modern developments are stagnating or are only slowly making their way into the country. This policy can achieve that mountains of debts accumulated over generations of the Princely House can be paid off, but the country is developing into one of the most backward German territories.

The first constitution of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg , which bears this name, comes into force on September 28th .

Russia

On 2 July, on behalf of Tsar Alexander II , Governor General Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Muravjow-Amursky founds a naval base for the Imperial Russian Navy on the Pacific coast in Eastern Siberia . This is intended to consolidate the power of the Russian Empire in the Far East after the territorial gains in the Treaty of Aigun 1858 and to strengthen Russia's position in the conflict over Asia with the other European powers. The city is named Vladivostok ( Rule the East ).

Principality of Montenegro

Danilo I , secular prince of Montenegro since 1852 , is murdered by Todor Kadić on August 13th . Since Danilo has no descendants, Nikola , son of the former Prince Bishop of Montenegro , Petar II. Petrović-Njegoš , succeeds his murdered uncle. The succession to the throne forces the nineteen-year-old to break off his Western European education at the Paris Lycee Louis le Grand , which he received as the first member of his dynasty, and to return to Montenegro. On November 8th, Nikola I. married Milena Vukotić , daughter of Vojvoden Petar Vukotić and his wife Jelena Vojvodić. Nikolaus continues the authoritarian modernization policy of his predecessor. The small town of Cetinje will be expanded into a modern capital over the next few years .

Ottoman Empire

Serbia

After the death of his father Miloš Obrenović, Mihailo Obrenović became Prince of Serbia for the second time after he had to flee the country in 1842 . During his reign he tried to detach the Principality of Serbia from the Ottoman Empire and gradually introduce an absolutist form of government.

Syria / Lebanon
Abd el-Kader with the Cross of the Legion of Honor

A total of 20,000 Christians are killed in the civil war in the Lebanon Mountains between Christian Maronites and Muslim Druze , plus an unknown number of Muslims . 380 Christian villages and 560 churches are destroyed. The civil war culminated on July 9 in the Syrian city ​​of Damascus in a massacre in the Christian district by incited Muslims. The Ottoman authorities do nothing to prevent the bloodshed and even provide indirect assistance to the attackers. The acts of violence, which also continued on the following day, killed a total of around 6,000 people. Thanks to the efforts of the former Algerian freedom fighter Abd el-Kader , who settled in Syria after his release by France, numerous Christians can be saved, for which Napoleon III. is awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor . Under pressure from France , the protecting power of the Maronites, Lebanon is subsequently separated from Syria. This takes place through the establishment of the Mutesarriflik Lebanonberg , which later became the Governorate Lebanonberg and thus the nucleus of today's Lebanon. The establishment of the governor requires the approval of the European powers, while the autonomy of Lebanon is monitored by an international commission.

Jerusalem

In the city of Jerusalem , which is traditionally divided into four quarters for Jews, Muslims, Christians and Armenians, the first Jewish quarter is being built outside the city walls due to increasing immigration .

Sub-Saharan Africa

Marthinus Wessel Pretorius

Under President Marthinus Wessel Pretorius , the capital of the South African Republic will be relocated from Potchefstroom to Pretoria on May 1st , where almost 300 people live at that time. In the same year the republics of Lydenburg and Utrecht join the South African Republic.

At the beginning of the year, Barghasch ibn Said, with the support of his half-sister Salme , tried to overthrow his brother Majid bin Said and gain control of the Zanzibar archipelago . The attempt fails and the two are placed under house arrest, but after a short time they are taken back to court.

Spanish-Moroccan War

Map of Ceuta , Spain, 1860, facing west
Depiction of the Battle of Tétouan, Dionisio Fierros Álvarez 1894

The Spanish-Moroccan war that broke out last year to expand the Spanish possessions in North Africa is entering its decisive phase: after many small but very bloody skirmishes, Spanish troops under the leadership of Prime Minister Leopoldo O'Donnell occupy the Moroccan city ​​of Tétouan and on February 4th After a decisive defeat west of Tétouan, the Moroccans asked for a ceasefire on March 23rd . In the Peace of Tetuan , which was negotiated by April 25, both warring parties agree on compensation to be paid by Morocco . The city of Tétouan becomes the Spanish bargaining chip for this. Leopoldo O'Donnell received the title Duke of Tétouan from the Spanish Queen Isabella II for his achievements in this war.

After the defeat, Sultan Sidi Muhammad IV began to attempt to modernize the Moroccan army and expand the fortifications. These measures are also directed against the restless tribal associations of the Bedouins and Berbers , who repeatedly threaten the rural population and the cities. The population in the cities on the Atlantic coast will grow rapidly in the next few years, as the cities quickly develop into economic centers due to the greater security.

Carlos Luis de Borbón , as Carlos VI. Pretender to the throne of the Carlists in Spain, tried in April the supposed advantage of the situation to use, as the bulk of the Spanish army is tied up in Morocco, and ends with his youngest brother Ferdinand and the commander of the Balearic called Ortega in Sant Carles de la Rapita close Tortosa to usurp power. However, hardly a supporter shows up and his soldiers refuse to follow his orders. While his companion Ortega was shot dead on April 22nd after the two were arrested, Carlos was able to save his life by formally renouncing his rights to the throne in favor of Isabella, a waiver that he immediately revoked after his release on June 15th. His abdication, however, leads to a serious crisis in Carlism, because the pretender role falls to his liberal brother Juan (III) Carlos, who is critical of the Carlist ideals. And with the withdrawal, the movement subsequently has two competing pretenders.

Latin America

Central America

The civil war in Mexico between liberals and conservatives, which began in 1858 after Benito Juarez was elected president, continues unabated, but the scales are beginning to tip in favor of the president's liberal supporters. General Miguel Miramón , who was appointed counter-president by the Conservatives last year, was beaten on December 22nd near Calpulalpam by the Liberals under Jesús González Ortega and had to flee abroad. The liberal army is marching towards Mexico City , which it will reach at the end of the year. One of Juarez's fighters who stand out is Lieutenant Colonel Porfirio Díaz , who is promoted to Colonel this year.

Map of Central America 1860

In the January 28 concluded Treaty of Managua Britain hands over the Miskito Coast of Nicaragua . The Miskito people are given limited internal autonomy. The adventurer and former President of Nicaragua, William Walker , who was expelled from there in 1857 , tries again to seize power in the Central American state. When Great Britain refused to land on the island of Roatán and to use British Honduras as a base of operations for his campaign of conquest, he occupied the Honduran city ​​of Trujillo in a coup on August 6th . From there he penetrates inland - pursued by both Honduran troops and British units. His mercenaries were able to hold their own in several smaller skirmishes, but Walker himself was injured in a battle near La Ceiba . In early September he surrendered to a British naval unit under Captain Nowell Salmon. From this he is extradited to the Honduran authorities, who sentenced him to death before a court martial. On September 12th, William Walker was executed by firing squad.

Presidential elections will be held in Costa Rica in April, won by José María Montealegre Fernández , who put himself to power last year. The deposed former President Juan Rafael Mora Porras , whose relative Manuel Mora Fernández was defeated as a candidate for the opposition, then tried to come back to power by means of a counter coup from El Salvador . In September he went ashore at Puntarenas , but the expected popular uprising in his favor did not materialize. A few days later the Moranistas were beaten by Montealegres troops near La Angostura, Mora captured and shot dead on September 30th.

South America
Flag of Ecuador from 1860

In the context of the “national crisis” of Ecuador , the conservative politician Gabriel García Moreno allies with his former enemy, ex-President Juan José Flores , and on May 27th starts an offensive from Guaranda against the constitutional government of President Guillermo Franco Herrera . It is directed against Babahoyo and Guayaquil , where Franco's troops are concentrated. In August, Franco was defeated at Babahoyo, and on September 24th, García Moreno's and Flores' troops finally took Guayaquil. Franco flees to Peru . On September 26th, Moreno, as provisional head of state , proclaimed a new flag for Ecuador, which was again based on the colors of the former Greater Colombia .

In other Latin American states such as Venezuela ( Federal War ) and the Granada Confederation , later Colombia , civil wars began in 1860 or shortly before . In Venezuela, following the death of General Ezequiel Zamora and a defeat by government forces under their new General Juan Crisóstomo Falcón in February , the federalists change their strategy and adopt guerrilla tactics.

The Manuel Montt Torres government in Chile is responding to the numerous uprisings against the central power with a law that, in the event of a riot, makes those involved liable not only for damage to private and public property, but also for public expenditure to restore public order . In addition, another law deprives soldiers and police officers of the right to vote.

Santiago Derqui , previously Prime Minister of the Province of Córdoba , will replace Justo José de Urquiza as constitutional president of Argentina on March 5 . Urquiza is appointed commander in chief of the army and navy. He has to deal with an uprising under Bartolomé Miter , the governor of the province of Buenos Aires , which was incorporated into the Argentine federation only last year after the battle of Cepeda .

Flag of Araucania

The French lawyer and adventurer Orélie Antoine de Tounens founded the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia on the southern tip of the American continent on November 17th together with the Mapuche people . He also created his own flag and national anthem and even had coins minted. The Chilean newspaper El Mercurio will print excerpts from his declaration of independence on December 29th . But when he tries to gain diplomatic recognition, he is ignored by the Chilean government as well as by the authorities in his home country, France.

United States of America

The United States before secession

The United States Congress sets up a committee on March 5 to investigate corruption within President James Buchanan's cabinet . The committee is chaired by Republican John Covode , an avowed opponent of Buchanan. The committee's report, due in June, casts an extremely bad light on Buchanan's government. It is copied several times and used by the Republicans as campaign material in the following presidential election, although James Buchanan will not run for the election - as announced in his inaugural address in 1857 .

The United States Census of 1860 shows a population of 31,443,321, almost 4 million of them slaves . That means a population increase of more than 35% since the last census in 1850 .

The Democratic Party is holding the Democratic National Convention in Charleston , South Carolina to elect the Democratic presidential candidate. At this convention there is a scandal and the party is split into two wings. The majority of the delegates elect the moderately slavery-critical Senator Stephen A. Douglas from Illinois as the presidential candidate; the Democrats from the southern states refuse him recognition and leave the boardroom to nominate incumbent Vice President John C. Breckinridge , a clear advocate of slavery, as an opposing candidate in Baltimore , Maryland . For the Republicans occurs Abraham Lincoln at that refers to the Republican National Convention on May 18, surprisingly against the favorite William H. Seward can prevail and for the election campaign of hit Lincoln and Liberty is composed. A fourth party is the Constitutional Union Party , a platform of former moderate Whigs who refuse to join either the Republicans or any of the Democratic wings. Your candidate is John Bell .

In the election on November 6 , due to the fragmentation of the Democrats, the Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the United States of America , although he can only win over the Northern States , a development that was already apparent before the election . The Vice President elected with him is Hannibal Hamlin . Lincoln has repeatedly stressed on the question of slavery that the decision on it is a matter for the individual states, nevertheless the slave-holding southern states have made it clear from the beginning that they will not accept a President Lincoln. In the four months between Lincoln's election and his inauguration on March 4, there is a power vacuum as the outgoing Buchanan administration does not take decisive steps to prevent secession of the southern states. In December, several members of the Buchanan's cabinet who sympathize with the Southern States step down.

Proportion of slaves in the total population of the U.S. states and territories in 1860

On December 18, Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden made a final attempt to use the Crittenden Compromise to prevent the southern states from seceding from the United States . The compromise aims to add six amendments to the United States Constitution . These amendments are intended to extend the Missouri Compromise , which allows slavery south of the 36 ° 30 'line, so that it would apply to the Pacific, i.e. outside the borders of the United States at the time. The compromise also forbids Congress from abolishing slavery. Although many southern MPs agree to the compromise, it will never materialize. Just two days later, on December 20 , says South Carolina the first state to its withdrawal from the Union .

Western Territories
The area of
Jefferson Territory claimed by the surrounding territories

The provisional government of the Jefferson Territory , established the previous year, under Democratic Governor Robert Williamson Steele failed to obtain legal confirmation from the government or Congress in Washington during the year . Steele then tries to come to an agreement with the Kansas Territory and proposes a merger of the two territories on August 7th . But the Kansas Territory government is unwilling to negotiate with the Jefferson Territory, whose government - albeit democratically elected - it regards as illegal. In the meantime, the Pike's Peak gold rush , which began in 1858 , continues, even if more and more gold seekers leave the region around Pike's Peak in disappointment over the course of the year . One consequence of the gold rush is a referendum on November 13th , according to which the capital of the Denver territory will be relocated to the city ​​of Golden , which was founded only last year .

Japan

The Kanrin Maru , Japan's first propeller-driven warship
Members of the embassy of 1860 and seamen of the Kanrin Maru

The Japanese shogun dispatches the warship Kanrin Maru on a diplomatic mission to the United States with the intention of demonstrating to the world that Japan now has Western navigation and shipbuilding technology. It leaves Uraga Street for San Francisco on January 19th . In addition to Captain Katsu Kaishū , the embassy includes Nakahama Manjirō and Fukuzawa Yukichi . On board American ships, they travel from San Francisco via Panama to Washington, DC. The official goal of the mission is to send a Japanese embassy to the United States for the first time and to sign the new Japanese-American friendship and trade treaty . The delegation also tries to revise some of the clauses of the unequal treaties signed with Matthew Calbraith Perry in 1853 , but is unsuccessful.

Ii Naosuke , daimyo of Hikone and Taïro the Tokugawa -Shōgunats in Japan , which under the Shishi numerous enemies by the so-called ansei purge has made in recent years in which he eliminate high-ranking political opponents has made, is on March 24 at Leaving Edo Castle murdered by 18 samurai. With this as Sakuradamon incident known stop the central power figure of the will shogunate killed, that does not recover from this blow again. The Edo period is drawing to a close in Bakumatsu . As a result of the attack on the Tairō, there was a wave of attacks by Tennō loyalists on officials of the shogunate across Japan. The young shogun Tokugawa Iemochi and the shogunate administration are completely surprised by the attack and try to cover up the events. Ii's death is not announced until months later. Later, Ii's assassins are pardoned during a general amnesty.

In autumn, the Prussian East Asia Expedition, led by Friedrich zu Eulenburg, lands in the Bay of Edo . This has the mandate to conclude contracts with China, Japan and Siam on behalf of all states of the German Customs Union, the Hanseatic cities and both Mecklenburgs.

Second opium war in China

Sir Hope Grant , 1860
(Photo: Felice Beato )
Taku Fort to the north after the storm in the Second Opium War

After several years of war, the French and British-Indian troops gather in Hong Kong under James Hope Grant . The force consists of 11,000 British / Indians and 6,700 French and lands near Pei Tang on August 1st . On August 21st , they successfully capture the fortresses of Dagu . On September 26 the troops reached Beijing and take the city until October 6 a. The troops later devastate the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace . see also under culture

The Treaty of Tientsin of 1858 , after the end of the Second Opium War to the Beijing Convention expanded and in this form by Emperor Xianfeng on October 18 ratified. With this “ unequal treaty ”, Great Britain , France , Russia and the USA were given the right to open embassies in Beijing - until then a closed city . The opium trade is legalized and Christians are given the right to proselytize the Chinese people and own property.

Cambodia

The French explorer Henri Mouhot reached the city of Angkor on his second trip in January , where he wrote a travel report and made numerous drawings and sketches - especially of temples such as Angkor Wat . The later colonial power of France cultivated the myth of the "discovery of Angkor by Mouhot" in the following years.

After the death of his father Ang Duong , the 26-year-old Norodom I becomes king of Cambodia , which at that time is occupied by both Vietnam and Siam . However, the new ruler, who grew up in the Siamese zone, cannot be crowned for the time being because Siam refuses to surrender the regalia .

Australia

Stuart's expeditions and the Burke and Wills expedition
Chambers Creek (now Stuart Creek)
Central Mount Sturt, drawing by John McDouall Stuart
  • January 21 : John McDouall Stuart and his team return from an unsuccessful attempt to cross the continent from south to north.
  • On March 2, Stuart again leaves Chambers Creek with two other people on their way to the center of the continent.
  • April 22nd : Stuart's expedition reaches what he has calculated to be the center of Australia. He calls the mountain two miles away Central Mount Sturt after his mentor Charles Sturt . A few months later, the three of them return from their expedition sick and hungry.
  • August 20 : Under the eyes of around 15,000 onlookers begins in Melbourne , the Burke and Wills expedition . Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills want to cross Australia from south to north. The expedition is the best-equipped expedition in Australian history.
  • November 11th : The expedition reaches Cooper Creek and plans to stay until the beginning of March, 1861 . Burke leaves early on December 16 .
  • November 29th : John McDouall Stuart starts with seven men and 30 horses from Adelaide on another attempt to cross Australia from south to north. However, due to illnesses affecting the horses, they have to wait in Chambers Creek until the end of the year to actually leave.

economy

trade

After the positive experience with the abolition of the Corn Laws ten years ago, the supporters of Manchester liberalism can post another success. Great Britain and France sign a free trade agreement with over 300 customs laws in Great Britain alone. The Cobden Treaty , drawn up by the English entrepreneur Richard Cobden and the French economist Michel Chevalier, provides in particular for the most-favored nation principle in trade between the two countries . In the following years, the German Customs Union as well as Belgium, Italy and Switzerland also join the contract.

Tea plantation in Sri Lanka

From 1860 on, coffee growing on the British island of Ceylon was replaced by tea plantations . This makes the international tea trade increasingly independent of China .

The Krupp cast steel factory founded by Friedrich Krupp in 1811 begins selling steel cannons. After the developed two years ago breech-loading cannons little appeal have found successful under the direction of Frederick's son Alfred Krupp , the sale of 312 Sechspfünder- in April muzzle to the Prussian army . Arms sales will grow rapidly over the next few years.

Patents

Henry Rifle 1860

On October 16, Benjamin Tyler Henry receives a patent for the Henry Rifle he developed on behalf of Oliver Winchester .

Business start-ups

Two watch manufacturers are founded in the Swiss Jura this year : the watchmaker Edouard Heuer founds the Heuer watch manufacturer in Saint-Imier and Louis-Ulysse Chopard founds the Chopard watch manufacturer in Sonvilier . Both companies are still based in Switzerland today. Giovanni Panerai also founds a watch trade on the Ponte alle Grazie in Florence .

The Austrian Phönix insurance company is founded in Vienna . It quickly developed into one of the most important insurance companies in the Habsburg Monarchy , and later operated across Europe and even in the United States.

Max Kober, the 28-year-old master brewer of the Saybusch brewery , acquires parts of the property of the former Göß monastery near Leoben , where beer has been brewed since 1459 until its abandonment in 1782 , and builds a new brewery against the will of the local council . The Göss brewery quickly developed into the largest beer brewery in Upper Styria.

Gaspare Campari opened in Novara , a business in which he liqueurs sold and other drinks. That is considered to be the year the Gruppo Campari was founded .

In the north of what was then New York City, father and brothers Steinway opened a huge new factory for the production of upright pianos and grand pianos, “outside the city” (with regard to the old city limits Wall Street ) on 4th Avenue, later Lexington Avenue Block between 52nd and 53rd streets. Behind the Capitol, this factory is considered to be the largest enclosed space in the United States. The family's piano-making activities , which were previously spread across many small workshops in southern Manhattan , will be brought together in this new factory . The Corliss - steam engine to operate the saws and machines via drive shafts on the ceiling is operated in the yard in a separate building. Apart from the pianos, no wood or flammable material is tolerated: the factory of the competitor Chickering in Boston had just gone up in flames.

The Pony Express

Course of the Pony Express
1860: The Pony Express

On April 3rd, at the initiative of William Hepburn Russell , the Pony Express for mail delivery in the USA will start operations. The route runs from St. Joseph / Missouri to Sacramento / California over a distance of 3,200 km. There is an intermediate station approximately every 15 to 20 km. The postmen are on horseback. Due to its relay system, the Pony Express is very fast. Each courier is changed after a maximum of 300 km. He has around 10 kg of express mail with him, which he has to hand over to the next rider in just two minutes. Around 75 ponies and 40 riders are needed for the entire route, and they will arrive at their destination after ten days. The Pony Express includes 153 intermediate stations, 80 couriers, 500 horses and 200 grooms. Since the work is not without risk, mainly young, unattached men who are not older than 18 years and weigh not more than 60 kg are employed, often orphans. Most of the ride goes through hostile Indian territory. Time and again, operations have to be stopped due to attacks. The company, which finally ceased in 1861, is a financial disaster, but it is becoming a national myth .

traffic

Point train station , Durban

The Natal tank locomotive , which the Natal Railway ordered from the British company Carrett, Marshall & Co in Leeds, will arrive in Durban in May and will be assembled on site. The opening of the first railway line in southern Africa in the colony of Natal will take place on June 26th . The railway line between the city center of Durban and the landing stages on a headland called The Point is standard gauge and carries both goods and people. The route is approximately two miles (3.2 km) long.

"Conquest" of the West (around 1860)

In the United States and its territories , the length of the rail network has increased from 9,021 miles to 30,626 miles in the years since 1850. There are considerations for a first transcontinental railroad to connect the new states California and Oregon on the west coast with the east, but these fail for the time being because of the disagreement in Congress.

The Royal Bavarian State Railways will open the last two sections of the Bavarian Maximiliansbahn from Neu-Ulm to Salzburg on May 7th and August 1st . The construction of the 83.7 km long route began with the Bavarian law of May 4, 1851. Part of the route is also of the Augsburg Munich Railway Company built and opened in 1840 Munich-Augsburg Railway . It is named after King Maximilian II Joseph . Another of the railway lines completed in Germany this year is the Homburger Bahn , an 18-kilometer railway line from Frankfurt am Main to Homburg vor der Höhe , which replaces the previous horse-drawn bus line . The construction according to the plans of the well-known railway engineer Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg , which was only approved at the end of the previous year, is proceeding very quickly; the first passenger trains are already running on September 10th. Freight traffic will follow from October 6th.

On May 26, the third and last section of the will Rhein-Nahe Railway Company built Nahe Valley Railway between Oberstein and Neunkirchen at the Saar opens. Due to the difficult construction work, the railway is considered "the most expensive railway in Germany". The Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft will release the first section of the railway line through the Ruhr Valley from Witten BME to Bochum for passenger traffic on October 26th .

The station Meissen at the opening
The station Niederau at the Leipzig-Dresden railway in 1860

On December 1, Meißen in the Kingdom of Saxony also receives a connection to the Leipzig-Dresden Railway from Coswig with a branch line built by the Leipzig-Dresden Railway Compagnie . Until then, carriage rides from Meißen to Dresden were the better alternative in terms of time and money. The station Meissen as the end of the branch line is first a terminal station , but the station building is on its side so that a planned continuation of the route across the Elbe towards Triebischtal without major structural changes is possible. In the reception building there are ticket and baggage counters, service rooms, a waiting room with a restaurant and house servant drinking room and - due to the unheated car - a hot water bottle rental in winter. In addition to the reception building, the station will include a small wagon shed, a water station and a goods shed when it opens.

The Vienna Westbahnhof around 1860
The Kaiserin-Elisabeth-Bahnhof in Linz around 1860

In Austria the state has withdrawn from railway construction and is again promoting private railway companies. Overall, the second private railroad phase brings with it extensive network growth. However, private individuals do not tackle economically viable projects that are risky, expensive or economically uninteresting. The two main 1860 completed railway lines are those of the Empress Elisabeth Railway built Western Railway from Vienna to Salzburg with connection to the Bavarian Maximilian's Railway, as well as from Carl Ritter von Ghega built connecting tracks Penzing Vienna Meidling and Vienna Meidling-Wien Nord train station , the biggest challenge is the connecting railway bridge, which after several unsuccessful stress tests can only be fully opened to traffic on September 2nd - after Ghega's death.

The old Grandfey Viaduct 1862

The Swiss railway line Lausanne – Bern , built by the railway company Chemin de fer Lausanne – Friborg – Berne since 1858, will be opened in two sections. The northern section from Bern to Balliswil will be opened to traffic on July 2nd, and the second section to Lausanne will also be opened on September 4th. The most elaborate engineering on the route is the steel framework construction of the Grandfey Viaduct .

In order to be able to offer direct trains from Edinburgh to London , the three railway companies North British Railway , North Eastern Railway and Great Northern Railway cooperate with each other from 1860: The three companies procure rolling stock with uniform technical specifications to ensure continuous operation on the East Coast Main Line to enable.

Suez Canal

Ferdinand de Lesseps , as representative of the Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, which was founded at the end of the previous year , concludes a financing agreement with Muhammad Said , Khedive of Egypt , for the construction of the Suez Canal on August 6th . After the share subscription has been very slow in France and Europe in recent years, the takeover of 177,642 shares (around 44.4% of the capital) by the viceroy is formally regulated, whereby the already called 20% of the share amount essentially through Bonds and the remaining 80% are to be paid in the years 1867 to 1875.

science and technology

Africa research

After spending several years as a field clerk in French North Africa , the German adventurer Gerhard Rohlfs leaves the Foreign Legion . Disguised as a Muslim traveling doctor, he begins a journey through what is now Algeria in the direction of Morocco to offer Sultan Sidi Muhammad IV his support with the planned modernization measures.

Theodor von Heuglin , Austrian consulate secretary in Khartoum , who has already made a name for himself with his travel report Reisen in Nordostafrika , is appointed by August Petermann and Heinrich Barth to lead an expedition to clarify the fate of the missing Africa explorer Eduard Vogel . Other participants in this expedition are Hermann Steudner and Werner Munzinger . Alexandria is the starting point for the trip to Wadai , where Vogel disappeared in 1855.

The Briton John Hanning Speke , who found the source of the Nile two years ago according to his own conviction , is setting out from Zanzibar with James Augustus Grant on another three-year expedition to Lake Victoria .

The German Karl Moritz von Beurmann is also going on a research trip to the Nile: From Egypt he follows the course of the Nile up to Korosko in Nubia . The French Guillaume Lejean and the Italians Carlo Piaggia and Orazio Antinori sail the White Nile to Gondokoro and then the Bahr al-Ghazal .

Karl Klaus von der Decken's first major expedition through East Africa leads him to Lake Malawi . His goal of opening up East Africa together with the geographer Albrecht Roscher is prevented by the illness and subsequent murder of Roscher. The Swede Karl Johan Andersson is the first European to reach the Okavango in search of the Kunene .

astronomy

Urbain Le Verrier

The astronomer and mathematician Urbain Le Verrier , based on its calculations a few years ago already, the planet Neptune was discovered represents in a lecture in Paris on January 2, the reasoned opinion that there is a by him volcano called planets in the Mercury - Must give way. This explains the disruption of Mercury's orbit around the sun. Astronomers then begin an intensive search for the new planet, which leads to numerous false alarms and mix-ups. It was not until more than 50 years later, can Albert Einstein the apsidal precession attributed to other causes Mercury.

The mathematician and astronomer Karl Christian Bruhns becomes director of the Leipzig observatory on the Pleißenburg . Since the old observatory operated by the University of Leipzig can no longer do justice to its actual purpose due to the dense development, he plans to start building a new observatory in the Johannistal , which will be completed the following year.

List of asteroids discovered in 1860
No. and name Diameter
(km)
Date of discovery Explorer
(58) Concordia 93.4 March 24th Karl Theodor Robert Luther
(59) Elpis 164.8 12th September Jean Chacornac
(60) echo 60.2 September 14th James Ferguson
(61) Danaë 82.0 September 9th Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt
(62) Erato 95.4 September 14th Otto Lesser and Wilhelm Foerster

Biology and paleontology

Darwin's theory of evolution
The Origin of Species , title page of the 1st edition from 1859
The newly opened Oxford University Museum of Natural History , the place of debates

The work The Origin of Species, published by Charles Darwin at the end of last year, and the theory of evolution described therein lead to serious controversies on a scientific and religious level. Darwin's theory of natural selection in particular calls Darwin's opponents and supporters onto the scene. On June 30, in the absence of the author, the Anglican Bishop Samuel Wilberforce , an avowed opponent of Darwin, and the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley , an old friend of Darwin and proponent of his theories, discussed in front of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford Darwin's work . At the bishop's side is Robert FitzRoy , who, although Darwin's cabin mate on the HMS Beagle for years, has turned into a staunch opponent of the theory of evolution by referring to the Bible . Huxley is assisted by the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker . The fact that Huxley also expresses himself in this public debate about the Infinite Monkey Theorem is very likely to be referred to as legendary. Both sides then claim victory in the debate. In the eyes of the public, the defenders of Darwin's theory were more convincing.

The frontispiece of Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature

Two days earlier, Huxley and his colleague Richard Owen held the hippocampus debate about the taxonomic classification of humans in the animal kingdom . Richard Owen claims that humans differ from other primates by certain morphological peculiarities in their brain structure , in particular the presence of a hippocampus minor , and that they form a subclass of their own in the mammalian class . In the discussion, Thomas Henry Huxley opposes this view and promises to refute Owen's claim. Four months later he published the work Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature .

In the same year, the German geologist and paleontologist Heinrich Georg Bronn published a translation of Darwin's work under the title On the Origin of Species in the Animal and Plant Kingdom through Natural Breeding, or Conservation of the Most Perfect Races in the Struggle for Existence , in which he however, changes and "cleansings" make.

The "primeval bird"
The first find: an Archeopteryx contour feather

The imprint of a single feather of a " primeval bird " is discovered in the Solnhofen limestone in the municipal quarry of Solnhofen . The archosaurs receives at its first description by the Frankfurter vertebrate paleontologist Hermann von Meyer a year later, the generic name Archeopteryx .

botany

The Austrian doctor and botanist Friedrich Welwitsch reported on August 16 in a letter to Sir William Jackson Hooker , director of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew , London, about what he discovered the previous year near Cabo Negro in the Portuguese colony of Angola Welwitschie .

zoology
Opisthoprora euryptera (Patchbelly Avosette Hummingbird)

The German ornithologist Jean Louis Cabanis and Ferdinand Heine junior wrote numerous first descriptions of hummingbird genera , including Anthocephala and Opisthoprora .

chemistry

On the initiative of Friedrich August Kekule , Charles Adolphe Wurtz and Karl Weltzien , the Karlsruhe Congress will take place from September 3rd to 5th in the Ständehaus in Karlsruhe , the world's first international symposium for chemistry . Topics are the nomenclature of chemical compounds and their formulaic representation as well as the question of the atomic and molecular weights of chemical compounds. 127 chemists from Europe and overseas take part in the conference, including famous names such as Robert Bunsen , Adolf von Baeyer , Emil Erlenmeyer , Hermann von Fehling , Carl Remigius Fresenius , Hermann Kopp , Friedrich Konrad Beilstein , Jean-Baptiste Boussingault , Jean-Baptiste Dumas , Stanislao Cannizzaro , Dmitri Iwanowitsch Mendelejew and Lothar Meyer . Even if there are no radical results, the Karlsruhe Chemists' Congress can still be regarded as the most important event in the history of chemistry in the 19th century. The meeting of so many chemists from home and abroad has a catalytic effect on the further development of theoretical chemistry .

In Göttingen, the German chemist Albert Niemann succeeds in isolating a crystalline substance from coca leaves that came to Europe with the Novara expedition last year. He gives the alkaloid the name cocaine . On closer examination he found, among other things, that it melts at 89 ° C and, when heated, decomposes into hydrochloric and benzoic acid as well as methanol and ecgonine .

The British entrepreneur Frederick Walton receives a patent for the production of linoxin , a mixture of substances that is created through the oxidative polymerization of linseed oil . In 1863, Walton succeeded in producing linoleum from it .

Medicine and nursing

On June 24th, the Nightingale School of Nursing , founded by Florence Nightingale with funds from the Nightingale Fund , will open in London's St Thomas' Hospital , the first non-church nursing school, with 15 trainees between the ages of 25 and 35. Basically, the training model known today as Nightingale's system provides that the training of young professionals should be carried out by experienced nurses and not by doctors. Nightingale does not consider an extensive theoretical training with subsequent exams to be very effective, since from her point of view exams are only a test of memory and say nothing about the performance of a nurse on the ward. Your training model focuses on hygiene. It also plays a role that Nightingale is a supporter of the miasm theory . In her opinion, cleanliness, proper ventilation and adequate nutrition cure most diseases. The training is not confessional, but the nursing supervisor training should place value on the character education and moral strengthening of the future nurses.

In January, the suggestion of is Edwin Chadwick written by Nightingale Nursing book What It is and What It is Not: Notes on Nursing ( Notes on Nursing: What is nursing and what nursing is not ) published, which she wrote for a group of people who have to care for the sick at home. In the same year she revised the book and published versions aimed at different groups of people. One version contains additional information for professional nurses. In the following years numerous versions and translations of the work appear. The Nightingale system revolutionized nursing care, which was previously dominated by predominantly Catholic religious institutions, and represented an essential part of the Victorian nursing reform.

Theoretical physics

James Clerk Maxwell publishes his velocity distribution function in Philosophical Magazine (4) 19 (1860), 22 . It describes the distribution of the magnitude of the particle velocities in an ideal gas . The theory that in an ideal gas not all gas particles move at the same speed , but statistically distributed at different speeds, will be refined by Ludwig Boltzmann later. In the same year Maxwell was awarded the Rumford Medal for his research on the composition of colors and other contributions to optics .

Technical inventions

Scheme of the Lenoir gas engine

The Belgian inventor Étienne Lenoir demonstrates the first usable gas engine he invented the previous year in Paris in front of around 20 people on January 23 . The next day he received a patent for his invention, on the basis of which the Paris industrialist Marinoni initially produced a few such machines. When the Munich watchmaker Christian Reithmann found out about Lenoir's invention, he took out several patents on the four-stroke engine he had developed . He receives his first patent on October 26th .

Au clair de la lune , audible recording from 1860

A sound recording was made on a phonautograph constructed by Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville three years earlier : The French folk and children's song Au clair de la lune was recorded on April 9 , 17 years before the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Alva Edison . It is the oldest surviving sound recording.

On May 28, Rev. Henry Moule applied for a patent for his Dry Earth Closet . The compost toilet , which he developed in London after the cholera epidemic in 1854 and the “ Great Stench ” of 1858 , is intended to improve hygienic conditions by reducing the smell of human excrement and at the same time making it usable for the garden.

The Florentine inventor Antonio Meucci presents a telephone device he developed . He developed it for his wife, who can no longer leave her room because of a rheumatic disease.

Shipbuilding

The Warrior after its commissioning in 1861

After more than a year and a half of construction , the Warrior , the first ocean-going iron- hulled armored ship , was launched on December 29th .

The La Gloire

It was built by the British Royal Navy as a countermeasure to the French ironclad La Gloire designed by Henri Dupuy de Lôme , which entered service in August. With its 4.5 inch thick forged iron belt, the HMS Warrior is practically invulnerable to the projectiles of the ship artillery in use at the time of its construction. To further improve safety against sinking, the hull is divided into 92 watertight compartments and has a double floor underneath the machinery and ammunition rooms. Because of the rapid development in marine technology, however, it is already out of date within just ten years.

When launching the HMS Warrior at the Thames Iron Works in London, it is so cold that the ship on the slipway freezes. It is the coldest winter in 50 years.

Culture

Culture
3 March The first serenade by Johannes Brahms will be performed for the first time.
May 7th The comic opera Rita ou Le mari battu by Gaetano Donizetti will be premiered posthumously.
May The members of the London Hogarth Club open their first joint exhibition.
May 16 The Viktoriatheater in Magdeburg opens with the play Eine Nacht in Berlin .
22nd of July The Cologne Zoological Garden is founded.
September 24th The Society for Salzburg Regional Studies is founded.
October 1 The Grand Ducal Saxon Art School Weimar is founded.
6 - October 18 Felice Beato photographs the Old and New Summer Palaces in Beijing .
November 12th The Dianabad hall in Vienna- Leopoldstadt is opened.
November 26th Jacques Offenbach's ballet pantomime Le Papillon is premiered.
December 1 Charles Dickens publishes the first part of the educational novel Great Expectations .
13th December The Bavarian Song of Konrad Max Kunz will be performed for the first time by the Munich Citizens' Singer Guild .

Chinese cultural goods

Felice Beato : Tower of the God of Literature

The war photographer Felice Beato , who recently co-operation with his colleague James Robertson has finished, photographed after taking Beijing in the Second Opium War by the British and French on 6 October to 18 October the Old and the New Summer Palace and documented so before the destruction of both buildings, their cultural treasures for posterity. In the course of the looting by the Europeans, in addition to art treasures of all kinds, those precious clocks that King George III. sent the Chinese Emperor Qianlong as a gift through the Macartney Mission in 1793 , which he interpreted as a “tribute” to a submissive people. In addition, five Pekingese dogs are captured, which until then were only reserved for the ruling house. They become the first parents of the European Pekingese .

architecture

The young and largely unknown architect Charles Garnier surprisingly wins the architectural competition for the construction of the new Paris Opera . The 15 year construction of the Opéra Garnier will be his life's work.

Visual arts

During the so-called “Silver Age of Weimar ”, Grand Duke Carl Alexander von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach founded the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School Weimar . This educational institution with an artistic orientation goes back to the initiative of the painter Stanislaus von Kalckreuth , who will accordingly be officially entrusted with the management of the institute at the opening ceremony on October 1st. Well-known artists of the time can be won as teachers for the new school right from the start, including Arnold Böcklin , Arthur von Ramberg , Carl Hummel , Franz von Lenbach and Johann Wilhelm Cordes . In the following years the Weimar painting trend developed here.

Manet: The Spanish singer

The French painter Édouard Manet uses oil on canvas to paint the two pictures Portrait of the Parents and The Spanish Singer , both of which he will submit to the Salon de Paris next year and will be exhibited by it.

The Hogarth Club in London, founded in 1858 by members of the former Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood , has its first joint exhibition in May in the new premises at 6 Waterloo Place . In the same year, however, there were disputes among the members - due to stylistic issues, but above all about the way the club should be run - which would lead to the club being dissolved as early as the following year.

Feuerbach : Nanna , 1860

Anselm Feuerbach , who has been a member of the German Artists' Association in Rome since 1857 , meets Anna Risi , known as Nanna. The wife of a Roman cobbler becomes his model and his mistress. This is the beginning of the series of Feuerbach's famous Nanna portraits.

Paul Cézanne receives permission from his father to paint the walls of the drawing room of the Jas de Bouffan estate, which he bought the previous year . In the course of the year, the large-format wall paintings of the four seasons are created: spring , summer , autumn and winter .

Instead of studying at the École des Beaux-Arts as requested by his parents , the 19-year-old Claude Monet entered the free painting school Académie Suisse , where he was mainly concerned with figure studies. During this time Monet attended exhibitions by painters from the Barbizon School , an artist colony founded in 1830 that promoted painting in the style of realism . He also spends a lot of time in the Brasserie des Martyrs , which is a meeting place for many modern artists and authors. His father subsequently withdrew his financial support.

The Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal ( Montreal Museum of Fine Arts ) is founded in Montreal . The museum, located in the Quartier du Musée on the Golden Square Mile , is Canada's oldest art museum. The museum, which is visited by around 500,000 people every year, is also the largest museum in the country.

The Munich painter Carl Spitzweg painted one of his most famous pictures around 1860. The work The intercepted love letter is one of his so-called “punch lines”. The pictures The Eternal Wedding and the Institute Walk, which were created around the same time, also belong in this category. Around 1860, Spitzweg also began creating small landscapes and idylls, which he often paints on the boards of his cigar boxes, such as the landscape on Lake Ammer .

literature

German-language literature
Gottfried Keller 1860, photograph by Adolf Grimminger

The poet and editor Berthold Auerbach writes a letter to his friend Gottfried Keller in Switzerland with a request for “something briefly rounded” on “a Swiss topic” for his German folk calendar, which appears regularly in Leipzig . Keller, who has just started to write more stories for a second part of The People of Seldwyla , sends him the manuscript The Little Flag of Seven Friends a little later . The novella , which appears somewhat abbreviated under the slightly changed name The Flag of the Seven Upright People and arouses enthusiasm among publishers and the public, is immediately reprinted by the Bern daily newspaper Der Bund . It established Keller's fame as Switzerland's national poet, without, however, temporarily changing anything in his precarious financial situation.

The drama Die Hermannsschlacht , written by Heinrich von Kleist in 1808, is premiered in a revised version in Breslau - almost fifty years after the author's death. The piece was not very successful in the next few years.

Russian literature

Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostoyewski publishes the prose work Notes from a House of the Dead , on which he has been working since 1856, in St. Petersburg . In it he describes life in a Siberian prison camp in a loose sequence of scenes and descriptions based on his own experiences during the period of his exile from 1849 to 1853. The work is dedicated to the city of Semipalatinsk , the place of his exile.

Ivan Turgenev

The Russian writer Iwan Sergejewitsch Turgenew wrote several works in exile in Germany, including the novels Am Vorabend ( Nakanune ) and First Love ( Pervaja ljubov ).

The play Gewitter ( Groza ) by the Russian playwright Alexander Nikolajewitsch Ostrowski will be premiered.

Other works

Music and theater

The Treumann Theater photographed by Michael Frankenstein
The Dianabad as a ballroom

Cross-genre artist groups

Several Lombard artists come together in Milan to form the artist group La Scapigliatura . Important representatives are the writers Arrigo Boito and Emilio Praga .

society

In Leipzig, theology professor Wilhelm Bruno Lindner was sentenced to six years in a workhouse on February 29 for stealing from public libraries .

On the initiative of local councilor Franz Valentin Zillner , the Society for Salzburg Regional Studies is founded on September 24th . The founding members are all honorable citizens of the city of Salzburg, including the painter Georg Pezolt and the doctor Anton Eleutherius Sauter . In the constituent meeting on September 30th, Mayor Heinrich von Mertens is elected as the first board member. According to the articles of association , the company advocates the transport of customers from the state of Salzburg and its residents , taking into account the present and the past.

The Hamburg Millerntor before 1860

In November, some Senate and citizenship of the city of Hamburg on the complete abolition of Torsperre to 31 December . The gate lock gradually replaced the gate closure in Hamburg in the course of the 19th century. From 1861 all Hamburg city ​​gates are freely passable. On New Year's Eve, an innumerable crowd pulls through the open gates to enjoy the new acquisition.

After years of efforts by Baroness Bertha von Marenholtz-Bülow , the ban on kindergartens in Prussia is lifted again. The institution developed by Friedrich Fröbel was banned in 1851 under the leadership of Education Minister Karl Otto von Raumer because of atheistic tendencies .

The first German Jurists Day takes place in Berlin . Karl Christian Eduard Hiersemenzel is one of its founders .

religion

Pope Pius IX

Pope Pius IX explained in the encyclical Nullis verbis certe from January 19 the "need for a state sovereignty " of the Papal States . Referring to his encyclical Quinuper from the previous year, in which he criticized the revolutionary movement in Italy , he expresses his joy and praise, he thanks "for the loyalty and willingness shown" and describes this as "admirable loyalty" . On the Napoleon III. The proposal that the Papal State should waive all territorial and sovereign claims could not be accepted in the opinion of the Pope. Because then one would also give up civic sovereignty.

Inauguration of the main synagogue (chromolithography)

The main synagogue in Judengasse in Frankfurt am Main is inaugurated. After the previous buildings of 1462 and 1711, it is the third synagogue at this point and is developing into the center of Reform Judaism in Frankfurt. The speech at the inauguration on March 23rd will be given by Rabbi Leopold Stein in the presence of the two mayors and the Senate of the Free City of Frankfurt . In it he emphasizes that the new synagogue is a symbol of the solidarity of the Israelite community with the old religion and that it belongs to the German nation. Because of this speech there is a scandal in the community council.

After more than a hundred years of construction, the sixth cathedral of León in Nicaragua , begun in 1747 under Bishop Isidro Marín y Figueroa, is completed.

Disasters

The Canadian-British Allan Line's passenger steamer Hungarian is thrown against the cliffs in a snow storm off Sable Island on the coast of Nova Scotia on February 19 and sits aground. Due to the storm, no rescuers can get to the ship. Around 3 a.m. on February 20, lights and people can still be seen on the ship, but around 10 a.m. the ship sinks in the high waves. The storm did not subside until six days later, and no survivors were found in the subsequent search. All 205 passengers and crew are killed. It is one of the worst shipwrecks in the area known as the "Graveyard of the Atlantic" ("Cemetery of the Atlantic"). A lifeboat floating down the keel was washed up a short time later in the harbor of the coastal community of Port La Tour. The remains of other broken boats are also found. News of the accident spread very quickly via the telegraph station in Barrington . The calamity found widespread coverage in the British and Canadian press and casts a bad light on the Allen Line, which lost its steamship Indian just three months earlier , killing 27 people.

Depiction of the collision from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

On September 7th at 11:30 p.m. the paddle steamer Lady Elgin leaves Chicago to cross Lake Michigan towards Milwaukee. On board are largely members of the Irish Union Guard , an association of Irish immigrants from Milwaukee, who attended a speech by Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the November presidential election. There are stormy winds and high waves as well as heavy rain, which severely affects the view. At around 2:30 a.m., the brightly lit and widely visible Lady Elgin was rammed seven to nine miles from the shore by the schooner Augusta . The Augusta is not illuminated and therefore cannot be made out on the bridge of the Lady Elgin in time. The bow of the sailor, completely overloaded with its timber cargo, drills into the port side of the steamer directly in front of the side wheel. It gets stuck for a moment, but the forward movement of the Lady Elgin releases the Augusta from the gaping leak. After the collision, it is believed aboard the Augusta that the Lady Elgin continued her voyage unimpaired. Since the sailing ship is damaged, one tries to reach Chicago as soon as possible. The Lady Elgin capsizes only 20 minutes after the accident and sinks quickly. More than 400 people are killed in the worst ship accident to date on the Great Lakes . The number of survivors is given between 98 and 155. The second officer of the Augusta, George Budge, who was leading the ship at the time of the collision, is subsequently blamed for the disaster, while the ship's captain, Darius Nelson Malott, is acquitted.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

Sports

Sports - Chronology
17th April Farnborough is an illegal boxing match with bare fists instead.
1st of May The gymnastics club MTV Travemünde is founded in Travemünde .
17th of May The gymnastics club , which was banned in 1849, is re-established in Munich .
May 26 A gymnastics club is founded in Fürth .
June 4th The Bornheim gymnastics community is founded.
16 - June 19 The first German Gymnastics Festival is held in Coburg .
15th of July For the first time since the ban in 1849, a Feldberg Festival is held again.
17th July The Hagener Turnerschaft is founded in Hagen .
July 28th A gymnastics club is founded in Marburg .
8th August The Grande Casse in the Vanoise massif is climbed for the first time.
August 9 The Swiss mountain guide Melchior Anderegg is the first person to climb the Alphubel .
17th August The Stralsund gymnastics and sports club is founded in Stralsund .
August 27th Melchior Anderegg is the first person to climb the Blüemlisalphorn .
September 4th The Gran Paradiso in the Graian Alps is climbed for the first time.
September 4th The football club FC Hallam is founded.
October 17th The Open Golf Championship is launched in Prestwick .
the 20th of October A gymnast fire brigade is founded in Rosenheim .
November 9th The Hanau cigar workers' gymnastics club is founded.

Gymnastics, soccer and cricket

After the Munich gymnastics club, founded on July 15, 1848 , was banned a year later because of "republican activities", it is re-established on May 17 by Ludwig Schitler, Max Deiglmaier, Franz Pfeifer, Joseph Böcklein and Johann Lautenhammer, officially under the Designation "Association for physical training" to take away the political connotation of the gymnastics club for the authorities. Today's TSV 1860 Munich is mainly known for its football department founded in 1899 . In many other German cities (new) gymnastics clubs are also founded in the course of the year, which are usually only accessible to men.

The third gymnastics festival in Leipzig in 1863

The first German Gymnastics Festival opens in Coburg on June 16 , a four-day gathering of all German gymnasts . This event is carried out at irregular intervals at different locations until today. A month later, on July 15, another Feldberg Festival will be held on the Großer Feldberg im Taunus . This oldest mountain gymnastics festival in Germany was banned by the authorities in 1849. The gymnastics festivals originally have more than just a sporting background. In the spirit of the “gymnastics father” Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , who died in 1852 , all gymnasts should always strive for the unity of Germany . In this sense, the gymnastics festivals are also political events.

In Sheffield in England, after the FC Sheffield of 1857 , a second football club of established FC Hallam . On December 26th, the first match between these two teams according to the Sheffield rules developed in 1858 , which Sheffield FC won 2-0. According to a match report in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph , 16 players from Sheffield and 16 players from Hallam face off.

In Prussia there is a so-called " bar dispute ". The Royal Central Gymnastics Institute under director Hugo Rothstein is abolishing apparatus gymnastics in schools and replacing it with Swedish gymnastics designed by Pehr Henrik Ling . The followers of Jahn, led by Carl Philipp Euler , who is a member of the gymnastics institute this year, fight this action vigorously and in particular demand the reintroduction of stretching and bars . Both sides are supported by numerous medical and academic reports.

English students studying at private schools in Lausanne , Switzerland, found what is believed to be the first football club in continental Europe, the Lausanne Football and Cricket Club . Since the rules for association football were not created until 1863 , it is unclear what form of football was being played in Lausanne at that time.

golf

The Prestwick Golf Course
Winner Willie Park Sr. with the championship belt

The Open Championship , the oldest golf tournament still played today , is launched in Prestwick , Scotland . The idea of ​​an open championship on annually changing courses first appeared in 1856 . In the absence of support from other clubs, Prestwick dares to start alone. On October 17th, the first title fights held by the Earl of Eglinton and Colonel James Fairlie will be held. The eight leading players of the time play three rounds of the 12-hole course in Prestwick in one day. Willie Park Sr. wins the first title with 174 strokes. He is allowed to keep the championship belt for one year, no prize money is paid out.

Boxing

The fight between Sayers and Heenan, painted by ex-boxer Jem Ward

On April 17th, a sensational, illegal boxing match under the London Prize Ring Rules with bare fists takes place near Farnborough , Hampshire, between the 33-year-old, unofficial English heavyweight champion Thomas Sayers and the seven-year-old, taller and heavier American John Carmel Heenan . After a total of 37 rounds in approx. 140 minutes, spectators storm the ring, the fight is counted as a draw - both receive a belt, but only Heenan calls himself boxing world champion and English heavyweight champion. In the following year, the Anti Prize Fight Act was passed, which practically ended these events, much to the regret also of higher English social classes.

Skiing

The Norwegian Sondre Norheim from Morgedal in the province of Telemark jumps allegedly 30.5 meters at a regional skiing event . For ski jumping competitions, he uses a binding specially designed by him , which reduces the risk of losing a ski while driving, and he jumps using a technique he has developed . The width, which remains unconfirmed, will not be exceeded in the following 33 years.

Rockclimbing

The following mountains were climbed for the first time in 1860:

Name of the mountain Height
(m)
region Date of first ascent First climber
Grande Casse 3,855 Vanoise massif , Graian Alps 8th August William Mathews / Michel Croz and E. Favre
Alphubel 4,206 Valais Alps August 9 Guide Melchior Anderegg and Peter Perren with TW Hinchliff and Leslie Stephen
Blüemlisalphorn 3,664 Bernese Alps August 27th Guide Melchior Anderegg , Fritz Ogi and P. Simond with Robert Liveing, Leslie Stephen and JK Stone
Gran Paradiso 4,061 Aosta Valley , Graian Alps September 4th Michel-Clément Payot , Jean Tairraz , John Jeremy Cowell , W. Dundas

Historical maps and views from 1860

Born

January February

March April

May June

July August

September October

November December

Exact date of birth unknown

Birthdays of personalities from the sport can be found under this heading in the article Sport 1860 .

Died

January to March

April to June

July to September

October to December

Web links

Commons : 1860  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files