The Jülich Citadel was once part of the Jülich Fortress and is the most important preserved architectural monument in the city and one of the best preserved fortresses in the bastion system in Germany. It was built in the years after 1545 as part of an ideal city of the Renaissance and is the oldest citadel north of the Alps. Its builder was Alessandro Pasqualini . Today it presents itself as a four-pointed, bastioned fortress with a circumference of about 1200 meters. The citadel is surrounded by a 10 meter deep and 20 to 30 meter wide, partially water-bearing ditch, from the bottom of which it grows up. The system towers above its surroundings (height of the street) by around 5–10 m. For some years now, access from the city side has been via the Pasqualini Bridge , across the moat, through a postern . The inner courtyard can also be reached from the north through such a tunnel; only here the ditch is spanned not by a bridge but by a dam.
With the Jülich citadel, the much discussed but seldom realized building idea of the Palazzo in fortezza , the prince's seat in an impregnable fortress, was realized: Inside the citadel, the ducal residential palace was built, in which the 'handwriting' of Alessandro Pasqualini was also built recognize is. This palazzo in fortezza is the oldest in the German-speaking area and is considered the most important example of the High Renaissance.
The citadel and the no longer preserved city fortifications were designed by the Italian architect Alessandro Pasqualini and executed between 1543 and 1580, they are constructed in the New Italian manner. The ramparts as well as the farm buildings, barracks and castle buildings inside the fortress are predominantly made of field fire bricks and decorated and reinforced with white bluestone , only the courtyard-side arches of the north and south gates are made of sandstone . As with most of these fortresses, the walls are mostly made of earth, which is surrounded by blind walls, which on the field side can be up to five meters thick. The inside of the wall is divided by a system of barrel vaults in order to make it more difficult for the contained earth to leak out of a breach that may have been made, so that the emergence of a viable breach through which an enemy could penetrate the fortress is delayed. Bomb-proof casemates lead from the inner courtyard down to the cannon yards , which are built into the recessed flanks of the four bastions, and underground galleries run behind almost the entire outer wall. The wall thickness is highest on the most threatened northern front with 42 meters, the walls are about 12-15 meters high from the bottom of the trench. They are also canceled to increase their strength and to allow projectiles dropped from above to ricochet off towards the enemy.
The two posternes that pierce the north and south walls are the oldest and date from the time it was built. They are laid out in a curved shape to make it difficult to shoot through. There are also two straight, not publicly accessible posternes in the west and east kurtine. The Pasqualini Bridge in front of the South Potern follows the course of the old moat bridge, in the north there is still a dam that was built up after it was softened in 1860. The north and south gates are covered by flanking artillery slots to the left of the gate opening.
Shortly after completion, the wall crowns were still smooth, in the 17th century a top wall system ( cavalier ) was installed to gain a higher lookout and firing position and more space for gun emplacements. On the southern and eastern sides of the trench, the counter-screech from the 16th century has been preserved, which stabilized the opposite side of the trench.
In earlier times the moat, as it is called by the local population, was often flooded and then put under water about two to three meters deep, today it is almost completely dry. Like the Spandau Citadel , the Citadel in Jülich is also founded on piles, which was due to the previously very damp subsoil.
The four citadel bastions
The four bastions are in detail:
- Wilhelmus or, according to Prussian counting, Bastion No. I.
- The Wilhelmus bastion forms the southeast corner of the citadel and was named after the builder, Duke Wilhelm V of Jülich-Kleve-Berg .
- Today the school sports field of the municipal grammar school is housed on their platform.
- Maria Anna or Marianne , also Bastion No. II
- The Maria Anna bastion forms the north-eastern corner of the citadel and was named after the client's wife.
- It is the strongest fortified bastion, as it is opposite the Merscher Höhe - because of the elevated location, attacks were preferred from there during sieges. A sophisticated second line of defense was installed on the bastion base on the crest of the ramparts. It consists of a semicircular covered corridor with numerous notches for handguns and light artillery, which was supposed to keep attackers storming on the bastion platform in check; it was reconstructed in the 1980s. The Great Breach has been on the north face of the bastion since the siege exercise in 1860 ; it was walled up in the 1980s, but is still clearly legible.
- St. Salvator , also Bastion No. III
- The St. Salvator Bastion forms the northwest corner of the citadel.
- Together with the Maria Anna bastion, it was exposed to heavy fire during the sieges in the 17th century. It was also the target of the bombardments of 1860, and one of the breaches made can still be clearly seen on the northern ear of the bastion.
- St. John , also Bastion No. IV
- The St. John's Bastion forms the southwest corner of the citadel.
- There is a war powder magazine on it from the time of Napoleon, similar to the one on the Jülich bridgehead .
What is remarkable is the different equipment of the four bastions according to the degree of their threat in the event of a siege. Maria Anna and Salvator were closest to the Merscher Höhe, the natural direction of attack, and were therefore most threatened, so they are the strongest and most modern. Salvator and Wilhelmus, on the other hand, were close to the city fortifications, far away from the enemy and behind numerous protective outbuildings, so logically they are rather poorly developed. The original shape of the cannon yards , from which the adjacent wall piece and the opposite bastion face could be set under fire, has been preserved on the southern curtain wall - huge barrel vaults that are open to the front and only offer protection upwards. All other cannon yards have been modernized and have a mask wall, which also protects them from being shot at the front.
Remains of the numerous outbuildings of the citadel are still there:
- Kontregarde III in front of the St. Salvator bastion, substantial wall and moat remains along the northwest side of the moat
- Kontregarde II in front of the Maria Anna bastion, a flat earth wall at the edge of the ditch in front of the bastion point
- Ravelin I (also Ravelin Lyebeck ) in front of the Ostkurtine, significant remains of the casemate under the kindergarten, partly expanded as an air raid shelter
- Ravelin II in front of the north tower, wall and moat remains on both sides of the access road
- Ravelin III (also Ravelin Judas ) in front of the Westkurtine, considerable remains of earth and lock system in the ditch area. The ravelin was an earthwork and was not built over; it could be restored with relatively little effort
- Ravelin IV in front of the postern on the city side, size indicated in the paving, remains of the gatehouse
- Lock system in the Kontramauer under the Bonhoefferhaus with western access to the city moat
- Connection to the city moat south of the Wilhelmus bastion
- Bezel A at the western end of Artilleriestraße behind Pennymarkt, considerable earth remains
Today the city high school and a museum are housed in the citadel.
Historic buildings in the citadel
After the numerous sieges, renovations and the extensive destruction of the Second World War, not much remains of the once diverse commercial, barracks and representative buildings. Here is a short list of the buildings and remains of buildings that have been preserved:
- In the northeast corner, the remains of a double gate that belonged to a building that apparently had various uses in the course of its existence; sometimes it was called a laboratory , sometimes an armory . Today the two arches are in front of the sports hall with representative bluestone decorations.
- On the inside of the north wall the foundations of barracks, of which nothing apart from the base has remained.
- In the northwest corner a building whose original function is unknown. However, it seems to have served representative purposes because of the still recognizable, now walled up large lattice windows and was later used for other purposes. At some point a massive barrel vault was pulled in, presumably for use as a bomb-proof powder magazine, which made it necessary to strengthen the east wall. A Prussian fortress eagle used to hang here, which once hung over the gate and is now housed in the basement of the castle (museum). A cast of this eagle adorns the gate of the Spandau Citadel . Today the building serves as a warehouse.
- The east wing of the ducal residence palace is discussed below.
- Two trophy pillars south of the south wing opposite the postern on the city side mark the place where there used to be a passage through the castle building to the inner courtyard. They are made of bluestone and have a rich decor in the Renaissance style, once they were probably part of the cladding of the south wing.
- The war powder magazine on the platform of the St. John's Bastion was erected from 1806 (completed in 1811) and is the first building in the city to be built according to the metric system (wall thickness exactly one meter). It is built in the usual way for such buildings, with a massive barrel vault as the roof and thin end walls only loosely attached to the main building - in the event of an explosion inside the walls would have overturned and the pressure escaped, but the barrel vault would have remained. For obvious reasons, the location chosen was the least endangered bastion, a long way from the Merscher Höhe in the northeast. The building suffered severe damage during the war and temporarily housed refugees. It fell into disrepair until the 1990s and was only then converted into a museum. A magazine about half the size, which is almost identical in its construction, can be found on the bridgehead ; it was built at the same time as the one in the citadel.
- The sandstone interior portals of the north and south postern are similar in style to those found in Rheydt Castle near Mönchengladbach , they date from the same period and the client is the same. Above the south portal there is a bluestone relief plate with remarkable stone carvings from the time of origin, it shows the goddess Ceres with a cornucopia along with some other allegorical figures. The plate is a copy, the original is in the museum in the castle cellar.
The ducal residential palace was built from the laying of the foundation stone on April 30, 1549 in the style of the Italian High Renaissance and the fortifications began at the same time. Due to the lack of suitable quarries in the Jülich Börde, it is almost entirely made of bricks and thus ties in with Rhenish and Dutch traditions, only the decorative elements are made of bluestone . The four-wing complex had two floors, four corner towers, including a representative high tower in the northeast corner and a chapel in the middle of the east wing. The upper floor was a so-called piano nobile , i.e. H. for the ruler's chambers. A special feature was the inner courtyard loggia , of which traces of the foundations in the inner courtyard have been preserved to this day. The stairwells on the towers are also worth a note: they were barrel-vaulted and laid out extremely generously, and they were richly decorated with stone carvings. There are also extensive remains of them, especially handrails and representative doors. Two stairs have been completely preserved, they lead to the basement and are not quite as lavishly furnished, but allow an insight into the appearance of the old stairwells. The design of the palace is strongly reminiscent of contemporary Italian models such as the ducal palace (palazzo ducale) in Urbino , where there are many similar structural elements such as the loggia or the stairwells and which gives a good impression of what the Jülich palace looked like shortly after its completion Has. The fact that the palace chapel is not exactly in the middle of the east wing, but is shifted to the south from the central axis, indicates that the reduction of the originally much more generous plan was only decided after construction began, when the foundations of these components had already been laid were.
Back then, the castle represented something completely new in the Rhineland, which was still heavily influenced by the Middle Ages, and marked a sharp break with the traditional. It served as a ducal residence for both representative and administrative purposes, it housed the ruler's apartments and representative rooms (in the east wing) as well as extensive storage and administrative rooms. The extensive and well-preserved cellar vaults, which survived the destruction of the last war relatively unscathed and extend under the entire castle, still bear witness to this today. The facade was decorated with representative bluestone elements, there was a surrounding triglyph frieze and an embossed bluestone plinth, a sundial and rich figurative decorations are also documented, of which hardly anything remains today. The inner courtyard had two arched entrances, one from the south and one from the north. Only those in the north, with extremely rich jewelry in the Mannerist style , have survived to this day. The toilets in the east wing that still existed were a special feature, which were located inside instead of the previously common outside toilets according to the "free flight" principle . Also noteworthy is the large ballroom in the west wing, about which no more statements can be made today, as well as the still preserved castle chapel, to which a separate paragraph is dedicated.
From 1553 the east wing of the palace was ready for occupancy and was sometimes used by the duke for longer periods of time, but the construction work on the palace lasted at least until 1561. It was subsequently used rather sporadically, the duke's main stay was Düsseldorf . When Jülich lost its status as a residential town with the extinction of the ruling house and was only a fortress and garrison town, the castle also had to adapt to the new tasks. It was converted into a barracks and gutted; instead of the original two floors, it had three floors from 1738, and the four towers gradually disappeared. Military use lasted until 1944, by then the castle had been heavily modified and there wasn't much to see of its original splendor. In 1892 the west wing was torn down down to the cellar vault, and the garrison kitchen was later raised in its place.
During the Second World War, the castle was badly damaged in the heavy bombing and fighting in 1944, and it burned down completely. The first security measures did not take place until 1964, when most of the south and north wings were demolished without further ado without prior construction work or rescue of parts worth preserving. This action fell z. B. sacrificed the preserved Renaissance sundial on the south wing. In the course of the conversion to the headquarters of the state high school, extensive restoration work was carried out on the east wing, and the basement, which was to serve as the foundation for the new school building, was also secured. The restoration of the east wing largely restored the state of the 16th century on the outside , but inside it is an almost purely functional building that contains the administration of the school and some classrooms as well as the castle chapel. Not much of the rich interior decoration of earlier days has survived, only parts of the stairwells and a stone fireplace in the conference room bear witness to the old splendor. The façade of the east wing, on the other hand, still gives an idea of the original state, as do various remains of the old figure decorations in front of the south wing, built as spoilage in the inner walls of the ramparts and in a remarkable relief above the portal of the postern facing the city. Also noteworthy is the almost completely preserved basement with the museum housed in it and the complex systems to compensate for the considerable damage caused by the mountains.
The palace chapel is without a doubt the architectural highlight of the residential palace and probably the most valuable building in terms of art history in the entire city and the surrounding area. Of all parts of the castle, it is best preserved or has been most lovingly and completely restored. It was built together with the rest of the castle from 1549, probably originally as part of a larger castle design that was later reduced. Therefore it is not exactly in the middle of the east wing, but has been shifted to the south from it, which suggests that it, with the north-east tower, is one of the oldest parts of the building. At the time, the Duke strongly sympathized with Reformation ideas, which is why the chapel could easily be the first Protestant church building in the entire Rhineland. Like the east wing in which it is embedded, the chapel has two floors: the ground floor provided space for the servants, while the ruling family attended services on the upper floor. Only in the apse of the Jülich palace chapel is Bramante's central pillar motif , the so-called double window arrangement, to be found today . There are two rows of windows connected one behind the other, three large openings on the outside and four narrower ones on the inside, which creates an amazing spatial effect, especially when sunlight shines through. In Jülich, this special feature was destroyed during one of the numerous renovations, but was rediscovered and reconstructed during the restoration after the Second World War. Otherwise it only exists at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome , but in a built-over form.
The chapel has had numerous different uses over the centuries. a. as a storage room and horse stable and - of course - as a place of worship. At times, intermediate floors were put in to make better use of the space. The original Renaissance facade fell victim to a fire in the 18th century and was renovated in 1768 in the Rococo style, the shape of today's roof turret also dates from this time . After the devastating destruction in 1944, the chapel was completely renovated in the 1970s and opened to the public in 1979. Today it serves as a school church and a representative concert hall. It has largely been restored to the condition in which it was first built, only the gallery on the first floor was made of concrete and the plastering on the inside is missing. In front of the west portal there are two of the original late Baroque church bells from the former peal, which was not reconstructed. They were cast at the behest of Elector Karl Theodor in 1786 and come from the Saarburg bell and gun barrel foundry of Willibrord Stocky. Both bells have cracked and can no longer be used.
The dedicatory inscription from 1768 on the west facade of the chapel reads:
DEO AVITERNO ET CAELITIBVS SACRUM, FRONTE NOVA CAROLI THEODORI SPLENDEO IVSSV, EX BVSTIS PHOENIX REDIVIVVS ABIT (I, the place consecrated to the eternal God and his saints, shine with a new facade at the behest of Karl Theodor, as the phoenix rises from the ashes) . Some letters of the inscription are highlighted and form a chronogram that gives the year 1768.
William the Rich
In the early 16th century, the united duchies of Jülich-Kleve-Berg were one of the strongest regional powers in northwest Germany, and Duke Wilhelm V ruled over the duchies of Kleve and Berg and the counties of Ravensberg and Mark in addition to Jülich. In 1539 he took over the Duchy of Geldern , to which Emperor Charles V also claimed. In 1543, therefore, the war broke out, which ended unfavorably for Wilhelm: he had relied on France as an ally, but she did not lift a finger to help him. The imperial army with its modern artillery demolished the outdated ducal fortresses with ease, in particular the castle Nideggen , which was considered impregnable , fell victim to them, and Wilhelm had to submit to the emperor and marry a Habsburg woman. The Duke was now out to strengthen his military position and began building several modern fortresses, including Orsoy for the Duchy of Kleve , Düsseldorf for the Duchy of Berg and Jülich for the Duchy of Jülich , the latter two also becoming his residential cities and corresponding residential castles received. Jülich was spared during the war, a new city fortification had begun, but Wilhelm wanted a completely new city and so he hired the Italian master builder Alessandro Pasqualini , who had previously worked in the Netherlands . He now oversaw the expansion of Düsseldorf and Jülich as fortresses as well as the construction and renovation of the palace buildings there. In 1547 almost the whole city burned down, whether by accident or arson, it could never be completely clarified. In any case, the way was now clear for a completely new ideal city complex of the Renaissance , including a mighty fortress.
The original design stipulated that the citadel should cover the entire north side of the city, it would then have become about twice as large as it was actually designed. Lack of money dictated a reduction, and both the castle and the citadel had to be downsized. The construction took about thirty years, around 1580 the city fortifications and the citadel were completed. The entire street system of the city, laid out as an irregular pentagon with its own fortifications, was designed in such a way that it could be dominated from the citadel. Lines of fire extended across the city from the citadel to prevent civil uprisings or use by enemy soldiers - the citadel was the center of power in the city.
Citadel as a fortress and garrison
In 1610, as part of the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute after the ducal house had died out, the city occupied by imperial troops was first sieged by an army of the Dutch States General (→ Siege of Jülich (1610) ). The fortress was defeated relatively quickly because there were insufficient supplies and the crew apparently had not seriously expected an attack. Observers from many countries followed the siege of what was then the most modern fortress in Europe. The United Duchies were split up, and Jülich and Berg came to the Palatinate-Neuburg family . This division was of course provisional, for the time being the city remained in the hands of the States General. In 1621 a second siege followed by Spanish troops who wanted to wrest the city away from the Dutch. The besieged put up tough resistance, the fighting continued through the winter, and it was not until the spring of 1622 that the fortress surrendered. The Spanish occupiers stayed until 1660, after which the city fell to the Palatinate and finally to the Bavarians, who greatly expanded the fortifications in the 17th and 18th centuries .
The castle was no longer needed for representative or administrative purposes and was converted into a barracks. Towards the end of the 18th century , however, the fortress was in poor general condition and was handed over to the French without a fight in 1794, who forged and in some cases implemented ambitious expansion plans. Jülich was to become an important stage fortress between the Rhine border and mainland France and serve as a support for imperial armies operating in the area. Numerous new works began, especially in the run-up to the citadel, a circle of seven lunettes was placed around the city, five of which were in the area of the citadel, and the newly created bridgehead was added . The defeat of Napoleon in Russia and near Leipzig in 1813 prevented the completion of all extensions, and in 1814 the city, which still housed a French occupation, was devastated by the advancing Prussian, Danish and Mecklenburg units for the winter .
In 1815 the town and fortress became Prussian, and the new masters completed the expansions begun by the French. In 1860 the fortress was closed and the Prussian army started a large-scale siege exercise, during which the new rifled breech-loading weapons (artillery pieces and rifles) were extensively tested. The knowledge gained was used by the Prussians during the sieges during the Franco-German War . The city fortifications were removed with the exception of small remains, only the citadel and the bridgehead remained. In the course of the softening, the bridges over the moat were also torn down and replaced by dams, in the north the dam that was built up at that time is still preserved.
The citadel housed a non-commissioned preschool from 1860 to 1944 , with an interruption in the 1920s when Belgian and French occupation troops were billeted there. The fortress was called Quartier Charlemagne during the occupation . In the moat there were shooting ranges in the northern cannon yards of the Wilhelmus and St. Johannes bastions, with bullet traps at the northwest and northeast ends of the ditch. The north side of the citadel with the space previously occupied by its forecourts, between the edge of the ditch and today's Artilleriestraße, was used by the garrison as an artillery carriage.
During the National Socialist era, the Jülich Citadel was home to an SA home and a protective custody prison for the politically persecuted. After the transfer of power to Adolf Hitler on January 30, 1933, communists and social democrats from Jülich and the surrounding area imprisoned in this prison were severely ill-treated and tortured by SS men. In June 1951 these former SS men were indicted and convicted of their crimes committed there in the so-called Citadel Trial before the jury court in Aachen.
During the Second World War, the citadel's casemates served as an air raid shelter. It was badly damaged in the bombing of November 16, 1944, all buildings burned down, and two direct hits in the casemates of the St. John's Bastion killed numerous civilians who had sought refuge there. Further bombing, artillery fire and street fighting continued the work of destruction. After the war, the citadel fell into a long slumber and was generally avoided and hushed up, there were even plans to demolish it. In 1964 the ruins were provisionally "secured", unfortunately in the course of this work most of the economic and barracks buildings as well as the armory and around two-thirds of the castle were blown up without much ado. At the end of the 1960s, the citadel was chosen as the new seat of the state grammar school, which, with the baby boom in the post-war years and the numerous immigrant children, needed a larger home. The preserved east wing has been fairly restored, and the rest of the palace has been "added" in a modern form. In 1972 the new building with the adjoining sports hall and institute building could be occupied by today's Citadel Gymnasium in the city of Jülich . In the course of the 1980s, the east and north kurtine as well as the Maria Anna bastion were restored with little care, the masonry was simply torn away to a large extent and replaced with concrete and cheap bricks. In the 1990s, a rethink gradually set in, and the north and west kurtine and the bastions of St. Salvator and St. Johannes received a first-class restoration. By 1993, the dam in front of the southern Kurtine was removed and replaced by the Pasqualini Bridge, which emulates the old wooden bridge from the time of the fortress in steel. The powder magazine on the bastion platform of St. Johannes was also thoroughly renewed and a museum is located. In recent years the citadel has increasingly become the tourist and cultural center of the city, which was particularly promoted by the State Garden Show in 1998, the center of which was the citadel as well as the bridgehead . With a few exceptions, these two preserved fortifications are the only buildings in the city that survived the total devastation of World War II, which adds to their importance.
The lowering of the groundwater level due to the many surrounding opencast mines of the Rheinbraun / RWE made the foundation of the fortress dry out and caused considerable damage to the mountains due to flowing sand and yielding foundations. Excavations in the 1990s showed that at least large parts of the citadel only stands on sand , which in places gets flowing due to the sinking water table and creates cracks and cracks in the ramparts. A steadily growing fault runs from northwest to southeast across the citadel, with the southwest plate steadily sinking. It creates a clearly visible crack in the left face of the St. Salvator bastion, passes under the pedagogical center and the south wing of the castle and leaves the fortress through the left face of the Wilhelmus bastion. As early as the 1980s, the south wing of the castle had to be extensively secured, it was completely sawn through to insert an expansion joint, and the separated part was placed on a complicated system of hydraulic dampers and steel springs; similar dampers, the deformations, exist under the pedagogical center the building should prevent. The damage from the mountains is getting bigger and bigger, the difference in level between the western and the eastern part of the south wing is now about 50 cm, and broken windows in the pedagogical center meant that this building was also cushioned. The cracks in the ramparts cannot be overlooked, especially at the Wilhelmus bastion, and the difference in level that has now arisen can also be clearly seen on the foundation and the cordon stones of the ramparts. At the St. Salvator bastion, the situation is not so obvious due to the recent restoration, but there is a certain risk of collapse in the casemates of both bastions affected.
- Jülich Fortress
- Jülich bridgehead
- History of the city of Jülich
- Spandau Citadel
- List of fortresses in Germany
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- Jürgen Eberhardt: The citadel of Jülich: fortifications, residential palace and palace chapel . Publishing house Jos. Fischer (Jülich), 1993. ISBN 3-87227-044-3
- Hartwig Neumann : The Jülich Citadel: a walk through history . Publishing house Jos. Fischer (Jülich), 1971.
- Hartwig Neumann: Citadel Jülich: Great art and building guide . Publishing house Jos. Fischer (Jülich), 1986. ISBN 3-87227-015-X
- Hartwig Neumann: City and fortress Jülich on pictorial representations , Bonn 1991. ISBN 3-7637-5863-1
- Hartwig Neumann: The end of a fortress . Publishing house Jos. Fischer (Jülich), 1987. ISBN 3-87227-016-8
- Volker Schmidtchen: Citadel monument: Changing forms of use: the example of Jülich . German Society for Fortress Research, 1989.
- Renaissance fortress Jülich - city complex, citadel and residential palace . Citadel Jülich e. V. 1991
- Jörn Wangerow: The Jülich Citadel: A fortress through the ages . Jülich 2008
- Erich Dietz; F. Meyer: The NCO school in Jülich 1860-1910. A festschrift to celebrate its 50th anniversary. Flamm, 1910 ( uni-duesseldorf.de )
- Horst Wallraff: National Socialism in the Düren and Jülich districts. Hahne & Schloemer Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-927312-30-4 , p. 185
- Stefan Kraus: Places of National Socialist Tyranny, Volume 5, Part 10 , Habelt Verlag, 2007, ISBN 3-7749-3521-1 , p. 10
- Dürener Nachrichten of June 27, 1951: “I wanted to be an SS man” and Dürener Nachrichten of July 4, 1951: “Main wire puller” severely punished
- Citadel castle fortress (website of the city of Jülich)
- Castle chapel (website of the city of Jülich)
- Timeline Jülich
- Historical map as a digitized version of the University and State Library Düsseldorf