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Traffic sign on federal highways in Germany
Historical toilet signpost

The toilet / to̯aˈlɛtə / (from French toile 'cloth' ), also called Klosett (from English closet , also for short toilet ), zero-zero (from '00') or the abbreviation WC (from English water closet ' water closet ' ) a sanitary device for collecting body excretions (especially feces and urine ) since around the 19th century . In addition, the terms also designate the place or room in which the device is located. A toilet is used for a wider range of uses than a urinal, which is only set up to discharge urine .

In 2001 the World Toilet Organization was founded with the aim of improving the hygienic conditions on or in toilets worldwide. World Toilet Day also comes from her . Around 6 out of 10 people currently (2019) worldwide have no access to safe sanitary facilities.


"Donnerbalken" with soldiers of the First World War

The term toilet is derived from the French language, where "toilette" meant the process of applying make-up, hairdressing and dressing for the ladies-in-waiting - originally, dressing tables and washbasins were called "toilettes". Since the women at court had special dressing rooms for their toilets and there they also used their chairs to relieve themselves, this term became established for the toilet itself, initially only outside France, in German in the 19th century and in American English from the end of the 19th century. The synonymous French toilettes (in the plural) has only been lexicographically listed since 1964.

Other - often joking and / or outdated / obsolete - names for this (small) room are the locus (from the Latin locus 'place' or locus necessitatis 'place of need'), the latrine (from the Latin lavare , bathing / washing oneself ' ), the Privé ( French privé , confidential, private' ), the Retirade (lat.-Italian-French, 'retreat'), the privy (a variant of, leakage '), the abortion or even the loo . Vulgar terms are Scheißhaus (Middle High German schîzhûs, originally not offensive), Schlotte - actually a cavity in water-soluble rock - or, especially in military jargon, Donnerbalken . Dialectal terms in Austria and Bavaria are also Häusl, in Switzerland Hüüsli, common in the southwest of the German-speaking area then AB (covering for abortion or cessation). Formerly common veiling terms were also stealth or secret chambers and dansker .

All of these terms show the high feeling of shame in relation to one of the most intimate human issues and the desire to be alone while using a toilet and are therefore euphemisms that can be derived from things around the toilet; none of them mean the bowl itself in its origin.

Signs on toilets often read 00 or 0. This was because in hotels in the 19th century the toilet rooms were usually located near the elevator or stairwell . Since the numbering of the rooms usually began there, the toilet rooms had the room number 0 or a two-digit 00 .

The toilets are usually equipped with a toilet seat and provided items such as trash , toilet brush and toilet paper provided.


Ancient public latrinae in Ostia Antica
School toilet from Portz around 1900 in the folklore and open-air museum Roscheider Hof King Wilhelm III's toilet  of England with velvet seat, Hampton Court, London
School toilet from Portz around 1900 in the folklore and open-air museum Roscheider Hof
King Wilhelm III's toilet of England with velvet seat, Hampton Court , London

Well-developed toilets already existed around 2800 BC. In Mesopotamia . In Mohenjo-Daro , the largest excavated city of the Indus culture , toilets were part of the house equipment. In the Minoan Palace of Knossos on Crete there were sanitary rooms, including toilets with flushing water. The Roman culture also knew toilets, latrines, in which the faeces were removed more hygienically by running water, especially in public facilities, houses of the rich and in country houses of large landowners ( villae rusticae ). In the cities of antiquity , the drains flowed into the large sewers , the so-called sewers. The best known was the Cloaca Maxima in Rome . This technology was lost with the end of the Roman Empire .

In the Middle Ages there were in stand alone buildings, such as castles or monasteries , toilets in the form of niches and alcoves ( garderobe ), often simply led into the open. In urban areas, toilets were usually created as septic tanks . In the lavish palace and palace buildings of the 17th and 18th centuries, the disposal of sewage and faeces was still unsolved. The inadequate equipment meant that corridors, corridors, room corners, entrances and passageways as well as courtyards, gardens and parks were used without restraint and a penetrating smell permeated the locks. The sewage was channeled into trenches, bodies of water or canals (→ Necessarium ) or it simply seeped into the ground. The installation of manifolds was aimed at, but hardly carried out. The domestic water supply was mostly provided by in-house pumps, scoop and draw wells, with the risk of contamination from untreated sewage. Bed chambers and cabinets were furnished with portable high chairs or small lavoirs .

In 1596, Sir John Harington invented the first modern water closet. His invention was forgotten again. In 1775 the Scottish inventor Alexander Cummings received the patent for his design of a water closet. In 1777 Samuel Prosser received a patent for a plunger closet. A year later, Joseph Bramah developed a type of toilet that was often installed on ships and boats. In Paris at the beginning of the 19th century, Gazeneuve et Companie invented the odorless movable floorboard , which contributed a lot to improved living quality. It spread quickly and employed, among others, the Munich architect Leo von Klenze , who installed this technical innovation in the newly built Palais Leuchtenberg in 1822 .

Where in Germany the first toilet with water flushing has been installed, is debatable. It is known that one was installed in Ehrenburg Castle in Coburg in 1860. At that time it was specially imported from England for Queen Victoria , who was a frequent guest there . The toilet in Bad Homburg Castle is older . The wife of Landgrave Friedrich Josef VI. , Elisabeth, a daughter of King George III of England . , had a flushed toilet built as early as 1820. This is no longer preserved as it fell victim to later renovations. The developer of the toilet is the English plumber George Jennings (1810–1882): He exhibited it at the Great Exhibition in 1851 in Hyde Park , London. In Germany, flush toilets became widespread in cities towards the end of the 19th century, when water connections in houses and, above all, sewer systems became common. In the countryside, on the other hand, outhouse toilets often remained common until after the Second World War, i.e. cuttings with septic tanks (latrines), as they were previously common in cities.

These latrines are important archaeological sources, especially for the Middle Ages and the early modern period, as not only excrement but also other waste ended up in the pits, and the conditions for preserving organic material are usually good because of the lack of oxygen and the lack of oxidation and fermentation processes there.

The existence of latrines was previously important for various trades because urine contains ammonia and was used for dyeing textiles , tanning and leather, as well as washing clothes . The saying “ Pecunia non olet(money doesn't stink) has its origins in a Roman latrine tax.

Retirade in Schwetzingen Castle : In the 18th century, contemporaries called a toilet a retirade. The name goes back to the French word retirer, meaning “to withdraw”. Mobile body chairs were provided for the necessary comfort.


Porcelain standard basin

Typical American-style washdown toilet with flush valve.  In the sump, the water jet opening into the siphon Section through a washdown unit (Ceramics Museum Mettlach)
Typical American-style washdown toilet with flush valve. In the sump, the water jet opening into the siphon
Section through a washdown unit ( Ceramics Museum Mettlach )
Flat WC sinks with a non-water-saving flushing system

The most common are porcelain toilets with flush toilets and sewerage . There are three main types:


Toilet seat where excrement falls into the water of a siphon located under the user's buttocks. This means that there is little odor because the water prevents the excrement from coming into contact with the room air. However, one disadvantage compared to the flat washer is that the water often splashes up on the buttocks. This form is common, for example, in North America , France and England and increasingly in Germany and Austria.

A modification of this flushing system is the cascade toilet (also known as a cascade flushing device): The drain to the siphon is at the very back (wall side), the water from splashing up is prevented by a ceramic tongue.

The flushing process differs between European and North American toilets: while in Europe the water running in during flushing transports away the excrement, in North America part of the flushing water is introduced into the often meandering siphon as a water jet. The function is that of a jet pump , the water serves as a driving medium, for flushing that of a suction lifter . The contents of the bowl are thus emptied by suction and then refilled. The water level in American wash basins is also significantly higher than in European ones.

One problem with washdown toilets is drainage pipes that are narrowed by deposits. The result is that the toilet bowl is filled faster by the flushing water than it is emptied by the drain. The excrement floats up and only the water from the lower part of the siphon slowly drains off.

Dish washer

toilet flush

Toilet seat where there is some kind of step under the user's buttocks on which the excretions fall. The drain to the siphon is at the front of the flat washer (towards the middle of the room). The excretions only disappear into the sewage system when flushed through the siphon . It is possible to take a stool sample, as is useful in hospitals and with doctors. The biggest disadvantage of this design is the strong odor development, which is why public and private toilets have been and are being converted to washdowns since the 1990s.

Squat toilet

Squat toilet at a French motorway filling station

In a squat toilet (sometimes called a standing toilet ), the user does not sit on a bowl, but rather crouches. The toilet can be a simple hole or a channel in the floor. There are now larger, basin-like constructions. Squat toilets are common in Asia , southern Europe and Islamic countries. Since there is no direct contact between the body and the toilet, they are often viewed as particularly hygienic. It is difficult to use for inexperienced users. Conversely, the use of a sit-down toilet can be a problem for people who are not used to it and who find the contact between the buttocks and the toilet seat unsanitary. What is remarkable about the crouching position is that the rectum is not kinked, unlike in a sit-down toilet.

Standing or hanging toilet bowls

It used to be common to set up toilet bowls freely in the room. The voluminous drainage pipe ran through the ceiling and then either freely in front of the wall or in a brick wall niche under the plaster.

The lines are mostly invisible behind a drywall construction . As a simple solution to completely hide the drainage pipe and at the same time to make cleaning the floor easier, it was suggested to hang the toilet bowl on the construction from the wall. Wall-hung toilets are the most widespread. Their connection dimensions are determined in accordance with DIN EN 33: 2011-11.

Shower toilets

Modern toilets can be found in the form of shower toilets , which are installed in apartments in Switzerland with a share of 10 percent and in Germany with a share of 1 percent.

In transport

Travel toilet, around 1850 (Eutin Castle)

In railways, unisex toilets are generally common. Attempts to establish gender-segregated toilets have not been successful.

Open design

The "open design" is also referred to as a downpipe toilet , which is emptied directly to the outside. In the past, this was the most widespread system on the railways , which is why the use of the toilet was prohibited in train stations. The advantages of the simple design, the constant availability and the unnecessary emptying are offset by pollution and environmental problems .

Closed design

Toilets with closed type have a waste water tank, normally every one to two days wastewater is emptied. The closed types (with or without treatment of the wastewater) are predominantly emptied using negative pressure ; this makes it possible to save water when rinsing.

  • Vacuum toilets: Vacuum toilets are used in aircraft, on ships, modern trains and in manned space travel. Because of the lack of gravity, toilets in space are constructed on a principle similar to a vacuum cleaner. The opening is only about the size of the palm of your hand and its use must be trained.
  • The advantage of chemical toilets is that the wastewater does not have to be disposed of as often, the disadvantage is the environmentally harmful chemicals.
  • During the biological treatment of the wastewater, microorganisms convert the feces so that the water content can be reused as service water . Biological toilets allow long emptying cycles. The disadvantage is that the system can “tip over” if, for example, the toilet bowl is cleaned with the wrong chemicals.

Other toilet shapes

Alternatively, vacuum toilets are increasingly being installed where material flow separation is necessary (such as in the radiological department of hospitals) or where ecological wastewater treatment with anaerobic processes is planned. Other toilets with the possibility of urine separation are also being tested in some cases .


Duravit Design Center in Hornberg.

Multipart, reusable plaster casts are made from a permanent model.

A two-part outer shape and a one-part inner shape, which, when put together, form what will later be the outer surfaces, are common. After drying, the parts are put together and flooded from below with a ceramic mass, mainly consisting of clay minerals , to which reinforcing parts have been added. The dry plaster of paris absorbs part of the moisture from the casting compound, forming a solid layer. Excess, still liquid casting compound is drained off. Because of the limited space available, several hundred workpieces can be created from a plaster mold. After about an hour of dwell time, the plaster molds can be removed. The ridges are usually plastered manually, parts that cannot be produced by casting, such as the separating web in the sump of the odor trap, are inserted in the sump of the washdown bowl . The connections are cut out and calibrated. This is followed by drying, the application of an aqueous mixture as a base coat of glass powder and chalk , machine or manual glaze , drying and firing at around 1200 ° C, during which the clay parts sinter (fuse) .


Instructions for use in a public automatic toilet

The obligation to erect toilets can result from various legal norms. In Germany, the building codes of the federal states regulate the construction of toilets, which as a rule must have a water flush. In some cases, toilets for wheelchair users, i.e. barrier-free toilets, are to be provided. Accessibility is the subject of VDI 6008 Part 2 and some DIN standards. Not only dimensions are regulated. The workplace ordinance stipulates that employees must be provided with separate toilet rooms for men and women or that they must be used separately. Further regulations can be found in the catering law . Not all federal states prescribe separate toilets for small restaurants. The need for sanitary objects as well as the equipment of the sanitary rooms are the subject of recognized rules of technology , in particular the series of guidelines VDI 6000. This series of guidelines consists of the individual guidelines

  • VDI 6000 sheet 1: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Apartments (2008-02)
  • VDI / BV-BS 6000 sheet 1.1: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Basics and systems; Prefabricated sanitary components (prefabricated sanitary rooms, installation systems) (2012-02)
  • VDI 6000 Sheet 2: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Workplaces and workplaces (2007-11)
  • VDI 6000 Part 3: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Meeting places and meeting rooms (2011-06)
  • VDI 6000 Part 4: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Hotel room (2006-11)
  • VDI 6000 Part 5: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Retirement homes, retirement homes, retirement homes (2004-11)
  • VDI 6000 sheet 6: Equipment of and with sanitary rooms; Kindergartens, day-care centers, schools (2006-11)

Requirements for public toilets are contained in guideline VDI 3818 "Public Sanitary Rooms".

Determination of needs

The determination of requirements is fundamental for planning sanitary facilities. The need for sanitary objects (toilets, urinals, sinks, etc.) is determined on the basis of assumptions about how many people can be used at the same time. Determining needs in the area of ​​apartments is trivial. In all other areas it must be checked which simultaneities are to be used. So is z. For example, a significantly higher simultaneity (fixed break times) in theatrical performances in places of assembly than in a trade fair. VDI 6000 provides specifications for the various cases.

Dimensions, equipment, boundary conditions

To ensure usability and access, certain dimensions (traffic and movement areas, cabin dimensions) must be observed. To ensure access to the rescue of helpless people, it is recommended, for example, to have cabin doors open to the outside if possible; where this is not possible, a greater cabin depth must be provided. The height of the toilet seat z. B. is crucial in the case of barrier-free systems, but also in day-care centers and schools. The equipment to be regarded as usual, depending on the environment, is specified in a table in the guidelines of the VDI 6000 series. In public spaces there is often a requirement to take precautions against vandalism . Due to the demographic change, the need for barrier-free sanitary facilities is increasing not only in the public sector, but also in the residential area.


There are around 2.5 billion people worldwide who do not have access to toilets.

Water consumption

A toilet siphon , clogged with clay-like sludge (especially urine scale )

Outdated cisterns, mostly installed overhead, use 9–12 liters for one flushing process and the flushing process cannot be interrupted. Thanks to the improved water flow in the toilet element, six liters are sufficient for this nowadays; the water flushing can be interrupted or only flushed with three liters using the economy buttons. Hugo Feurich developed a toilet that needs two liters for a "large" flush.

In many European countries, but also in Japan, toilets that can be flushed with either a lot or little water ("flush-stop-water-saving technology", "two-volume flush system") have become established. In other countries, such as the USA , where manufacturers are experimenting with generally water-saving toilets, toilet flushes with selector switches are still rarely on the market.

Gender, role and purpose specific

Reliefs on the toilet building in Győr Zoo , Hungary

A separation by sex is so characteristic of public toilets that an icon showing a man and a woman separated by a semicolon, is usually interpreted as a reference to a public toilet, although the icon itself shows no toilet. In a so-called unisex toilet , there is no gender separation. Here, in order to save space, only one room with toilets is usually made available for men and women (for the passengers of a train or in a mobile toilet, identification as unisexual usually with 00 or toilet ). Occasionally - but standard in hotels in France - you will find a bidet next to the toilet in which you can wash the anus and genitals . Urinals or pee troughs for urinating are common in public men's toilets . However, they are rarely found in private households. In Japanese women's toilets, there is often an otohime , a small loudspeaker that is supposed to drown out body noises. Italian toilets, on the other hand, usually have a fan that sucks the smells in the shell or in the room and discharges them over the roof. In public women's toilets in the United States, a collapsible child seat is occasionally wall-mounted in the cell, on which toddlers can be securely seated with a belt while the mother is using the toilet.

Even for the smallest catering establishments with a guest room, the trade authorities in Austria prescribe two toilets that are separated by sex; this also applies to establishments where women and men work. Conversely, it was argued in the Linz tram around 1980 that women could not be employed as tram drivers or bus drivers because there was only one toilet for men at the terminus, while in Vienna and Graz women were also doing driving service at that time, which was common at the end of the Second World War was. The additional offer of a urinal for men, which serves the comfort and the cleanliness of standing pee, makes a toilet room for women almost unreasonable. The following hybrid construction can often be found at petrol stations without a guest room in Austria: As a customer, a key is given to access a three-part toilet via an outside door on the building: On the first good square meter there is a washbasin with a mirror on the side; a wall (bricked with a door opening or just a lightweight panel) forms the privacy screen to the urinal in the second third, the third section with the toilet bowl is separated by a lockable door.

In larger companies, offices or schools, separate toilet facilities are also common for employees on the one hand and customers, visitors or students on the other. This can culminate in the fact that employees in management positions are even provided with personal sanitary facilities. Separate staff and patient toilets in hospitals or medical practices are set up for reasons of hygiene.


Typical toilet in Japan with controls

In industrialized countries, so-called scented flushers containing toilet stones are often found on the edge of the toilet bowl . They are supposed to cover unpleasant smells by emitting fragrances and in some cases also increase hygiene.

In Arab countries, sit-down toilets are always equipped with a water hose for personal hygiene and superficial cleaning of the toilet, as well as a waste bin. Wetting the surrounding area with water often attracts vermin ( cockroaches ) due to the resulting warm, humid climate . The rubbish bin is used to collect used toilet paper that is not flushed down the toilet, as the sewage systems in these countries are not designed for this and would consequently clog.

In parts of the Middle East , the use of the toilet in a mosque is reserved for men. Even in restaurants, including those with so-called family compartments, there are often no ladies' toilets. In 2006, the first public ladies' toilet opened in the bazaar district of the northern Iraqi city of Erbil .

Public toilets often require payment for their use, as water charges and cleaning costs have to be covered. In restaurants in busy places, for example, a toilet fee is advertised for non-guests. A Nice Toilet is a toilet made available for public use free of charge by retailers and restaurateurs in Germany. In return, they receive an expense allowance from the local city administration, which in return saves the costs of their own public toilets.


Mobile toilet cubicle as used on construction sites and at major events

Toilets are places of individualism because the user sits alone on the "bowl" and is still in indirect contact with the (subsequent) public. In frequently used toilets, such as train stations, restaurants or university buildings, toilet sayings are written on the inside walls of the cabin. From this, latrine slogans or shit house slogans are derived from rumors that originally emerged during conversations in the toilet. The word comes from the language of the soldiers , since at the septic tank or latrine there all crew grades met for joint emptying.

Such terms are generally used for statements that are not to be taken seriously or that are too pessimistic.


The paruresis phobia describes the fear of urinating in public toilets. There are similar fears with bowel movements ("rhypophobia").

There are public toilets with walls made of “smart glass” . The electrically conductive glass surfaces become opaque when an electrical voltage is applied. When entering the walls are transparent, only when a switch is operated, the walls become opaque.

A public toilet facility was built as an art installation, the walls of which are made of semi-transparent mirrors. The walls appear transparent from the dark interior and the users of the toilet can see the passers-by outside, but they cannot see inside from the outside.


The municipal Klo & So sanitary museum exists in Gmunden (Upper Austria), in Leibnitz the small sanitary museum , the museum for water, bath and design in Schiltach, the museum for sanitary technology in Gleiwitz as well as the private loo museum in Wiesbaden .


  • In his film The Phantom of Liberty (1974) has Luis Buñuel the taboo of the corridor to the toilet satirizes . While bourgeois society sits together on the toilet at a reception and sees nothing offensive in it, eating is now taboo. Eating takes place in a secluded "quiet place".
  • The insurance company Rudolf Protz had the first public toilets ("necessities") set up in the capital of Berlin in the 1880s.
  • In Hamburg the toilet is known as "Tante Meier". The term comes from the Hamburg French era : when the French occupation soldier had to go to the toilet, he went to the tente majeure, the main tent. The Hamburger Deern , the French do not speak, understand Tantmajör and mocked it to "Aunt Meier".
  • The toilet is certainly a place of relaxation in stressful situations. According to a survey by the job exchange Jobware from 2018, almost every second employee (48%) uses the toilet during working hours to take a break or to do private business. 33% of the respondents stated that the quiet place offers a respite from daily work stress. The smartphone offers 15% the opportunity to play and chat for other purposes. On the other hand, 33% of employers are convinced that their employees take a break in the quiet place.
  • The verb splurge, also abprotzen is a common paraphrase for "use a (primarily public) toilet" , which has been used in Berlin since the end of the 19th century . Derived from the name of the insurance company Rudolf Protz, who set up the first public toilets (“need institutions”). The term has become increasingly uncommon since the 1990s.

See also


  • Holger Dosch: Places in the world. Munich 2004, sediment, ISBN 3-00-012323-7 .
  • Daniel Furrer: water throne and thunder beam. A small cultural history of the quiet place. Primus, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-89678-248-7 .
  • Joseph von Hazzi: About the manure. At the same time, however, about the mischief in Germany, especially in the capital and residence of Munich and throughout Bavaria. 1821.
  • Norbert Hierl-Deronco: It is a pleasure to build - by builders, builders and building in the baroque era in Kurbayern-Franconia-Rhineland. Krailing 2001, ISBN 3-929884-08-9 .
  • Martin Illi; Stadtentwässerung Zürich (Ed.): From Schissgruob to modern urban drainage. NZZ Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Zurich 1987, ISBN 3-85823-173-8 .
  • Stephan Kohl, Christina Huber-Yüzgec: The quiet place - taboo and cleanliness at court: an exhibition of the state palaces and gardens of Baden-Württemberg. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-422-02285-0 .
  • Bettina Möllring: Toilets and urinals for women and men: the design of sanitary objects and their use in public and private areas. (Dissertation Universität der Künste Berlin 2003/2004 176 pages ( full text online ), PDF, free of charge, 176 pages, 3.5 MB).
  • Richard Neudecker : The splendor of the latrine. On the change in public lavatories in the imperial city (= studies on the ancient city, volume 1). Pfeil, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-923871-86-4 .
  • Anton Schlicksbier, Winfried Helm, Enrico Santifaller: quiet places in the Upper Palatinate. A photo documentation. Büro Wilhelm, Amberg 2003, ISBN 3-936721-03-3 .
  • Adolf Schmieger: moral history of the cessation. In: Leo Schidrowitz (Hrsg.): Moral history of the intimate: bed - corset - shirt - pants - bathroom - toilet. The history and development of intimate everyday objects. Vienna and Leipzig n.d. (around 1927), pp. 269–313.
  • Jan Carstensen and Heinrich Stiewe: Places of Relief. On the history of the toilet and toilet. Imhof, Petersberg 2016 (book accompanying the exhibition Freilichtmuseum Detmold).

Web links

Commons : Toilet  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: toilet  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Klosett  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Abort  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Latrine  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: WC  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Zero-Zero  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Annette Jensen: Toilet activist for World Water Day: "Shit is considered unprintable" . In: The daily newspaper: taz . March 22, 2019, ISSN  0931-9085 ( [accessed on May 3, 2019]).
  2. ^ Toilet synonyms . DWDS accessed on May 7, 2019
  3. ^ Christiane Hemker: Old Oriental sewerage. Investigations into irrigation and drainage systems in the Mesopotamian-Syrian-Anatolian region. Part 1: Text. Agenda, Münster 1993, ISBN 3-929440-06-7 , p. 180.
  4. Andreas Hensen: Quiet places in the Roman Empire. In: Archeology in Germany 1 (2012), pp. 8–13.
  6. The tanning of hides
  7. Leather - global tanning (PDF; 2 MB)
  8. Leather dyeing
  9. History of laundry care
  10. ^ Retirade . Schwetzingen Castle , accessed on May 7, 2019
  11. ^ Paramedic Pfau: Toilet comfort in the sanitary area
  12. Duravit Duraplus wall-hung WC Cascade
  13. Bath depot: What should you watch out for with the toilet?
  14. ^ Pacific Science Center in Seattle, Washington: Flushing process in a functional cutaway model of an American washdown toilet.
  15. Shower toilets. In: MeinStil-Magazin. Retrieved on March 22, 2020 (German).
  16. See: Eisenbahndirektion Mainz (Ed.): Collection of the published official gazettes from March 2, 1901. Volume 5, No. 9, Announcement No. 93, p. 55: The Prussian State Railways offered at least one pair of toilets in express trains 1./2. First class and one in third class (if the train ran third class), which were designated for use by gender.
  17. ^ The process of making the most important piece of furniture in our homes, the humble toilet. Exemplary manufacturing process for a washdown toilet (commented in English), accessed on December 7, 2015
  18. How It's Made: Toilet Exemplary manufacturing process of an American washdown toilet (commented in English), accessed on December 7, 2015
  19. Compostable bags are supposed to solve hygiene problems and avoid diseases. The time of June 10, 2010.
  20. Dr.-Ing. Hugo Feurich passed away. In: October 20, 2010, accessed May 16, 2020 .
  21. Hugo Feurich: With the 2-liter toilet: Save water and operating costs , IKZ-HAUSTECHNIK [sic!], Edition 11/2003, p. 24 ff.
  22. Hugo Feurich: Saving water when flushing the toilet , sbz-online 17/2000, pp. 56–67.
  23. Transparent Public Toilets of Switzerland
  24. ^ Website of the museum for historical sanitary objects
  25. Small sanitary museum. In: Accessed December 31, 2019 .
  26. Michael Grabenströer: loo museum in the old rectory. In: Frankfurter Rundschau online. Archived from the original on November 13, 2012 ; accessed on December 31, 2019 .
  28. D. Diederichsen: toilet dinner. In: Die Zeit No. 19, May 4, 2005 ( online , accessed February 14, 2014).
  29. ^ Sächsische Vieh-Versicherungsbank zu Dresden . In: Address book for Berlin and its suburbs , 1900, I. Theil, p. 1317 (1900/3469 /: Appendix p. 65: advertisement).
  30. Rudolf Protz . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1890, I. Theil, p. 943. “Sub-director of the Saxon cattle verse. Bank, liquideur of the fire verse. Ges. 'Adler' and owner of the Berlin need establishments, office Berlin-N, Auguststrasse 6 1st floor, house owner there ”(1900: the controleur Otto Protz lived in the same house, as well as the controleur in Berlin NO Christburger Strasse 40 1st floor Wilhelm Protz.).
  31. Rudolf Protz . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1880, IT, p. 746. “Rudolf Protz, General Agent and Sub-Direkt., Representative of the 'Union' Feuer- und Glas Vers. Ges., The Hannoversche Leb. Vers. Anst., The general German. Hail insurance Society and the Saxon. Cattle verse. Bank, N Auguststrasse 6 ground floor, owner, office: N Auguststrasse 81 “(Engineer Erich Protz, company for gas, water and sewer systems, NW Schumannstrasse 17 ground floor, company F. Oehlamm & Protz).
  32. Article by Peter Schmachthagen in the Hamburger Abendblatt from August 22, 2017, page 2.
  33. VDI nachrichten , November 2, 2018, No. 44, p. 29
  34. ^ Sächsische Vieh-Versicherungsbank zu Dresden . In: Address book for Berlin and its suburbs , 1900, I. Theil, p. 1317 (1900/3469 /: Appendix p. 65: advertisement).
  35. Rudolf Protz . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1890, I. Theil, p. 943. “Sub-director of the Saxon cattle verse. Bank, liquideur of the fire verse. Ges. 'Adler' and owner of the Berlin need establishments, office Berlin-N, Auguststrasse 6 1st floor, house owner there ”(1900: the controleur Otto Protz lived in the same house, as well as the controleur in Berlin NO Christburger Strasse 40 1st floor Wilhelm Protz.).
  36. abprotzen