Johann Heinrich Zedler

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Universal Lexicon published by Zedler is now considered the most important German-language encyclopedia of the 18th century. Zedler's name is so closely linked to the lexicon that the work is now mostly referred to as “the Zedler” for short. Contrary to the information on the title page shown here, the first volume was published at the Leipzig Michaelism Fair in 1731.

Johann Heinrich Zedler (born January 7, 1706 in Breslau ; † March 21, 1751 in Leipzig ) was a German bookseller and publisher . His most important merit was the establishment of the large, complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts , which developed into the most comprehensive German-language encyclopedia of the 18th century.

After an apprenticeship as a bookseller, Zedler founded his own bookstore in 1726, first in Freiberg, Upper Saxony , and then in 1727 in what was then Leipzig's publishing and book trade center . With an eleven-volume edition of Martin Luther's writings published between 1728 and 1733 (so-called "Leipziger Lutherausgabe", 1729–1734, 11 volumes, register volume 1740), he brought his first major publishing product onto the market. As the founding publisher of the Universal Lexicon , which he began in 1731 and which had grown to a total of 64 volumes during his lifetime , Zedler got into a longstanding conflict with the established Leipzig publishers and had to defend his project repeatedly against the lawsuits of his competitors until the mid-1730s.

In spring 1737 at the latest, the financial collapse and the purchase of the publisher, from now on only nominally run by Zedler, occurred by the Leipzig businessman Johann Heinrich Wolf (* 1690). Financed by Wolf, Zedler was able to continue not only the Universal Lexicon but also other previously started works such as the General State, War, Churches and Scholars Chronicle (1733–1754, 22 volumes). Zedlers new publishing works such as the commercial lexicon General treasure chamber The merchant Complete (1741-1743, 4 volumes and 1 supplementary volume), Johann Gottlieb seal collection of change orders Corpus Juris Cambialis (1742, 2 volumes) and the Historical Political-Geographical Atlas of whole world (1744–1749, 13 volumes) appeared under the name of the Leipzig publisher Johann Samuel Heinsius the Elder. Ä. (1686-1750).

In 1751, only one year after the alphabetical completion of the Universal Lexicon (four additional volumes followed by 1754), Zedler died at the age of 45. His name lives on in the colloquial name of the universal lexicon , which is known today as "the Zedler".

life and work

Origin, training and first self-employment in Freiberg

Johann Heinrich Zedler was born in 1706 as the son of the shoemaker and Wroclaw citizen Johann Zedler. Presumably without previous high school education, he began an apprenticeship with the Brachvogel bookseller in Wroclaw. He then moved to the company of the Hamburg bookseller and publisher Theodor Christoph Felginer and, after his death in 1726, went to Freiberg in Saxony . In September he married Christiana Dorothea Richter (1695–1755), sister of the publisher David Richter, who came from a respected family of merchants and councilors and was eleven years his senior. Armed with the necessary financial means through his wife's dowry, he opened a bookshop in Freiberg. Unlike in older literature, Zedler was already active as a publisher at this time.

Zedler's early publishing works: Bethesda Portvosa, Das Helffreich Wasser Zum Langen Leben…, Freiberg and Leipzig 1726, as well as M. Gottlieb Jahns… Ethica Salomonis Sacra That is: The spiritual moral teaching of the preacher Salomonis…, Freiberg 1727. Zedler's early publishing works: Bethesda Portvosa, Das Helffreich Wasser Zum Langen Leben…, Freiberg and Leipzig 1726, as well as M. Gottlieb Jahns… Ethica Salomonis Sacra That is: The spiritual moral teaching of the preacher Salomonis…, Freiberg 1727.
Zedler's early publishing works: Bethesda Portvosa, Das Helffreich Wasser Zum Langen Leben… , Freiberg and Leipzig 1726, as well as M. Gottlieb Jahns… Ethica Salomonis Sacra That is: The spiritual moral teaching of the preacher Salomonis… , Freiberg 1727.

However, Zedler only stayed in Freiberg for a short time. His biographer Gerd Quedenbaum suspects that the mining town did not offer a sufficient sales market for a bookseller at that time (the Bergakademie was only founded in 1765) and that the disadvantages of the location prompted Freiberg Zedler to give up his company soon.

Independent bookseller and publisher in Leipzig

Start of activity in Leipzig and first major publishing project

Zedler's first major publishing project: Des Theuren Mannes GOttes, D. Martin Luther's Complete ... Schrifften und Wercke , title page of the first part, Leipzig 1729.

Zedler left Freiberg as early as 1727 and went with his wife to the university and trade fair city of Leipzig , where his name appears in the same year among the sixteen publishers named in the Leipzig yearbook . In September Zedler announced his first publishing work after moving to Leipzig:

“Bey Johann Heinrich Zedler, bookseller all here in Grimmische Gasse in Kersten's house, recently came to light: Johann Gotthard Beyers, Original Sources of Indifferentism, or Causes of the Foolish Opinion, One Can Be Blessed in All Religions; opened to fix the truth and eradicate errors, and left to the pressure. Leipzig 1727 "

The advertisement appeared shortly before the Michaelismesse in Leipzig began in October and was aimed at the large number of trade fair visitors who populated the city on that date. There is no news about the success of this company, but Quedenbaum suspects that Zedler's capital base could already have been "not particularly strong" at this point in time.

As early as the beginning of 1728, another publisher's announcement appeared in the Leipziger newspaper Neue Zeitung von learned things , in which Zedler announced “A new, increased and improved edition of all German writings and works by blessed Lutheri”. Unlike the previous complete editions, the edition published by Zedler and suggested by the Leipzig theologian Johann Gottlieb Pfeiffer should not contain a chronological, but a thematic compilation of Martin Luther's writings . The work, initially laid out in seven volumes, should therefore be more suitable for university use than all the complete editions previously on the market.

This first major publishing project by Zedler was to be financed by the practice of prenumeration , which was common in bookshops in the 18th century . Interested parties should prepay for the first two parts up to the Easter fair in 1728 ("prenumber") and receive a discount for this. The delivery should then take place - against prenumeration for the following two parts - for the Michaelmas fair at the beginning of October. The peculiarity of Zedler's offer was the fact that he offered the work "by half of the otherwise usual" reduced price and thus so cheaply that a later reprint by other booksellers was unprofitable. As to Zedler could hardly expect in this way so that, solicit sufficient means of pressure, he also took out a loan in the amount of 2,665 Reichstalern with his brother David Richter on.

Even Zedler seems to have been unsettled by the company's extremely tight time frame. Although he had set the publication date of the first two parts at the Michaelmas Mass in October 1728, he had the year 1729 printed on the title page to be on the safe side. Despite all the uncertainties, he managed to meet the specified delivery date. Fourteen days before the start of the trade fair, he announced that he was ready to accept subsequent prenumerations. Thus, within a year, he had succeeded in building up a publishing book trade, which had a promising product in its range in the form of Luther's fonts.

Zedler dedicated the individual volumes of the Luther edition - as well as those of later published works - to high class figures and thus followed the practice common at the time. The addressees honored in this way by dedication preface and portrait engraving often reciprocated with a financial gift or by awarding honorary titles. Zedler received the first of his titles from Duke Christian von Sachsen-Weißenfels , to whom he had dedicated the third part of Luther's writings. According to the entry on Zedler in his Universal Lexicon published in 1749, Zedler handed over the volume of the Luther edition - by no means common at the time - for the Duke's birthday. Christian, who was known not only as a great hunting enthusiast but also as a supporter of the Protestant Church, then awarded Zedler the title of Prussian Commerce Councilor .

Announcement of the Universal Lexicon and initial reactions

Zedler announced his plan to print a
large universal encyclopedia of all sciences in the Neue Zeitung von learned matters of March 26, 1730 and solicited prenumerants.

On March 26, 1730, Zedler announced the delivery date for the seventh and eighth parts of Luther's writings in the New Newspapers of Scholarship . At the same time, he announced his next major project - the large, complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts :

“In the Commercien-Rath, Johann Heinrich Zedler's bookstore here, is the title together with the news of the great universal lexico of all sciences, free of charge. He has it printed by subscription so that he can deliver this large work to the public at half the usual price, and takes 2 Rthl for the future Leipzig Easter Fair. Prænumeration to its first volume. He also wants to deliver to the first hundreds, if they come along, their copies on clean writing paper at the price above; he who colligates or creates the prænumeration for 20 copies shall have one copy for free. This entire work will consist of about 8 folios, and the prænumeration will not be accepted anywhere but in Leipzig in the publisher's deal against notes. "

Zedler therefore intended to combine the numerous reference works available up to now on the most diverse areas of knowledge into a single large work. This plan by a twenty-four-year-old young entrepreneur who had not yet worked in the publishing business for three years meant a declaration of war on the established Leipzig publishers. In 1704, Johann Friedrich Gleditsch had published the Real State and Newspaper Lexicon - the encyclopedia aimed at newspaper readers and thus the private household, which, with its third edition in 1708, made the term Konversationslexikon popular . In 1709, Thomas Fritsch followed up with the German-language equivalent of Louis Moréris Grand dictionaire historique with the General Historical Lexicon - a multi-volume large-scale project aimed at specialist libraries and scholars. In 1721 Johann Theodor Jablonski's General Lexicon Der Künste und Wissenschafften was added - a handy work that was more structured in terms of content than its compiling competitors. A number of smaller reference works for the general public supplemented the spectrum with offers that, like the women's lexicon, extended to bourgeois household and the domain of women; 14 out of 39 lexicons from the first half of the 18th century were published by Gleditsch. All of these works were now in danger of being outbid by Zedler's “Universal” lexicon and being pushed out of the market.

The first public reaction from the circles of the established Leipzig publishers came five weeks after Zedler's announcement. Caspar Fritsch , son of Thomas Fritsch , who died in 1726 , feared that the General Historical Lexicon would be sold , the third edition of which the Fritsch Erben publishing house was currently preparing. Following on from Zedler's offer, Fritsch's heirs now also offered a free copy by subscribing to twenty copies at the same time and also promised additional security: “For the security of those subscribers and collectors, which is so necessary at the moment , the Fritsch heirs offer caution on all required and acceptable type. "

Fight for the Saxon printing privilege

Last page of the minutes of the order against Zedler with the rejection of his request for privilege, Leipzig October 12, 1730.

To be advertised for the Easter Fair 1731 Lexikon against pirated editions to protect requested Zedler September 13, 1730 kursächsisches pressure privilege. Such work-related national privileges were usually granted for a period of five to ten years and were intended to protect the first printer against third-party reprints within the national borders.

The Leipzig Book Commission, which is responsible for preparing the decision, first initiated the usual notification procedure, the so-called "insinuation", in such cases. As part of this, a detailed explanation of the printing project together with Zedler's application for a privilege was posted in all bookstores in the city for a period of one week. Objections to the project could be lodged within this period.

This is exactly the path that Caspar Fritsch and Johann Gottlieb Gleditsch , the son of Johann Friedrich Gleditsch, took. Fritsch argued with the Electoral Saxon privilege that his father would have received for ten years for the General Historical Lexicon in 1726 and pointed out that one could not create a work like Zedler's Universal Lexicon other than to copy or to copy existing works paraphrase.

On October 16, 1730, Zedler received the decision on his application for a privilege, prepared by the Leipzig Book Commission and made by the Upper Consistory, the responsible authority in Dresden Confiscation and 300 thalers fine,

"[...] nothing in the lexicon to be printed by him that is included in the general historical lexico, least of all bring the historica contained therein into his new work, but to completely abstain from the time indicated in the often-thought Privilegio."

With this judgment, Zedler had lost the first round in the dispute with the competing Leipzig publishers.

Continuation of the Leipzig "Publishing War"

As a reaction to the resistance in Leipzig, Zedler moved the production of the Universal Lexicon to the printing works of the orphanage in Halle founded by August Hermann Francke .

However, the decision of the Dresden Upper Consistory did not prevent Zedler from pursuing his project. On October 19, 1730, he announced in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung of learned matters that he would accept further prenumerations and rejected all allegations of plagiarism . For the “elaboration” of the universal lexicon , “distinguished and learned men would have found themselves who do not need it, but are well able to work out their articles themselves”. At the same time, he declared that he would not allow envious people and enemies to dissuade him from bringing out other important works.

This reference meant his latest publishing project, an extensive historical work under the title General State, War, Church and Scholar Chronicles . Zedler was able to win over Jacob August Franckenstein , who at that time held a professorship for natural and international law at Leipzig University and was friends with the publisher of the New Newspapers of Scholarly Matters , Johann Burckhardt Mencke , as editor . On October 24, 1730, Zedler sent the Leipzig City Council a preprint of the planned title page, this time without a request for a privilege.

Again resistance arose in the circles of established publishers. In response to their protests, the Leipzig Book Commission finally demanded from Zedler - with regard to both the Universal Lexicon and the State Chronicle - to cease production, publish the sheets that had already been printed, and refrain from further advertising. In addition, Zedler had to print and publish the verdict of the senior consistory. If he violated the law, he was threatened with a fine of 100 thalers.

In order not to endanger the delivery of the Universal Lexicon , Zedler relocated production to neighboring Prussia . In Halle he was in contact with the lawyer and university chancellor there, Johann Peter von Ludewig . In addition to his work at the university, Ludewig was also a senior member of the board of trustees for the orphanage in Halle. Apparently it was he who caused the print shop attached to the orphanage to take over the further printing of the Universal Lexicon . In order to be protected from reprints in Prussia, Zedler applied for a royal Prussian printing privilege as well as an imperial one at the same time. That on Charles VI. He received the issued imperial privilege on April 6, 1731, the royal Prussian privilege only four days later.

Completion of the first lexicon volume and confiscation

Zedler was unable to meet the delivery date for the Easter fair in 1731, which was scheduled for the first volume of the Universal Lexicon . That is why he announced in an advertisement in the New Newspapers of Scholarship dated April 15, 1731 that the delivery would take place for the Michaelmas Mass in October. At the same time he announced his appointment as royal Prussian and electoral Brandenburg councilor and assured that the company was now "under other privileges and freedom pardons from the very highest heads".

Jacob August Franckenstein was the editor of the first volume, and Johann Peter von Ludewig wrote the foreword. To this day, only guesses can be made about the other employees of this and all other volumes. The Zedler expert and current director of the Leipzig University Library Ulrich Johannes Schneider interprets this anonymity - at least at this early stage in the company - as a publishing strategy. Because of the threatened lawsuits for intellectual theft, the confidentiality of the names of his employees offered Zedler self-protection.

In his foreword to the first volume of the lexicon, Johann Peter von Ludewig wrote on this point that Zedler lasse

“No LEXICA, like I was wrongly blamed, write together and print other people's work. He keeps and pays his nine muses or co-workers: that everyone should try his own salvation in his work or profession . But he does not want to and cannot deny and close the way and means to the same: that you do not need books that are useful for this, and so watch the LEXICA previously written. [...] The publisher lets his nine muses, to be named at the end of the work, take care of the rocks on which they base their work. "

The promise that the names of the “nine muses” would be named after the work was completed was not kept later. Schneider also assesses the fact that there were actually nine contributors as "highly questionable". In any case, the publication of the first volume marked the beginning of the "largest European lexicon project of the 18th century" (Schneider).

The reaction of the established Leipzig publishers to the appearance of the first volume was not long in coming. During the Michaelmas Fair in 1731 they obtained a confiscation from the Leipzig Book Commission of all copies that had been printed and not yet delivered.

Compromise, diatribe, renewed printing ban and Franckenstein's exit

Title page of the diatribe Charlatanerie der Buchhandlung published in 1732 . The illustration shows the sales room of a bookstore. The bill of exchange (“Sola”) lying on the table is intended to illustrate Zedler's lack of financial resources; the drawers in the rear wall are labeled “Universal. Lex.defect ”,“ Praenum.Zettul ”and“ Lutheri Schriften ”. The tab on the right carries a piece of paper with the inscription "Priv." (For "Privilege"). The fictitious publisher name "Claus Peter Mistkütze" arouses associations with the fictional publisher Pierre Marteau .

Zedler protested to the Leipzig Book Commission against the seizure; but the commission stuck to the judgment it had once passed. The publisher then turned to the Dresden Upper Consistory and achieved partial success. In its decision of December 14, 1731, the senior consistory gave him permission to supply his prenumerants with copies that were printed outside of Saxony. With this compromise, Zedler was able to continue his book production, but the transportation incurred additional costs.

It was in this situation that the bookshop's pamphlet Charlatanerie appeared , which led to its decay through botch-up, prænumerationes, auctiones, reprints, junk leyes and the like. a. m. promoted . She stated that she was “examined impartially by two of the [er] action zealous people” and was clearly aimed at Zedler and his business practices. The almost ninety-page pamphlet reproduces the dialogue between two merchants who happened to meet again in 1731 at the Michaelism Fair in Leipzig. In their conversation, they denounce the abuses of the book trade of their time and go into detail about Zedler's allegedly unclean business practices and his inadequate finances. Zedler is accused of fraud, the authors of his dictionary of stupidity. It is said about Johann Peter von Ludewig that no one knows where he got his title and his fortune from. A direct reaction by Zedler to the diatribe initiated by his opponents is not known. Ludewig wrote on February 11, 1732 in the weekly Hallische Advertisements that "a good friend" had written out a reward of twelve ducats , 53 1/3 riksdaler, for those who who "would discover one and the other of this blasphemous gang".

Zedler's opponents did not give up. They turned again to the Dresden upper consistory and insisted that the fine of 300 thalers imposed in October 1730 be paid. Thereupon the senior consistory requested a new report from the Leipzig book commission on March 10, 1732. When the latter asked the two parties to the dispute to comment, Zedler's opponents submitted an 87-page list of their plagiarism allegations. On April 24, the senior consistory decided that Zedler had to pay the fine of 300 thalers and forbade him to continue printing within the Saxon state borders.

On October 26th, 1732, Zedler suffered another blow: Jacob August Franckenstein announced in an advertisement in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung that “because of some irritations that he aroused, he might not have anything to do with the Zedlerische Universal-Chronica”. But Franckenstein not only got out of work on the state chronicle, but a short time later also resigned from his position as editor of the Universal Lexicon . On March 9, 1733, he wrote in the weekly Halle announcements :

"Mr. Councilor D. Franckenstein declares: that he does not want to have anything to do with the Zedlerische Verlag work. Hence he does not take any further share in such. "

Franckenstein died only two months later, on May 10, 1733. After his death, Paul Daniel Longolius took over the editorship of the Universal Lexicon .

The company begins to falter

Title page of the new edition of the
Theatrum Latinitatis dictionary published by Zedler and edited by Johann Matthias Gesner .

The spring of 1733 was marked by three events that were to have a significant impact on Zedler's business fate. In February Zedler brought out a monthly magazine in pocket book format under the title Opened Cabinet of Great Men, or Current State of All Empires and States in the World, along with other merchandise . The new journal aimed at the public's awakening interest in news from the political, military and court spheres. Initially, the Cabinet, which appeared in 25 editions up to 1735, was probably still a success, but Zedler's biographer Gerd Quedenbaum judges that the publication was "certainly not a remarkable sales driver in the long run". In March 1733, Zedler also bought the publishing bookstore of the entrepreneur Johann Herbord Kloß, who died in 1730. With a total of 1,014 titles on offer, Kloß belonged to the first third of Leipzig booksellers in terms of volume, but its range contained - apparently initially not noticed by Zedler - a high proportion of works that were barely or not at all for sale. In mid-April, Zedler finally announced the appearance of a new publishing work in a newspaper advertisement. It was the one-volume dictionary Latinitatis Theatrum Sive Lexicon Latino-Germanico-Graecum Universale founded by Andreas Reyher and Christian Juncker in a new edition edited by Johann Matthias Gesner .

In March, Zedler had optimistically announced a reprint of the out of print works from Johann Herbord Kloß's publishing program. In June, on the other hand, he was already preparing the sale of 10,000 bound and unbound books from the product range taken over from Kloß, which, according to Quedenbau, consisted to a large extent of “junk goods”. The sale took place in the form of an auction held on July 27th, the success of which has not been confirmed directly. Meanwhile, there were increasing indications that Zedler was in financial difficulties and reliant on short-term profits. On October 5th, the Halle bookseller Johann Gottfried Oertel published a reference to one

"Catalog of books, which the Zedlerische Handlung in Leipzig, the upcoming Leipzig Michael-Messe, will leave the first week of Mass for the best, mostly at half the usual price before cash payment to the public."

Zedler tried to get cash through low-price offers during the first week of the fair. The most important reason for this was the completion of the eleventh and, for the time being, last volume of the Lutheran Scriptures, the appearance of which Zedler had announced for that Michaelmas mass in 1733. Not only did a successful and secure income guarantee publishing product expire. With the completion of the last volume, Zedler also encountered the difficulty of having to settle outstanding invoices without being able to fall back on the income from further prenumerations as before. Until now, the printing costs of the last volume had always been covered by advances on the next. These no longer apply, but the pending bills still had to be paid.

In December 1733 Zedler brought a new publishing product onto the market. With the very latest war state, or thorough news of today's war events, which are explained with historical, political and other comments , he put another monthly sheet at the side of the cabinet . But just a few months later, the Leipzig publisher Moritz Georg Weidmann brought out the European State Secretarius, a product directly competing with Zedler's monthly papers. Zedler's financial situation, however, had apparently not improved fundamentally. Shortly before the beginning of the Easter fair in 1734, he tried again to reduce his stocks by means of low offers. A magazine project announced in the Hallische Advertisements at the end of 1734 under the title Readable News of the City and New University of Göttingen probably never came about.

Rescue attempt: the book lottery

In the spring of 1735, Zedler resorted to a new means of converting his inventory into cash. In a specially printed brochure, he announced a book lottery :

"Mr. Commercien-Rath Zedler in Leipzig has it, through his tireless diligence, care, and with indescribable. Costs of editing large, important works as well as small useful books, as well as the purchase of other trades, acquired considerable stocks, and decided to buy a sum of 10,000 Rthl from this stock of books blessed by God. against payment 5,000 Rthl. to leave the public for the best, and to do so in such a reasonable way that everyone can make his fortune there, but no one can lose the slightest thing, as follows: "
"1) 2,000 lots are required for this, and before every 2 1/2 Rhtl. paid; on the other hand"
"2) When paying a lot, everyone receives just as much books as he pays, along with a printed note for the profit to be hoped for, and so can"
“3) each from the attached books, from No. II to XIII - but the best works are in No. I - read yourself at your own discretion in front of your deposit "

Zedler issued a total of 2,000 tickets at a unit price of 2 1/2 Reichstalers . The buyer initially acquired the right to select books - according to his stake - from the book baskets "XIII" to "II" grouped in ascending order by value. These books belonged to him regardless of the subsequent raffle. The 100 most valuable books contained in the basket with the number "I" were played in the subsequent raffle:

"5) This deposit of 2,000 lots every 2 1/2 Rthl. amount to 5,000 Rthl. for which so many books are handed out immediately, which is to be regarded as 2,000 prizes, of which 5,000 Rthl. but which are given to the public for the best "
"6) 100 additional winnings are made [...]"

From the point of view of the raffle buyer, this system promised double profit: regardless of the raffle, he was allowed to select books and take them away. In addition, he took part in the later draw and kept the hope of the lottery luck until the end. The drawing was supposed to take place on April 18, during the Easter fair in 1735, which would have given Zedler an additional advertising effect. The event received a social component through Zedler's promise to donate part of his income to the Leipzig orphanage.

The lottery plan again called Zedler's competitors on the scene. Led by Weidmann, they appealed to the Leipzig city council and the senior consistory in Dresden to ban the lottery. In a statement subsequently requested by Zedler, the council criticized the fact that the Universal Lexicon was also among the 100 prizes of the first basket of books and confirmed that the sales ban imposed on the work in Saxony still applies. Since Zedler from Dresden initially received no answer, he had to let the announced date for the draw pass by. On May 28, he was finally informed that the lottery was approved, but only on condition that he remove the Universal Lexicon from the offer. This meant that the most attractive price was dropped. In addition, it was precisely at this time that Johann Christian Martini, one of Zedler's competitors, closed his stock and flooded the market with books. When Zedler advertised in the Hallische advertisements on October 3, 1735 on the occasion of the upcoming Michaelmas Fair, the readers learned that lots were still available. A short time later, another announcement was made by Martinis, which announced another auction for October 17th, at which a total of 6,521 books and 1,121 copperplate engravings were to be auctioned.

On April 8, 1736, Zedler advertised his lottery plan again in a newspaper advertisement. This time, however, the tickets should only be available at a reduced price of 1 instead of 2 1/2 Reichstalers. Quedenbaum concludes from this that Zedler was in such great financial distress at this point in time that he “wanted to sell his stock of books at all costs”.

Financial collapse

The circumstances of Zedler's financial collapse are largely in the dark. It is certain that Zedler was no longer able to meet its payment obligations to its creditors from a certain point in time. In a report from the City Council of Leipzig to the state government in Dresden of October 10, 1738, which Albrecht Kirchhoff reproduced in excerpts in 1892, speaks of the "Zedlerischer Concurs". When exactly this Zedler's insolvency occurred has not yet been conclusively clarified. Juntke wrote in a paper published in 1956 that the dispute over privileges had Zedler "financially ruined in the spring of 1735". Blühm took up this formulation in 1962, but with the sentence "In the spring of 1735 it went bankrupt", at least in the procedural question, it was more firmly established. Quedenbaum contradicts Blühm (but without explicitly naming him) on both points and uses plausibility checks to show that a settlement could have been reached at most - and not before 1736 - whereby the circumstances of such a procedure can "hardly be determined" . With regard to verifiability, however, it must be taken into account that Quedenbaum, in the work for his Zedler biography published in 1977, did not take into account the Leipzig archive holdings, to which Kirchhoff notes with reference to the Universal Lexicon that “the acts of the books commission form up to Year 1738 four obese fascicles. ”Modern biographical abstracts such as that of Winfried Müller in the Sächsische Biographie from 2004 circumvent the difficulty by not addressing the question of the precise time and circumstances of Zedler's financial collapse.

Wolf, Zedler, Heinsius

New beginning and fight against the emphasis of Schultze

The financial commitment of the Leipzig businessman Johann Heinrich Wolf enabled Zedler to start a new business. In the Universal Lexicon , Wolf is described as a “distinguished merchant and trader”, “Cramer master” and a “special lover of the sciences”, who “spends his time with nothing better than reading good and learned books”. Quedenbaum suspects that Wolf took over the entire further financing of the Zedlerschen Verlag because he was “exactly in the target group area of ​​the Universal Lexicon and thus belonged to the group of those who, as people of little faith, were more interested in the continuation of the works than in their discontinuation. “However, documents such as a contract concluded between Zedler and Wolf have not been handed down, so that there is no clarity about the exact circumstances of the business relationship.

On August 5, 1737, Zedler's imperial privilege for printing the Universal Lexicon was revoked - allegedly because Zedler had failed to hand in his legal deposit copies to the imperial court. Quedenbaum considers this unlikely and suspects that the deprivation of the imperial printing privilege is due to the influence of the printer and publisher Johann Ernst Schultze from the Bavarian court . He knew about Zedler's financial collapse, as he had been involved in the printing of earlier volumes of the dictionary. In addition, Schultze had found a suitable editor in Paul Daniel Longolius , who was appointed rector of the Hof high school in 1735 . As a former employee of Zedler, Longolius had the necessary experience to publish further encyclopedia volumes. In response to the claim that Zedler had ceded the privilege to him in January 1735, Schultze applied for a new imperial privilege issued in his own name, which was also granted to him on June 11, 1738.

Schultze printed a 17th and 18th volume of the Universal Lexicon in Hof and tried to sell them in Leipzig shortly after their publication. To this end, he sent the imperial notary Bernhard Christian Groot from Offenbach with two journeyman book printers as witnesses to the Leipzig Book Commission. However, the book commission referred Groot to the Leipzig council immediately after his arrival. Without further ado, Groot took the two printed copies of the privilege he had brought with him as proof of Schultze's rights, had his luggage examined for further papers and threw him and the two witnesses out of town. The Leipzig council disclosed the motive for this treatment in a letter to the state government in Dresden dated October 10, 1738, in which it said

"Nobody without your Ew. KM the highest permission in the country, and on top of that by a foreign notary , who at Ew. KM state government not even immatriculated , allowed to have something insinuated . "

For Zedler, this evidence was a stroke of luck for the very limited scope of the imperial book privileges in practice, because it ensured the continuation of his lexicon. From volume 19, the editing of the Universal Lexicon was taken over by the Leipzig philosophy professor Carl Günther Ludovici , who was a fellow student of Longolius. In contrast to Zedler, the Hof book printer Schultze subsequently did not publish any further volumes of the Universal Lexicon and had to sell his printing works to the Hof high school in 1745 due to financial difficulties.

Retreat into private life

In the 61st volume of the Universal Lexicon , published in 1749, Zedler said that after Wolf took over the publishing house, he “decided to prefer calm to commercial transactions.” Emphasis: Article “Zedler, (Johann Heinrich)”.

It seems as if Zedler was increasingly marginalized after Wolf took over his publishing house financially. Since Carl Günther Ludovici had taken over the “direction” of the 19th “and the still-to-be-maintained volumes” of the Universal Lexicon , he was increasingly putting his own stamp on the work. As Schneider summarizes the changes, “he not only made the references at the end of each personal article into a relevant and sometimes very detailed bibliography, he not only enforced the internal structure of longer articles, but also included living people in the universal lexicon on “As far as can be seen, Zedler had to give up his own bookstore, because an advertisement of learned things that appeared in the New Newspapers for the Easter Mass in 1739 stated that the two most recently printed encyclopedia volumes were to be published in“ Wolfens Gewölbe, Auerbachs Hof just opposite ”.

In this situation, Zedler apparently withdrew into private life at first. The article "Zedler, (Johann Heinrich)" in 1749, published 61st volume of the Universal Lexicon this notice Zedler have following the acquisition of the publishing house by Wolf "the rest of the trade Geschäfften preferable decided." Zedler had in Wolfshain , a of the five Leipzig university villages that Duke Moritz von Sachsen donated to the Leipzig University in 1544 , an estate. Quedenbaum, who characterizes Zedler as "impetuous", suspects that Zedler used the quiet forced upon him in Wolfshain to think about new publishing projects. In any case, it is certain that his bad reputation since taking over the publishing house no longer allowed Zedler to realize his new publishing ideas under his own name.

New projects at Verlag Heinsius

Title page of the first volume of the trading lexicon General Treasure Chamber of the Merchants, published under the publisher's name Heinsius . In terms of presentation, the work is unmistakably linked to Zedler's earlier publishing products.

From 1740 a number of Zedler's publishing products appeared under the name of the Leipzig publisher Johann Samuel Heinsius . Zedler's monthly newspaper Cabinet formed the beginning , which has now been continued under the slightly changed title Newly Opened Cabinet of Great Men or Present State, Hoff, War and Commerce Constitution of all European empires and states in the world . Just as little is known about the exact success of the newly opened Cabinet as about the reasons for its inclusion in the publishing program of Heinsius, who has been writing a similar monthly publication since 1739 under the title Genealogical-historical news of the most distinguished events in European courts carried forward relocated. After two years and six issues, however, Zedler gave the paper to the Leipzig bookseller Wolfgang Heinrich Schönermarck. After a few more issues appeared, the paper was discontinued.

In 1741, the first volume of the General Treasury Chamber, Der Kaufmannschektiven, marked the beginning of a four-volume commercial encyclopedia based on the Dictionnaire Universel de Commerce (German: "General Commercial Encyclopedia") by Jacques Savary des Bruslons . Zedler named Carl Günther Ludovici as the responsible editor in an advertisement in the weekly Hallische Advertisements . The fourth volume, comprising the letters “S” to “Z”, was delivered as early as 1742, and a year later a supplementary volume with additions and registers appeared under the title Continuation of the General Treasury Chamber . A directory initially announced for the end of the work under the title “Now living merchants in and outside Germany” was not implemented. The reason for this was apparently that some of the cities Zedler wrote to had refused to cooperate and therefore not all of the necessary information was available.

Zedler's next publishing project was the Corpus Juris Cambialis by Johann Gottlieb Siegel . Siegel was a recognized specialist in the complicated law of changing times. His Careful Bill of Exchange Creditor appeared in its fourth edition in 1739. Heinsius presented the new, two-volume Corpus Juris Cambialis in the New Newspapers in April 1742 and wooed prenumerants. Just in time for the Michaelismesse in Leipzig in the same year, both volumes were available in print and appeared together with the 33rd and 34th volume of the Universal Lexicon , which by then had arrived at “Schla”. The 12th volume of the General State, War, Church and Scholarly Chronicle , which, like the lexicon, was continued under the aegis of Wolf, appeared at the same time, with content up to the year 1700.

Following the Schatz-Kammer and the Corpus Juris Cambialis , Zedler began another major publishing project. A translation of the Grand Dictionnaire Géographique Et Critique by Antoine-Augustin Bruzen de La Martinière was the basis for the work entitled Historical-Political-Geographical Atlas of the Whole World: Oder, Large and Complete Geographical and Critical Lexicon from 1744 by Heinsius . For the German-speaking public, the text of the nine-volume original edition was supplemented by the addition of further lexicons, whereby - as evidenced by references in the text - the Zedler Universal Lexicon was used particularly frequently .

Last years and death

In addition to the works mentioned, Zedler probably also published or at least initiated other works. The lexicon article "Zedler, (Johann Heinrich)" from 1749 comments on this

"Incidentally, he has also planned various large works, some of which are already under the press, and some of which are to come out in the future."

To which Zedler's publishing projects this reference refers can no longer be determined today. In the years up to 1751, however, work on the works under Wolf's aegis or those published by Heinsius proceeded in a very regulated manner. Two volumes of the Universal Lexicon were published for the Easter and Michaelmas Mass, and one volume for the General Chronicle of State, War, Church and Scholarship for each Easter Mass . The alphabetical volumes of the Universal Lexicon could be completed in this way by 1750. Ludovici later expanded it to include four supplementary volumes.

Zedler apparently spent most of the last years of his life on his estate near Leipzig. In this regard, it is stated in the lexicon article already mentioned that Zedler had himself

"It was a long time ago that commercial transactions were withdrawn, and most of the summer on his country estate in Wolfshayn"

spent it anyway

"Do not fail to be useful to the learned by useful inventions and by clever advice from the bookstore."

Zedler's patron Johann Peter von Ludewig died in September 1743. Heinsius died in December 1750, his company was continued under the name "Johann Samuel Heinsius Erben". Zedler also died on March 21, 1751. Information that he only died in 1763 has now been refuted by evidence from the corpse book and the grave register of the city of Leipzig. The entry in the corpse book reads:

Tuesday, March 23rd
"Gest / 2 A man 46 years, Mr. Johann Heinrich Zedler, Commercien-Rath and bookseller, in Fleischer Gaße, St.J. [ohannis] "

His widow Christiana Dorothea, who was 56 at the time, left Leipzig in 1754 and moved back to Freiberg. There she died a year and a half later on November 18, 1755. Her marriage to Zedler had remained childless.

Works published and supervised by Zedler (1726–1751)

A historical-critical bibliography of the works published and supervised by Zedler is missing. The selection of the titles listed here is the result of a search carried out in May 2007 in the online catalogs of German libraries.

In contrast to the recordings in library catalogs, the title of the original is given here in full, if possible (in the case of compilations in the wording and form of the first volume). Titles identified and abbreviated from online library catalogs are indicated in italics.

When playing unabridged tracks, the vertical line marks the line break. Abbreviations are given in square brackets. Particularly conspicuous forms of emphasis are shown here as capital letters. Further distinctions such as italics, highlighting in color etc. have not been taken into account for reasons of better legibility.

Only works whose printing was completed during Zedler's lifetime were recorded. The publication date given on the title page of the respective work is given. In individual cases this can differ from the actual date of publication, because Zedler apparently always had later dates printed on the title page when he was unsure whether he would be able to keep the intended publication date.

Collective works

  • Des | Dear man of God, | D. Martin Luthers | All | German made partly by himself, partly from his | Latin translated into German | WRITINGS AND WORKS, | Which of them all earlier | Outgoing collections | worn together, | And | Anietzo in a more comfortable and arranged according to its materials put in order, | after the oldest and best specimens with | Diligence overlooked and improved, with various in which Altenburg and | other Tomis lacking writings increased, and with necessary | Provide preliminary reports. […] Leipzig, | Published by Johann Heinrich Zedler [...]
  • Part 1 (1729)
  • Part 2 (1729)
  • Part 3 (1729)
  • Part 4 (1729)
  • Part 5 (1730)
  • Part 6 (1730)
  • Part 7 (1730)
  • Part 8 (1730)
  • Part 9 (1730)
  • Part 10 (1730)
  • Part 11 (1731)
  • Part 12 (1731)
  • Part 13 (1732)
  • Part 14 (1732)
  • Part 15 (1732)
  • Part 16 (1732)
  • Part 17 (1732)
  • Part 18 (1732)
  • Part 19 (1733)
  • Part 20 (1733)
  • Part 21 (1733)
  • Part 22 (1734)
  • Big full | UNIVERSAL | LEXICON | Of all sciences and arts, | Which so far by human understanding and wit | invented and improved | Both the geographic and political | Description of the earth circle, after all monarchies, | Käyserthuern, kingdoms, principalities, republics, freyen gentlemen | created countries, cities, sea ports, fortresses, castles, spots, offices, monasteries, buildings vouchers, passes, forests, seas, lakes, islands, rivers, and canals; including the natural treatise | of the kingdom of nature, after all heavenly | airy, fiery, watery and earthly bodies, and all | the stars, planets, animals, plants, metals, minerals, | Salts and stones [etc.] | As well as a detailed historical-genealogical message from the nobles | and most famous sexes in the world, | The life and deeds of the Käyser, kings, electors | and princes, great heroes, state ministers, war colonels to | Water and land, the noblest spiritual and worldly | Knight Order [etc.] | Same of all state-war-law-policey and housekeeping | Businesses of the aristocratic and bourgeois class, the merchants, handicrafts, | Arts and crafts, their guilds, guilds and customs, shipping, hunting, | Fishing, mountain, wine and arable farming and cattle breeding [etc.] | how no less the complete imagination of all famous in the church stories | Old fathers, prophets, apostles, popes, cardinals, bishops, prelates and | God's scholars, as well as councils, synods, orders, pilgrimages, persecution of the churches, | Martyrs, saints, sectirers and heretics of all times and countries, | Finally a perfect embodiment of the most learned men, famous universities | Academies, societies and the discoveries made by them, as well as mythology, antiquities, Müntz science, | Philosophy, Mathematic, Theology, Jurisprudentz and Medicin, as well as all free and mechanical arts, including the explanation of all | it contains art-words etc. […], Halle and Leipzig, | Published by Johann Heinrich Zedler | [...]

; Reprint Graz 1961–1964.

  • General | State, war, church and | Scholars- | CHRONICLE | In which all spiritual and worldly | Monuments and history, | so from the beginning of the world | up to our time: | And so probably the origin, | Record, Luck Change and | Downfall of great monarchies, kingdoms, principalities, Freyer Staa- | th, countries and cities, the lives of all Roman emperors and popes, great kings, Chur- | and other princes, in and outside of Christianity, the most famous cardinals, bishops, | famous heroes, learned people and artists: | As well as | Those conducted in Europe and other parts of the world are important most wars, | Battles, sieges, conquests, victories, defeats | and prisoners, established acts of peace, neutrality and standstill, | agreements, alliances, declarations of war, May festivals, cartels, guarantees, revolts, | räthereyen, murder acts, executionnnene, fire boons, water floods, storms and thunderstorms, shipwrecks, earth | ben, great sums, cheap times, and other miracle occurrences; | Same | From coronations, indentations, illuminations, fireworks, joyful | procreations, knight games, celebrations, exequies, Castris Doloris, and other important | about ceremonies, changes of state, and other merchandise; | How not less | Safe news of which Church Stories Old and New Testaments, | from proven and famous men writings and libraries laboriously together | carried, and brought to light, | With high potentates, most gracious privileges. […] Leipzig, | Published by Johann Heinrich Zedler. | [...]
  • Volume 1 (1733) [Creation of the World - Birth of Christ]
  • Volume 2 (1733) [Birth of Christ - 312]
  • Volume 3 (1734) [313-1066]
  • Volume 4 (1734) [1066-1300]
  • Volume 5 (1734) [1300-1517]
  • Volume 6 (1735) [1300-1517]
  • Volume 7 (1739) [1517-1576]
  • Volume 8 (1740) [1576-1600]
  • Volume 9 (1740) [1601-1648]
  • Volume 10 (1741) [1601–1648, register]
  • Volume 11 (1742) [1648-1679]
  • Volume 12 (1743) [1679-1700]
  • Volume 13 (1744) [1701-1710]
  • Volume 14 (1745) [1701-1710]
  • Volume 15 (1747) [1701-1710]
  • Volume 16 (1748) [1701-1710]
  • Volume 17 (1749) [1711-1730]
  • Volume 18 (1750) [1711-1730]
  • [After Zedler's death, three more volumes were published by 1754]
  • General | Treasure Chamber | The | Kauffmannschucks | Or | Complete | LEXICON | All | Actions and trades | So well in | Germany as foreign kingdoms and countries, | Inside | The description of all and everyone belonging to the merchant's work and activity | Goods such as gold, silver, jewels, metals, mountain things [etc.] as well as all kinds of witness, | Fabrics, silk, wool, cloth, canvas, leather, smokers [etc.] no less of all | Maerialien and Specereyen, | Particularly how and from where such commodities, partly originated by themselves, partly by | human wit and industriousness have been invented and manufactured, the difference between them, value and worthlessness, utility and use, | Furthermore, their merchants privileges and rights, customs, guilds, mass and market freedoms, stacking and defeat justice, society ten, colonies, manufactures, shipping, Banqven, stock exchanges, Leyhäuser and | Assecurantzen, or Insurance Chambers [etc.] | Same | Necessary news of the most famous trading places and sea ports, of exchange | sel-things, bookkeeping, coins, measurements, weights, miles and hours, as well as all of the Kauff- | man creates occurring art-words and forms of speech, included. | In addition to a | Attachments | Their now flourishing merchants and traders names, conoirs, factories, | Trading companies, warehouses and main goods that everyone has manufactured himself, or | with him from the first and the other hand. | Most gracious privileges with high potentates. | […] | Leipzig, published by Johann Samuel Heinsius, […], | Bookseller in Grimmische Strasse.
    • Part 1: A – C (1741)
    • Part 2: D – L (1741)
    • Part 3: M – R (1742)
    • Part 4: S – Z (1742)
    • Part 5: Continuation of the General Treasury Chamber of the Kauffmannschaff (1743)
  • Historically Politico-Geographical | ATLAS | the whole world; | Or | Large and complete | Geographical and Critical | LEXICON | Inside the description of the | Earth circle, | Of all monarchies, cheesery, kingdoms, Chur- and Für- | territories, republics, free states, estates and dominions, countries, cities, | Fortresses, seaports, castles, spots, offices, donors, monasteries, burgs, remarkable | Caves, mines, passes, forests, seas, lakes, islands, promontories, cliffs, sand banks, | Narrows of the sea, springs, rivers, canals, healthy wells [etc.] | In addition to the associated memorabilia and merits | contain: | From the famous Königl. Chip. Geographi | Mr. Brvzen la Martiniere | Dictionnaire Geographique et Critique | translated into German, | Increased with many thousands of articles and consistently improved from the latest stories, | together with one | Preface | of the usefulness and excellence of this work | and those Lexicis in general, | from | Christian Wolffen, | Sr. Königl. Majesty in Prussia's secret council, the University of Halle Cantzlern, Professore Juris Naturæ | & Gentium and Matheseos, as well as professors honorario to St. Petersburg, the royal. Academy of Sciences to | Paris, as well as the royal. Great Britain and Royal Preuss. Society of Sciences members. | […] | With Rom. Käyserl. Royal Pohln. Elector Saxon. | as well as Königl. Preuss. and Churfürstl. | Brandenburg's most gracious privilege. | Leipzig | Published by Johann Samuel Heinsius | [...]
  • Part 1: A (1744)
  • Part 2: B (1744)
  • Part 3: C (1745)
  • Part 4: D, E, F (1745)
  • Part 5: G – H (1746)
  • Part 6: I – Ll (1746)
  • Part 7: Lo – M (1747)
  • Part 8: N – Ph (1747)
  • Part 9: Pi – Szn (1748)
  • Part 10: Sao – Szy (1748)
  • Part 11: Ta – Uhz (1749)
  • Part 12: Vi – Zz (1749)
  • Part 13: Supplement (1750)
  • General Legal | ORACVLVM, | Or | Of salvation. Roman-German Empire | LAW FACULTY, | which the | Roman-German civil and embarrassing law | after those in the | Corpore Jvris Civilis Romani | The books and titles of those pandects located there with those there at the same time in Institutionibus | and Codice according to the subject matter, as | Prince- War- Mountain- Kauff- Exchange- Ship- Sea- Trade- and Guild rights, | and after | Caroli Vti and other Pal. Neck Judgment Orders | by prior introduction of the divine, natural and Völcker law in natural | Thoroughly treats context historically and critically, and through | Responsa, Consilia, Envnciata, Decisiones | Observationes | Arbitrage, | Parere and Legal Concerns | explains, also every legal matter dealt with, with which the best Autoribus | Proven everywhere. | Among those judges, consultants, auditors, advocates, procurators and notaries, | and of all legal scholars, also of other general uses and the best | puts to light | The Hochteutsche Rechtsgelahrte Societät. | […] | Leipzig, | Published by Johann Samuel Heinsius, [...]
  • I. Part (1746)
  • The First Part Volume II (1747)
  • III. Ribbon (1747)
  • Volume IV (1748)
  • V. Volume (1748)
  • VI. Ribbon (1749)
  • Volume VII (1749)
  • Volume VIII (1750)
  • IX. Ribbon (1750)
  • Volume X (1751)
  • XI. Ribbon (1751)
  • [After 1751 there were five more volumes and a register volume published until 1754]
  • "Opened show-place of the general world history of the present eighteenth century: which the most memorable and remarkable history of churches, states, scholars, art and nature, so from the year 1701 up to the present times in all parts of the inhabited Erd-Kreyses gradually happened; In addition to many detailed life descriptions of all Kayser, Chur and other spiritual and secular princes who died in this century, as well as no less the most famous state scholars and otherwise well-deserved persons / from credible writings, secure documents and laborious correspondentz [...] with summaries and a complete reg. ", [9 parts], Leipzig: Zedler, 1744–1752 [?]


  • Bethesda Portvosa, | The | Helpful water | For | LONG LIFE | Specialty | In the Lauchstädter fountain | at Merseburg, | And in the | Slag bath | zu Freyberg, | With new discoveries | After the | History, chemistry and medicine, | Instructed by | D. Johann Friedrich Henckel, | Kings Pohln. and Churfl. Saxon Country Mountain | and Stadt-Physico and the Kings. Preussis. Societät | of science members. | Freyberg and Leipzig | Published by Johann Heinrich Zedler, 1726.
  • D. Christiani Heisteri succintta Anatomia corporis humani: Ad usum medicinae Tyronum in Tabulas redacta , Freibergae: JH Zedler, 1726
  • Bey | Of a son | Change | His bitter | Place or residence, | Changed | A long time ago | spoiled | Gender or so-called | Increasing, | And | At the same time gave him | Good memories | The | Father | FREIBERG, | Bey Johann Heinrich Zedlern, | prints Christoph Matthäi, | 1726.
  • M. Gottlieb Jahns | Past. in Ortrandt and the Haynian Ephorie Adj. | ETHICA SALOMONIS | Sacra | That is: | The clergy | Morals doctrine | The preacher Solomonis, | In which the way to soul rest, as the highest and true | Bliss of this life, and so on to the future eternal sea | ability to get is shown | So earlier in the correct connexion, according to the sense of salvation. Mind, and | Consideration of the basic text, the local parish | In 46th Freytags Sermons | Clearly and in writing, | But now printed with useful tables and necessary notes. | Freyberg, published by Johann Heinrich Zedler in 1727.
  • Johann Gotthard Beyers | Original | SOURCES | Des | INDIFFERENTISM | Or | Causes of the foolish opinion: | One can in all religions | become blissful, | To the | Fortifying Truth and Extermination | errors | opened, | and leave to the pressure. | Leipzig, | Published by Johann Heinrich Zedler, | Bookseller in Grimmische Gaße, | in Kersten's house, 1727
  • The scene of unhappy people set up in the realm of those who have died, or strange life descriptions of those people who have come to a sad end through their naughty life, with moral notes on how to pass the time of the woman. Zedler, Leipzig 1728
  • The strange avanturas of two persons who found their case through dull love: with added morality and the like. Brief treatise on the temperaments of people a. esp. of the woman's room. Zedler, Leipzig 1728
  • Christian Michael Adolphi: De equitationis eximio usu medico dissertatio; In illustri academia Lipsiensi publice quondam pro cathedra explicata, iam secunda cura confecta ac aucta, ut novi opusculi mereatur titulum , Lipsiae: Zedler, 1729
  • Christian Michael Adolphi: Trias dissertationum medico chirurgicarum; Denuo recusarum , Lipsiae: Zedler, 1730
  • D. Joh. Gottfried Schaumburg's introduction to the Saxon right , Leipzig: Zedler
    • [Piece 1 (1727) and Part 2 (1728) Wittenberg: Zimmermann]
    • Part 3 (1729)
    • Part 4 (1730)
  • Michael Rupert Besler: Gazophylacium Rerum Naturalium E Regno Vegetabili, Animali & Minerali depromtarum […] Or Merck-worthy Naturalien-Cammer, Which special pieces, both from the vegetable, animal and mineral kingdoms […] shows with Latin and German Explanation and register provided. Zedler, Leipzig 1733
  • Daniel Caspars von Lohenstein all spiritual and secular poems: together with necessary remarks. Zedler, Leipzig 1733
  • Ibrahim Sultan. Play On the Happiest Wedding Beyder Röm. Kayser […] to Mr. Leopolds and […] women Claudia Felicitas […] / dedicated by Daniel Caspar von Lohenstein. Zedler, Leipzig 1733
  • Latinitatis | Theatrvm | Sive | LEXICON | Latino-Germanico-Graecvm | Universals | Reyhero-Jvnckerianvm, | In Qvo | Ordine Nativo | Vocabulorvm Latinorum Origines, Genera, Flexiones, | Significationes variae, et Adpellationes | Germanicae pariter Graecaeque, | Similiter | Formvlae loquendi praestantiores, Sententiae, Facultatum | Scientiarumque Locvtiones peculiares, et Proverbia, | Cum Oratoribus, tum quoque Philosophis, Mathematicis, Medicis, Juris-Consultis, et Theologis | familiatiora, tum et recentiori aeuo vsurpata, et ad rectius intelligendos atque explicandos quoscunque | Autores Classicos nimium quantum facientis, continentur; | Adpositis vbique Notis Criticis ad distinguendas inter se | voces Obsoletas, Barbaras, Nouas, Theologicas, Philosophicas, Fictas, Poeticas, Dubias, | et Medii Aeui, ab iis, quae sund purae Latinitatis. | Opvs Sane omnibus elegantem ac puram linguam latinam docentibus ac discentibus perutile, | Cvm Indice Locvpletissimo | Ita nunc recognitum, emendatum, auctumque, vt plane nouum videri haberique possit, ejectis infinitis mendis, | Cvm Praefatione | Ioannis Matthiae Gesneri. | Cum Priuilegio S. Caes. May. Regis Polon. et Electoris Saxoniae. | Lipsiae, | Sumptibus Ioan. Henrici Zedleri, | Ao. M DCC XXXIII [1733]
  • Dietrich Gotthard Eckard: Explanation of the Jurisprudentiae civilis, that is: the whole Roman legal truth: together with the common Saxon rights and Jure Saxonico electorali, which according to the tituln of the Digestorum are contained in Corpore Juris Justinianei; Presented in German […] , Leipzig, Bresslau: Zedler
    • Part 1: 1734
    • Part 2: 1735
  • D. Johann Gottlieb Siegel, | Jur. Feud. Prof. Publ. Ordin. of the University of Leipzig Syndici, the Königl. Pohl. and Churfl. | Saxon. Ober-Hof -gericht as well as the Consistorii Advocati there, | Corpvs Jvris | CAMBIALIS, | That is: | Complete collection | of those in the most prestigious trading places in other places in Europe | usual very latest | CHANGE ORDERS, | which | Mr. D. Königs sel. On the Leipzig bill of exchange regulations | Manufactured notes changed and improved in many pieces, | also multiplied with a large number of new Præjudicorum; | same | A summary content belonging to any change order, | so well | Selected cases that occurred during the exchange negotiation with those about it | to grant | Pareres, | also finally | One that is generally useful for the law of bills of exchange | Introduction, | what many people | Alternation orders of actual mind, and darker places | clear explanation is shown | Attached with a complete register. | II. Parts. | With Königl. Pohln. and Churf. Saxon. very gracious. Privilege. | Leipzig, published by Johann Samuel Heinsius, 1742.


  • Opened | CABINET | Great gentlemen | Or | Current | State of all empires | and states of the world, | Along with other | Highlights, | […] Leipzig, in the Zedlerisches Plot. | [...]
    • [1733–1735, 25 issues documented]
  • The very latest | WAR STATE, | Or Thorough News | from today's | War incidents, | Which | With historical, political and an- | the notes explained | become. | […] Leipzig, in the Zedlerisches Plot. | [...]
    • [1733–1735, 14 issues]
  • Newly opened | CABINET | Great gentlemen | Or | Current | State Hoff War | and Commercien Constitution | of all European empires and states | in the world | […] | Leipzig, in Joh. Samuel Heinsii bookstore, [...]
    • [1740–1742, 12 issues]




  • Ulrich Johannes Schneider : Zedlers Universal Lexicon and the learned culture of the 18th century. In: The University of Leipzig and its learned environment 1680–1780. ed. by Detlef Döring and Hanspeter Marti, Basel 2004, ISBN 3-7965-2013-8 , pp. 195-213.
  • Gerd Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler 1706–1751: a book entrepreneur in the constraints of his time; a contribution to the history of the German book trade in the 18th century , Hildesheim [u. a.] 1977, ISBN 3-487-06241-0 .
  • Werner Raupp : Zedler, Johann Heinrich. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon . ed. von Traugott Bautz, Vol. 26, Nordhausen 2006, columns 1576–1588, available online via the Internet version of the Biographical-Bibliographical Church Lexicon on the website of the Traugott Bautz publishing house (contains, among other things, a selection of the works published and supervised by Zedler).
  • Werner Raupp : Zedler, Johann Heinrich (1706–1751). In: Heiner F. Klemme, Manfred Kuehn (Ed.): The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers. London / New York 2010, Vol. 3, pp. 1306-1308.
  • Bernhard Kossmann: German universal lexica of the 18th century. Their essence and their informational value, illustrated using the example of the works of Jablonski and Zedler. In: Archives for the history of the book industry. Volume 9, 1969, Col. 1553-1590; also in: Börsenblatt für den Deutschen Buchhandel - Frankfurt edition. No. 89, November 5, 1968 (= Archive for the History of Books. Volume 62), pp. 2947-2968, especially pp. 2952-2966.
  • Elger Blühm: Johann Heinrich Zedler and his lexicon. In: Yearbook of the Silesian Friedrich Wilhelms University in Breslau. 7, 1962, pp. 184-200, available online as full text on the website “Zedleriana. Materials for Zedlers Universal Lexikon ”.
  • Fritz Juntke: Johann Heinrich Zedler's Great Complete Universal Lexicon. A contribution to the history of reprinting in Central Germany , Halle an der Saale 1956, available online as full text on the website “Zedleriana. Materials for Zedlers Universal Lexikon ”.
  • Albrecht Kirchhoff: The imperial book privileges in Saxony. In: Archive for the history of the German book trade. 15, 1892, pp. 73-102.
  • Albrecht Kirchhoff: Reading fruits from the files of the city archive in Leipzig. 5: lawsuits Abuses in the early 18th century. In: Archive for the history of the German book trade. 14, 1891, pp. 196–269 (only the first two sections “A book lottery in 1735”, p. 197–208 and “Die Bücher-Auctionen”, pp. 208–229 are relevant for Zedler).

Web links

Commons : Johann Heinrich Zedler  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Johann Heinrich Zedler  - Sources and full texts


  1. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 13 comments on this: "It cannot be assumed that the young Johann Heinrich enjoyed a higher education, if he went to school at all and was not taught by private tutors." The biographical article in the Universal Lexicon remains on this point nebulous and only mentions an “instruction from skilled teachers”. See Zedler, (Johann Heinrich). In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 61, Leipzig 1749, columns 309-311 (here column 309).
  2. In the article intended for Zedler in the Universal Lexicon it says: “Only divine Providence saw Saxony for his future stay. And so it happened that he not only married the merchant and trader zu Freyberg, Mr. Johann Friedrich Richters, maiden daughter, but also set up a book shop there with great success. "Cf. Zedler, (Johann Heinrich). In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 61, Leipzig 1749, columns 309-311 (here column 309).
  3. When researching this article, it became apparent that there are at least four works that Zedler names as the publisher and Freiberg in Saxony as the place of publication. These are the Bethesda Portvosa, published in 1726 , Das Hülffreich Wasser Zum Langen Leben , the Bey Eine Sohnes Change of His Bitter Place or Residence by Christoph Heym, published in 1726, the Anatomia corporis humani by Christian Heister , published in 1726, and the Ethica Salomonis Sacra , published in 1727 That is: The spiritual moral teaching of the preacher Salomonis of the theologian Gottlieb Jahn (1680–1760). The account to be found in older literature that Zedler's publishing engagement only began after he moved to Leipzig (e.g. Juntke: Johann Heinrich Zedler's Great Complete Universal Lexicon. P. 16 or Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 36, the Beyers Sources of indifferentismi as Zedler's “first publishing work”), can thus be considered obsolete.
  4. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 15 f.
  5. Christoph Ernst Sicul: Annalium Lipsiensium. Leipzig 1727, p. 419. The complete list from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 31.
  6. New newspapers of learned things. September 1727, p. 776, quoted here slightly abbreviated from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 36.
  7. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 37.
  8. ^ A b New Newspapers of Learned Things , January 1728, pp. 60 and 63.
  9. New newspapers of learned things. September 1728, p. 744.
  10. In the encyclopedia article mentioned, it says: “Just as our Herr Zedler has done a very special service for the whole Evangelical Lutheran Church: So he is also of those great princes to whom he is subservient to one and the other part of the reported Lutheran writings Attributed to devotion, viewed with many indications of grace. How then, among others, the most noble Hertzog Christian zu Sachsen-Weissenfels, Most Blessed Memory, graciously deigned to give him the character of Commercian counsel on his own initiative, after Sr. Höchstgedachten Serenity immediately on the same high birth day in 1728 a part of the Lutherans Writings from him had been dedicated and personally presented. ”Cf. Zedler, (Johann Heinrich). In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 61, Leipzig 1749, columns 309-311 (here column 310). There is an error in the year mentioned in the article. The third and fourth parts of Luther's writings did not appear until Easter Mass in 1729. Cf. Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 50.
  11. ^ New Newspapers of Learned Things , March 26, 1730, p. 208.
  12. ^ Kossmann: German Universal Lexica of the 18th Century. In: Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens 9 (1969), Sp. 1553–1590, here Sp. 1566.
  13. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 64.
  14. In the argumentation it said literally with reference to Zedler's Universal Lexicon : "[...] which really is no other work than that your historical lexicon and other previously edited private lexica are written out and indented in other words [...] ". Kirchhoff: Reading fruits from the files of the city archive in Leipzig. In: Archives for the history of the book industry. 14, 1891, pp. 196-269, here: p. 198.
  15. See the last page of the minutes of the decree on the Universal Lexicon , Leipzig October 12, 1730 .
  16. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 72.
  17. Juntke: Johann Heinrich Zedler's Great Complete Universal Lexicon. P. 23.
  18. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 85.
  19. ^ Schneider: Zedlers Universal Lexicon and the learned culture of the 18th century. In: Detlef Döring, Hanspeter Marti (Ed.): The University of Leipzig and its learned environment 1680–1780 . Basel 2004, pp. 195–213, here p. 198.
  20. Johann Peter von Ludewig : Preface to the Universal Lexicon. In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 1, Leipzig 1732, columns 1-16 (here page 15).
  21. ^ Schneider: Zedlers Universal Lexicon and the learned culture of the 18th century. In: Detlef Döring, Hanspeter Marti (Ed.): The University of Leipzig and its learned environment 1680–1780 . Basel 2004, pp. 195–213, here p. 199.
  22. ^ Schneider: Zedlers Universal Lexicon and the learned culture of the 18th century. In: Detlef Döring, Hanspeter Marti (Ed.): The University of Leipzig and its learned environment 1680–1780 . Basel 2004, pp. 195–213, here p. 196.
  23. a b The information on the title page "Second edition" probably served to artificially increase the importance of the script. Since a first edition cannot be determined, Quedenbaum has doubts: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 102 that there ever was such a thing.
  24. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 105.
  25. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 131.
  26. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 132.
  27. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 132 f.
  28. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 142.
  29. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 152.
  30. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 168.
  31. a b Kirchhoff: Reading fruits from the acts of the city archive in Leipzig. In: Archives for the history of the book industry. 14, 1891, pp. 196-269, here: pp. 199 f.
  32. Kirchhoff judges the books of the baskets “XIII” to “II” that Zedler has included in the lottery, that they are “mostly of little value and even for the time already out of date.” Cf. Kirchhoff: Reading fruits from the acts of the city Archives of Leipzig. In: Archives for the history of the book industry. 14, 1891, pp. 196-269, here: p. 203.
  33. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 192.
  34. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 198.
  35. See Albrecht Kirchhoff: The imperial book privileges in Saxony. In: Archive for the History of the German Book Trade 15 (1892), pp. 73-102, here p. 97.
  36. Juntke: Johann Heinrich Zedler's Great Complete Universal Lexicon. P. 28.
  37. Blühm: Johann Heinrich Zedler and his lexicon. In: Yearbook of the Schlesische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau 7 (1962), pp. 184–200, here p. 194.
  38. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 193.
  39. In the full wording: "Whether the settlement that actually came about [...] was made voluntarily or under pressure from the creditors, whether it was agreed in court or out of court, can ultimately hardly be determined, but consequently irrelevant." Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 203.
  40. ^ Albrecht Kirchhoff: The imperial book privileges in Saxony. In: Archive for the History of the German Book Trade 15 (1892), pp. 73-102, here p. 94.
  41. Müller writes that Zedler “got into serious financial distress in the mid-1730s, which forced him to make a comparison with his creditors and to give up the bookstore.” Cf. Winfried Müller: Zedler, Johann Heinrich . In: Institute for Saxon History and Folklore (Ed.): Saxon Biography .
  42. ^ Wolf, (Johann Heinrich). In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 58, Leipzig 1748, column 769-772 (here column 769).
  43. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 221.
  44. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 218.
  45. Juntke: Johann Heinrich Zedler's Great Complete Universal Lexicon. P. 30.
  46. Quoted here from Albrecht Kirchhoff: The imperial book privileges in Saxony. In: Archive for the History of the German Book Trade 15 (1892), pp. 73-102, here p. 96.
  47. ^ Carl Günther Ludovici : Preface to the XIX. and XX. Tie of this large universal lexicon […]. In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 19, Leipzig 1739, columns 1–12 (here page 3).
  48. ^ Schneider: Zedlers Universal Lexicon and the learned culture of the 18th century. In: Detlef Döring, Hanspeter Marti (Ed.): The University of Leipzig and its learned environment 1680–1780 . Basel 2004, pp. 195–213, here p. 205.
  49. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 243.
  50. ^ Zedler, (Johann Heinrich). In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 61, Leipzig 1749, columns 309-311 (here column 310).
  51. Wolfshayn. In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 58, Leipzig 1748, column 1289.
  52. ^ Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 250 f.
  53. "The learned, tireless and astute professor, Mr. Carl Günther Ludovici, has the direction des Werckes on him, to whom we thank the continuation of the Universal Lexici [...]", in: Weekly Hallischen announcements of October 17, 1740. Here quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 265.
  54. Cf. New Newspapers of learned things , 1743, p. 536.
  55. a b c Zedler, (Johann Heinrich). In: Large complete universal lexicon of all sciences and arts . Volume 61, Leipzig 1749, columns 309-311 (here column 311).
  56. ^ Franz Schnorr von Carolsfeld:  Zedler, Johann Heinrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 44, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1898, p. 741 f., And - apparently based on it - Juntke: Johann Heinrich Zedler's Grosses Complete Universal Lexicon. P. 17.
  57. Here, quoted from Quedenbaum: The publisher and bookseller Johann Heinrich Zedler. P. 305.
  58. see also D. Martin Luther's dispute with Erasmo Roterodamo vom Freyen sake concerning (reprint from the 19th volume, 1880)
  59. ^ Bernhard Kossmann: German Universal Lexica of the 18th Century. Their essence and their informational value, illustrated using the example of the works of Jablonski and Zedler. In: Börsenblatt for the German book trade - Frankfurt edition. No. 89, November 5, 1968 (= Archive for the History of Books. Volume 62), pp. 2947–2968, here: pp. 2953 f.
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on June 8, 2007 in this version .