Calendar overview 1784
|winter of 1783/84 , one of the most severe flood disasters occurs in Central Europe.|
|Schiller's Kabale und Liebe is premiered.||
Horea uprising begins in Transylvania .
|1784 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1232/33 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1776/77 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1189/90 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2327/28 (southern Buddhism); 2326/27 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1146/47 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4117/18 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1162/63 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1198/99 (November 13-14)|
|Jewish calendar||5544/45 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic calendar||1500/01 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2094/95 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2095/96 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1840/41 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 14th : The American Continental Congress ratifies the peace of Paris negotiated with Great Britain , which ends the American War of Independence .
- August 23 : MPs from three counties vote on North Carolina secession . This results in the State of Franklin in the following year .
- September 22nd : Merchant and navigator Grigori Ivanovich Schelichow founds the first Russian settlement in Alaska in Three Saints Bay on Kodiak Island .
- Maximilian Franz of Austria succeeds Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels , who died on April 15, as Archbishop and Elector of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Münster .
- May 30th : The peace treaty in Paris ends the fourth Anglo-Dutch naval war from 1780 to 1784.
- 23 August : During the Josephinist era, Emperor Joseph II ordered that all inner-city cemeteries in Austria be closed for reasons of hygiene . A folding coffin should also be used for burials , but the population successfully resisted it after a short period of validity.
- October 31 : In Transylvania , which belongs to the Habsburg monarchy, a violent uprising of Romanian serf peasants breaks out.
- The Augsburg weaver revolt begins.
- Pitt's India Act puts the administration of the British East India Company under theBritish Government.
- August 17 : An ordinance of Emperor Joseph II allows everyone to sell and serve self-made food, wine and fruit must at all times. The Heurige is officially born in Austria .
- The women's magazine Pomona for Teutschland's daughters , edited by Sophie von La Roche , ceases to appear after about a year.
science and technology
- January 28th : The Ad Astra gas balloon , built by the scholar Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann and the pharmacist Justus Christian Heinrich Heyer , rises unmanned in front of the castle in Braunschweig . The company was sponsored by the Brunswick Duke Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand . Another ascent takes place on February 8th .
- February 12 : Urs Jakob Chan performs the first Swiss unmanned hot air balloon flight in Solothurn by
- February 25 : Paolo Andreani , the brothers Agostino and Carlo Gerli undertake the first hot air balloon ride outside of France . You start in Moncucco near Milan. The news of the successful ascent of the Montgolfier brothers in France had also spread to Lombardy weeks earlier .
- July 17 : In Leimersheim , a hot air balloon made of paper by Johann Andreas von Traitteur takes off. The height is given as 16 shoes (approx. 4.60 m) and a diameter of 12 shoes (approx. 3.50 m). According to the report from Traitteur, the unmanned balloon flies for about 38 minutes.
- Immanuel Kant's answer to the question: What is Enlightenment? appears in the December issue of the Berlin monthly magazine .
- Immanuel Kant wrote the essay Idea for a General History with cosmopolitan intent .
- February 22nd : In the constellation Leo the spiral galaxy NGC 3521 and in the constellation Virgo the spiral galaxy NGC 4666 .
- February 23 : In the constellation Virgo the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4412 , in the constellation Leo NGC 3640 .
- March 12th : In the constellation Leo NGC 3190 .
- March 14th : In the Virgo galaxy cluster in the constellation Haar der Berenike the galaxies NGC 4293 , NGC 4394 and NGC 4450 , in the constellation Leo the galaxies NGC 3607 and NGC 3686 .
- March 15 : In the constellation Virgo the galaxies NGC 4429 , NGC 4503 and NGC 4762 , in the constellation Leo the galaxy NGC 3810 .
- March 21 : In the constellation Coma Berenices the galaxies NGC 4379 and NGC 4710 , in the constellation Leo NGC 3370 .
- March 23rd In the constellation Leo NGC 3041 .
- April 8 : In the constellation Haar the Berenike Messier 91 and NGC 4419 , in the constellation Virgo NGC 4438 and in the constellation Leo NGC 3377 , NGC 3412 and NGC 3628 .
- April 12th : In the constellation Haar der Berenike NGC 4689 and in the constellation Virgo NGC 4639 , NGC 4654 , NGC 4880 and NGC 5230 .
- April 15 : In the constellation Virgo next to the lens-shaped galaxy NGC 4417 belonging to the Virgo galaxy cluster, the objects NGC 3833 and NGC 5506 and in the constellation Bear Guardian the galaxy NGC 5248 .
- April 17th : In the constellation Virgo NGC 4216 , NGC 4267 , NGC 4387 , NGC 4388 , NGC 4775 and NGC 4981 .
- April 24th : In the constellation Virgo NGC 4697 .
- April 25 : In the constellation Virgo NGC 4995 .
- June 24th : In the constellation Sagittarius, the globular cluster NGC 6624 .
- July 12 : In the constellation Capricorn NGC 6907 .
- September 5 : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 7331 .
- September 7th : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 7217 .
- September 8th : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 16 .
- September 10th : In the constellation Pegasus the bar-spiral galaxy NGC 23 and in the constellation Andromeda the bar-spiral galaxy NGC 214 .
- September 11 : In the constellation Pisces the radio galaxy NGC 315 , in the constellation Andromeda the galaxies NGC 68 , NGC 108 and NGC 233 and in the constellation Aries the galaxy NGC 972 .
- September 12th : In the constellation Pisces NGC 296 , NGC 379 , NGC 380 , NGC 407 , NGC 410 , NGC 420 , NGC 495 and NGC 507 , in the constellation Andromeda NGC 266 , in the constellation Pegasus NGC 7457 and in the constellation Triangle NGC 777 .
- September 13th : The galaxy NGC 925 in the constellation Triangle .
- September 15 : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 7817 .
- September 18 : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 52 .
- September 19 : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 7332 .
- October 6th : In the constellation Perseus NGC 1003 .
- October 8th : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 7814 and in the constellation Pisces NGC 57 .
- October 14th : In the constellation Pisces NGC 213 .
- October 15 : In the constellation Pisces NGC 251 .
- October 16 : In the constellation Pisces NGC 524 and NGC 660 and in the constellation Pegasus NGC 7448 .
- October 19 : In the constellation Pegasus NGC 7479 .
- October 20 : Galaxy NGC 247 in the constellation Whale and the galaxy NGC 1232 in the constellation Eridanus .
- November 12th : The Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 in the constellation Pegasus .
- November 16 : In the constellation Leo NGC 2903 .
- November 20 : The galaxy NGC 2613 in the constellation Ship Compass and the galaxy NGC 2784 in the constellation Water Snake .
- December 9th : In the constellation Eridanus the galaxies NGC 1332 and NGC 1187 and in the constellation Whale the galaxy NGC 216 .
- December 13th : In the constellation Pisces NGC 474 , NGC 488 and NGC 520 .
- Jacques-Louis David paints the painting The Oath of the Horatians in oil on canvas , one of the first works of classicism .
Music and theater
- February 26 : In the theater of Eszterháza in Esterház finds premiere of the opera Armida by Joseph Haydn instead. The libretto was probably compiled by Nunziato Porta . It is based on Torquato Tasso's epic The Liberated Jerusalem .
- April 13 : Friedrich Schiller's Cabal and Love - A bourgeois tragedy is performed for the first time in Frankfurt am Main , followed by a performance in Mannheim on April 15
- April 26th : The tragédie lyrique Les Danaïdes by Antonio Salieri, dedicated to the French Queen Marie Antoinette, based on a text by François Bailly du Roullet and Louis Théodore Baron de Tschudi, based on an Italian version by Ranieri de 'Calzabigi , premiered in Paris with great success.
- October 10 : World premiere of the drama I due supposti ossia Lo sposo senza moglie by Domenico Cimarosa at the Teatro alla Scala di Milano in Milan
- December 26th : World premiere of the opera L'Idalide by Luigi Cherubini in Florence
- Foundation of the Markneukirchen Musical Instrument Museum
- March 22nd : In a procession led by King Rama I , the Emerald Buddha is brought to the Wat Phra Kaeo temple complex in Bangkok , the new capital of Siam .
- November 26th . An Apostolic Prefecture is established in the United States, under the direction of the Holy See- appointed Jesuit John Carroll .
- End of February : After the extreme winter of 1783/84 , one of the greatest floods in historical times hit Central Europe. Evidence of severe destruction has come down to us from Regensburg , Bamberg , Heidelberg , but above all from Cologne .
- January 2nd : Ernst III. , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld († 1844 )
- January 4th : François Rude , French sculptor († 1855 )
- January 6 : Carl Friedrich Mosch , German author († 1859 )
- January 17th : Philippe-Antoine d'Ornano , French general, peer and marshal of France († 1863 )
- January 21 : Georg Moller , German architect and urban planner († 1852 )
- January 21 : Andrew Stevenson , American politician († 1857 )
- January 28 : George Hamilton-Gordon , British statesman and Prime Minister († 1860 )
- February 5 : William Taylor Barry , American politician († 1835 )
- February 5 : Karl Friedrich Christian Wenck , German lawyer († 1828 )
- February 6 : Wilhelm Ferdinand Ermeler , German industrialist and Privy Councilor of Commerce († 1866 )
- February 10 : Hartwig Peters , German clergyman and publicist († 1848 )
- February 15 : Herenäus Haid , German theologian, author and translator († 1873 )
- February 16 : Wilhelm Titel , German painter and academic drawing teacher († 1862 )
- February 20 : Mathias Aberle , Austrian physician († 1847 )
- February 29 : Leo von Klenze , German architect, painter and writer († 1864 )
- March 5 : Johan Gunder Adler , co-author of the Norwegian Basic Law († 1852 )
- March 6 : Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest , French zoologist and writer († 1838 )
- March 12 : William Buckland , English geologist and paleontologist († 1856 )
- March 17 : Egid von Löhr , German lawyer and university professor († 1851 )
- March 26 : John W. Taylor , American politician († 1854 )
- March 27 : Sándor Csoma , Hungarian explorer, founder of Tibetology († 1842 )
- April 5 : Louis Spohr , German composer, conductor, violinist († 1859 )
- April 8 : Dionisio Aguado , Spanish guitarist and composer († 1849 )
- April 13 : Friedrich von Wrangel , Prussian general († 1877 )
- April 14 : Carl Ludwig August Bergius , German civil servant († 1829 )
- April 21 : Karl von Decker , Prussian general and writer († 1844 )
- April 29 : Samuel Turell Armstrong , American politician († 1850 )
- May 3 : Henry Hubbard , American politician († 1857 )
- May 5 : Maria Elisabeth in Bavaria , Princess of Wagram and Duchess of Neuchâtel († 1849 )
- May 9 : Georg von Oldenburg , Prince of the Duchy of Oldenburg († 1812 )
- May 10 : Carlo Filangieri , Italian general († 1867 )
- May 10 : Heinrich von der Tann , German officer and member of parliament († 1848 )
- May 31 : Josef Sandhaas , German painter († 1827 )
- June 8 : Marie-Antoine Carême , French cook († 1833 )
- June 16 : Benedictus Gotthelf Teubner , German bookseller, founder of the publishing house († 1856 )
- June 17 : Frederick Adam , British general and governor of Madras († 1853 )
- June 21 : George Arthur , Governor of Bombay, British Honduras, Van Diemens Land and Upper Canada († 1854 )
- June 22nd : Louis Marie Baptiste Atthalin , French officer, politician and painter († 1856 )
- June 29 : Alejandro María de Aguado , French banker († 1842 )
- July 1 : Joseph Marshall Walker , American politician († 1856 )
- July 2 : Teresa Belloc , Italian opera singer († 1855 )
- July 2 : Karl Ludwig Grave , German clergyman and educator († 1840 )
- July 21 : Jørgen Herman Vogt , Norwegian lawyer and politician († 1862 )
- July 21 : Ralph James Woodford , governor of the Caribbean island of Trinidad († 1828 )
- July 22nd : Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel , German astronomer, mathematician and geodesist († 1846 )
- July 23 : James W. Gazlay , American politician († 1874 )
- July 27 : Denis Dawydow , Russian war writer and poet († 1839 )
- July 27 : George Onslow , French composer († 1853 )
- July 30th : Leopold Schefer , German poet and composer († 1862 )
- August 6 : Heinrich Hössli , Swiss writer and cloth merchant († 1864 )
- August 10 : Avraam Ivanovich Melnikow , Russian architect († 1854 )
- August 15 : Pierre-Auguste-Louis Blondeau , French composer and musicologist († 1865 )
- August 26 : Ludwig Aurbacher , German writer († 1847 )
- September 11 : Lodovico Pavoni , Blessed, Italian priest and founder of the order († 1849 )
- September 21 : Carl Thomas Mozart , Austrian civil servant and son of Wolfgang Amadeus and Constanze Mozart († 1858 )
- September 25 : Friedrich Friesen , German educator and freedom fighter († 1814 )
- September 29 : Karl Friedrich Nebenius , Baden official († 1857 )
- October 3 : Johann Karl Ehrenfried Kegel , Kamchatka researcher († 1863 )
- October 12 : Pietro Anderloni , Italian engraver († 1849 )
- October 14 : Karl Baldamus , German lawyer and poet († 1852 )
- October 14 : Ferdinand VII , King of Spain († 1833 )
- October 15 : Thomas-Robert Bugeaud , French general and Marshal of France († 1849 )
- October 16 : Wilhelm Nienstädt , Prussian prince educator and writer († 1862 )
- October 20 : Henry John Temple , British statesman and Prime Minister († 1865 )
- October 24 : Marco Berra , Italian music publisher in Prague († 1853 )
- October 24 : Moses Montefiore , British entrepreneur and philanthropist († 1885 )
- November 3 : Antonín Mánes , Czech painter and draftsman of Romanticism († 1843 )
- November 4 : Joseph Bové , Russian-Italian architect and city builder († 1834 )
- November 4 : Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker , German classical philologist († 1868 )
- November 6th : Laure-Adelaide Abrantès , French lady-in-waiting and writer († 1838 )
- November 6th : Antonio Fontana , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and educator († 1865 )
- November 10 : Franco Andrea Bonelli , Italian zoologist, ornithologist and collector († 1830 )
- November 14 : Karl Friedrich Schulz , German Protestant hymn composer and music teacher († 1850 )
- November 15 : Jérôme Bonaparte , brother of Napoléon Bonaparte, King of Westphalia († 1860 )
- November 20 : Marianne von Willemer , Austrian actress and friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe († 1860 )
- November 24th : Jean Louis Burckhardt , Swiss traveler to the Orient († 1817 )
- November 24 : Josiah S. Johnston , American politician († 1833 )
- November 24 : Zachary Taylor , American politician, 12th President of the USA († 1850 )
- November 28 : Ferdinand Ries , German piano player and composer († 1838 )
- November 29: Christian Lente Freyherr von Adeler , lawyer († 1844 )
- November 30 : Jacobus Cornelis Swijghuijsen Groenewoud , Dutch Reformed theologian and orientalist († 1859 )
- December 4 : Theodor Henrich Rahlenbeck , German lay preacher and fighter against alcohol abuse († 1864 )
- December 10 : Walter Lowrie , American politician († 1868 )
- December 12 : Christian Krafft , German theologian († 1845 )
- December 13 : Ludwig of Austria-Tuscany , Austrian Archduke († 1864 )
- December 14 : Heinrich von der Mark , Bavarian Lieutenant General and Minister of War († 1865 )
- December 15 : Ludwig Devrient , German actor († 1832 )
- December 15 : Gottlieb Christian Eberhard von Etzel , German town planner and senior building officer († 1840 )
- December 17 : Georg Ludolf Dissen , German classical philologist († 1837 )
- December 20 : Georg Wilhelm , Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe († 1860 )
- December 28 : Ernst Wilhelm Gottlieb Wachsmuth , German historical researcher († 1866 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Thomas W. Cobb , American politician († 1830 )
- Alojzy Stolpe , Polish pianist, music teacher and composer († 1824 )
First half of the year
- January 2nd : Caspar Anton von Belderbusch , German Teutonic Knight and Prime Minister in Kurköln (* 1722 )
- January 7th : Johann Ernst Zeiher , German mathematician, mechanic, linguist and optician (* 1725 )
- January 15 : Jobst Anton von Hinüber , German lawyer, postmaster and monastery leaseholder (* 1718 )
- January 25 : Johann Kaspar Arletius , German educator and polymath (* 1707 )
- January 25th : Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze , Italian cardinal (* 1712 )
- February 4th : Friederike Luise von Ansbach , Princess of Prussia (* 1714 )
- February 22nd : Sophie Volland , lover of the French philosopher Denis Diderot (* 1716 )
- February 24 : Anton Laube , Bohemian composer and church musician (* 1718 )
- February 26 : Friedrich Adam Widder , German mathematician (* 1724 )
- February 27 : Count of Saint Germain , German-Romanian alchemist and occultist (* 1696 )
- February 28 : Angelius Johann Daniel Aepinus , German philosopher and university lecturer (* 1718 )
- February 29 : François-Alexandre Aubert de La Chenaye-Desbois , French writer and compiler (* 1699 )
- March 3 : Sawwa Jakowlew , Russian entrepreneur, industrialist and patron (* 1712 )
- March 26 : Samuel Engel , Swiss librarian, geographer, politician, philanthropist and economist (* 1702 )
- April 5 : Johann Dietrich Winckler , German Lutheran theologian (* 1711 )
- April 15 : Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels , German Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Cologne (* 1708 )
- April 26th : Nano Nagle , Irish nun and founder (* 1718 )
- April 29 : Agustín de Jáuregui , Spanish officer, governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru (* 1711 )
- May 12 : Abraham Trembley , Swiss educator and naturalist (* 1710 )
- May 15 : Arsenije Plamenac , Montenegrin Orthodox Metropolitan
- May 20 : Alexander Ross , Scottish poet (* 1699 )
- June 4 : David Tschanz , Swiss Pietist (* 1717 )
- June 17th : Carl Friedrich Ludwig von Gaudi , Prussian civil servant (* 1734 )
- June 21 : Daniel Högger , Mayor of the City of St. Gallen in Switzerland (* 1706 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Georg Daniel Auberlen , German schoolmaster, musician and composer (* 1728 )
- July 1 : Wilhelm Friedemann Bach , German composer (* 1710 )
- July 2 : Gottfried Schütze , German pedagogue, librarian and Protestant theologian (* 1719 )
- July 6th : Achatius Ludwig Karl Schmid , German legal scholar and civil servant of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (* 1725 )
- July 7th : Louis Anseaume , French librettist (* 1721 )
- July 8 : Torben Olof Bergman , Swedish chemist (* 1735 )
- July 15 : Johann Baptist Straub , German Rococo sculptor (* 1704 )
- July 26th : Anton Tischbein , German painter (* 1720 )
- July 31 : Denis Diderot , French writer and philosopher (* 1713 )
- August 3 : Giovanni Battista Martini , Italian composer and music theorist (* 1706 )
- August 10 : Allan Ramsay , Scottish portrait and court painter (* 1713 )
- August 13 : Jean François Clément Morand , French chemist, mineralogist and medic (* 1726 )
- August 28 : Junípero Serra , Spanish Franciscan and founder of San Francisco (* 1713 )
- August 29 : Sakhar Chernyshev , Russian Field Marshal General, Minister of War and Governor of Moscow (* 1722 )
- September 1 : Johann Christoph Stockhausen , German educator and Lutheran theologian (* 1725 )
- September 4 : César François Cassini de Thury , French geodesist (* 1714 )
- October 17th : Melchior Dittmar von Wittgenstein , Mayor of Cologne (* 1720 )
- October 27 : Johann Gottlieb Graun , German violinist and composer (* 1703 )
- Pierre Eugène du Simitière , Swiss-American artist and philosopher (* 1737 ) October:
- November 3 : Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain (* 1717 )
- November 3 : Nicolas Guibal , French painter (* 1725 )
- November 15 : Jan Hataš , Czech composer (* 1751 )
- November 28 : Antoine Grimaldi , Regent of Monaco (* 1697 )
- December 5 : Phillis Wheatley , Senegalese writer (* 1753 )
- December 13 : Samuel Johnson , English scholar, writer, poet, critic and lexicographer (* 1709 )
- December 15 : Friedrich Groschuff , German philologist (* 1701 )
- December 31 : Reinhard Christoph Ungewitter , German Reformed theologian (* 1715 )