Calendar overview 1847
|Zachary Taylor wins the Battle of Buena Vista in the Mexican–American War .|
|Sonderbund War is the last military conflict on Swiss soil .|
|1847 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1295/96 (July turn of the year)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1839/40 (September 11/12)|
|Baha'i calendar||03/04 (New Year March 20th/21st)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1252/53 (beginning of the year April 14 or 15)|
|Buddhist calendar||2390/91 (Southern Buddhism); 2389/90 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1209/10 (New Year's April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4180/81 (October 2nd/3rd)|
|Islamic calendar||1263/64 (change of the year December 9th/10th)|
|Jewish calendar||5607/08 (September 10th/11th)|
|Coptic calendar||1563/64 (September 11/12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1262/63 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2157/58 (April turn of the year)
Syria: 2158/59 (October turn of the year)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese calendar)||1903/04 (April)|
politics and world affairs
- February 23: The Battle of Buena Vista in the Mexican-American War is won by US forces under General Zachary Taylor against the numerically larger Mexican troops commanded by Generalissimo Antonio López de Santa Anna .
- March 9: US troops under General Winfield Scott invade Mexico near Veracruz in what was then the largest amphibious landing by US forces .
- September 14: In the Mexican-American War , United States troops under Winfield Scott occupy the capital, Mexico City , one day after the victorious Battle of Chapultepec .
Other events in America
- January 30: The California city of Yerba Buena is renamed San Francisco .
- April 25: The last survivors of the Donner Party , a trek of settlers bound for California , reach Sutter's Fort. Their misery began in October last year with a snowstorm and subsequent adversity, culminating in the depletion of supplies they had brought with them, which forced them to cannibalism .
- July 24: Mormons establish the city of Salt Lake City and their own territory on the Great Salt Lake .
- April 11: The First United State Parliament is opened in the Berlin Palace with a speech by Friedrich Wilhelm IV .
- April 21: In protest against excessively high food prices, visitors to the Berlin market trigger the so-called “ Potato Revolution ”, which is believed to be part of the history of the March Revolution .
- July 23: The Prussian Jewish Law standardizes the law and grants this population group freedom of movement and settlement .
- September 12th: The “demands of the people of Baden” are proclaimed in Offenburg as part of the Offenburg assembly in the Salmen inn. Among other things, fundamental and human rights such as freedom of the press are also demanded
- October 10: At the Heppenheim conference , the moderate liberals draft their political program for the unification of Germany.
- November 3: The Sonderbund War , a religiously motivated civil war , breaks out in Switzerland .
- November 29: In Switzerland , the Sonderbund war comes to an end with the capitulation of the canton of Valais .
Other events in Europe
- June 29: The so-called Gramido Convention ends a civil war between liberal " Setembrist " and conservative " Cartist " forces that has been smoldering since 1846 in Portugal , in which the conservatives are only victorious thanks to foreign troops.
- 21 August: King Oscar I of Sweden instituted the Order of Saint Olav , today the highest order in Norway.
- November 29 to December 8: The League of Communists is founded in London. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels play a key role in its formation
- July 26: Independence from Liberia
- December 22 Algerian rebel leader Abd el-Kader surrenders surrounded by the French army and is soon taken to France. In Algeria , the situation for the colonial power has calmed down significantly.
- December 23: France declares Algeria a colony.
- Algeria becomes a French province.
- 21 September: Two postage stamps, the Mauritius Red and Mauritius Blue , are issued on the island of Mauritius , a British Crown Colony .
- May 12: In Paderborn, the publishing house Ferdinand Schöningh is founded by the bookseller of the same name .
- May 27: The Hamburg-American Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft is founded, a forerunner of HAPAG-Lloyd AG .
- October 12: Werner von Siemens founds the Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske in Berlin together with Johann Georg Halske .
- Jacob Christian Jacobsen opens Carlsberg-Bryggerier Kjøbenhavn in Copenhagen 's Vesterbro district .
- June 19: The US paddle steamer Washington is greeted with a gun salute in Bremerhaven . With it, the Ocean Steam Navigation Company opened the first regular mail steamship line between North America and continental Europe.
- 7 August: History of Swiss railways : the first railway line to be located entirely in Switzerland , the “ Spanish Brötli Railway ” between Zurich and Baden AG , is officially opened. Scheduled operation begins two days later.
- 1 September: The Görlitz–Dresden railway line is officially opened. The Löwenbrücke near Radeberg is part of this route .
- September 1st: The first section of the Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn from Augsburg to Kaufbeuren is opened.
- September 18: The Weilburg shipping tunnel in the Duchy of Nassau is handed over to its intended purpose.
- The Hamburger Bahnhof is opened in Berlin
science and technology
- July 23: In Berlin, Hermann von Helmholtz lectures on the constancy of force and underpins the law of conservation of energy .
- November 12: The Scottish physician James Young Simpson publishes a paper in Edinburgh on the effects of chloroform tested on himself . As a result, he uses the anesthetic in women giving birth .
- The Turin doctor Ascanio Sobrero produces nitroglycerine for the first time.
- May 14: The British warship HMS Driver returns to Spithead from a round- the-world steamship after completing military assignments .
- August 24: The Danish corvette Galathea returns to Copenhagen after a two-year voyage around the world.
Teaching and Research
- February 25: The University of Iowa is founded as the first university in the US state of Iowa .
- 14 May: The Austrian Academy of Sciences is founded in Vienna as the Imperial Academy of Sciences .
- Ludwig Richter paints his best-known painting Bridal Procession in Spring in oil on canvas .
- Foundation of the Architectural Association School of Architecture
- Adolph von Menzel paints the painting The Berlin-Potsdam Railway .
music and theatre
- February 4: The first performance of the opera buffa Il birraio di Preston ( The Brewer of Preston ) by Luigi Ricci to a libretto by Francesco Guidi takes place with great success at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence.
- 18 February: Giacomo Meyerbeer's opera Vielka , an adaptation of his Singspiel Ein Feldlager in Schlesien , the text of which has been revised by Ludwig Rellstab and Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer , is premiered at the Theater an der Wien bei Wien with great success .
- March 14: Giuseppe Verdi's opera Macbeth has its premiere at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence . The libretto by Francesco Maria Piave is based on the tragedy of the same name by William Shakespeare . The opera was enthusiastically received by the public, while the critics reacted rather cautiously and complained about the lack of a love scene.
- 22 July: Giuseppe Verdi's opera I masnadieri to a libretto by Andrea Maffei , based on the play Die Räuber by Friedrich Schiller , has its premiere at the Royal Opera House in London's Haymarket , conducted by the composer . Here, too, the audience reacted enthusiastically, while the critics expressed reservations.
- September 11: The catchy song Oh! Susannah (I Come From Alabama) by composer Stephen Collins Foster is performed for the first time in a saloon in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania .
- November 25: Martha oder Der Markt zu Richmond , a romantic-comic opera in 4 acts by Friedrich von Flotow and Friedrich Wilhelm Riese , premieres at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna.
- November 26: Giuseppe Verdi's first French grand opéra Jérusalem premieres at the Académie Royale de Musique in Paris .
- 10 December: The Carltheater in Leopoldstadt near Vienna, built according to plans by the architects August Sicard von Sicardsburg and Eduard van der Nüll , is officially opened. The evening begins with a festive overture by Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner , the court director of music in Stuttgart and a friend of the theater director Carl Carl . The highlight of the event is the world premiere of the burlesque The Bad Boys in the School by Johann Nestroy , with Nestroy in the leading role. Two-thirds of the income goes to the poor .
- 9 May: François Bullier opens the Jardin Bullier dance hall in Paris .
- March 25: Pope Pius IX. publishes the encyclical Praedecessores nostros .
- March 30: In the Edict of Tolerance issued by Prussia 's King Friedrich Wilhelm IV , among other things, leaving the church is permitted.
- June 17: Pope Pius IX. publishes the encyclical Ubi primum .
- September 19: The Catholic Trinity Church , designed by Carl Alexander Heideloff , is inaugurated in Leipzig .
- Johann Georg Müller becomes Bishop of Munster.
- Josef von Lipp is elected Second Bishop of Rottenburg.
- March 23: A major fire in Bucharest destroys around 2,000 houses. After a nationwide relief effort, the city is rebuilt according to plan.
- April 4: The Munich Central Station building burns down.
- May 24: The Dee Bridge rail crash claims at least five lives.
- November 22: On the paddle steamer Phoenix , overheated steam boilers set fire to the steamer's wood paneling, which then burst into flames and burned out three miles off Sheboygan on Lake Michigan . About 250 people die in one of the worst shipwrecks on the Great Lakes .
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .
Historical maps and views
- Franz Rezek , Austrian military bandmaster and composer (died 1912) January 1:
- Yulia Vsewolodowna Lermontova , Russian chemist and the first woman to receive a doctorate in chemistry (d. 1919) January 2:
- Hermann Riedel , German composer and conductor (died 1913) January 2:
- Franz Wilhelm Dibelius , German Protestant theologian (died 1924) January 6:
- Milovan Glišić , Serbian writer and translator (died 1908) January 6:
- Jean Paul Richter , German art historian (died 1937) January 7:
- Antonio Vico , Roman Catholic cardinal (died 1929) January 9
- January 11: Thomas C. Catchings , American politician (died 1927)
- January 16: Kálmán Mikszáth , Hungarian writer (died 1910)
- January 17: Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky , Russian mathematician (died 1921)
- January 28: Franziska Ellmenreich , German actress (d. 1931)
- Remus von Woyrsch , German Field Marshal (died 1920) February 4:
- Hugo Oppenheim , German banker (died 1921) February 5:
- Ernst Frank , German composer and conductor († 1889) February 7:
- Hermann Vöchting , German botanist (died 1917) February 8:
- February 11: Thomas Alva Edison , American inventor (d. 1931)
- February 12: Philipp zu Eulenburg , German diplomat (died 1921)
- February 13: Clelia Barbieri , Italian founder of the order († 1870)
- February 13 Erich Graf Kielmansegg , Austro-Hungarian politician (died 1923)
- February 15: Robert Fuchs , Austrian composer (died 1927)
- February 16: Karl Buecher , German economist (died 1930)
- February 16: Carl von Horn , Bavarian Colonel-General and Minister of War († 1923)
- February 16: Philipp Scharwenka , German composer and music teacher († 1917)
- February 17 Charles Webster Leadbeater , priest, theosophist and occultist (died 1934)
- February 17: Paul Georg von Möllendorff , German linguist and diplomat († 1901)
- February 17 – Otto Albert Blehr , Norwegian liberal politician (died 1927)
- February 22: Sophie , Princess of Bavaria, Duchess of Alençon-Orleans († 1897)
- February 22 Thornton Chase , American author (died 1912)
- February 27: Ellen Terry , English stage actress (d. 1928)
- Cayetano L. Arellano , Filipino jurist (d. 1920) March 2
- Max O'Rell , French author and journalist (died 1903) March 2:
- Alexander Graham Bell , British speech therapist, inventor and businessman (d. 1922) March 3:
- Carl Josef Bayer , Austrian chemist (died 1904) March 4:
- Domenico Ferrata , Cardinal Secretary of State (died 1914) March 4:
- Cesare Arzelà , Italian mathematician (died 1912) March 6:
- Johann Georg Hagen , Austrian Jesuit and astronomer (died 1930) March 6:
- James Capehart , American politician (died 1921) March 7:
- Carl von Bach , German professor and mechanical engineer (died 1931) March 8:
- Hermann Winkelmann , German opera singer (died 1912) March 8:
- Martin Marsick , Belgian violin virtuoso and teacher (d. 1924) March 9
- March 13: Pietro Musone , Italian composer (died 1879)
- March 13 Francis S. White , American politician (died 1922)
- March 18 William O'Connell Bradley , American politician (died 1914)
- March 20: Gavriil Musicescu , Romanian composer (died 1903)
- March 23: Karl Heinisch , German painter (died 1923)
- March 27: Otto Wallach , German chemist (died 1931)
- March 28 Gyula Farkas , Hungarian physicist and mathematician (died 1930)
- March 29: John D. Works , American politician (died 1928)
- March 31: Hermann Volz , German sculptor (died 1941)
- Warren Miller , American politician (died 1920) April 2:
- Atterson W. Rucker , American politician (died 1924) April 3:
- Max Pommer , German architect and builder (died 1915) April 4
- Jens Peter Jacobsen , Danish writer (died 1885) April 7:
- Emil Kirdorf , German industrialist and protégé of Adolf Hitler (died 1938) April 8:
- Karl Wittgenstein , German businessman (died 1913) April 8
- April 10: Joseph Pulitzer , American journalist and editor (d. 1911)
- April 13: Karl Kloss , German trade unionist (died 1908)
- April 13: Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk , Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1908)
- April 16: August Bender , German chemist and entrepreneur (died 1926)
- April 19: Ferdinand Fellner the Elder J. , Austrian architect († 1916)
- April 19: Eva Gonzalès , French Impressionist painter († 1883)
- April 19: Hermann Rietschel , founder of heating and air conditioning technology († 1914)
- April 20: Ferdinand Rüegg , Bishop of St. Gallen († 1913)
- April 24 – Otto Leixner von Grünberg , Austrian writer and literary historian († 1907)
- April 26: Hans Wilhelm Auer , Swiss architect (died 1906)
- April 29: Carl Joachim Andersen , Danish flautist, conductor and composer († 1909)
- April 30: Johan Jacob Ahrenberg , Finnish-Swedish architect and writer (d. 1914)
- April 30: Joseph H. Earle , American politician (d. 1897)
- Archibald Philip Primrose , British statesman (died 1929) May 7
- May 10: Wilhelm Killing , German mathematician (died 1923)
- May 10 May French Sheldon , American explorer and author (d. 1936)
- May 11: Godefroid Kurth , Belgian historian (died 1916)
- May 13: Johannes Haarklou , Norwegian composer (died 1925)
- May 21: Emerich Robert , Austro-Hungarian actor (d. 1899)
- May 23: Heinrich Kämpchen , German writer (died 1912)
- May 24: Wilhelm Haarmann , German chemist (died 1931)
- May 25: John Alexander Dowie , British-American preacher, church and city planter (d. 1907)
- May 26: John Green Brady , American politician (died 1918)
- May 26: Edward R. Hays , American politician (d. 1896)
- May 30: Ottilie Baader , German women's rights activist and socialist († 1925)
- Heinrich Gassner , Lord Mayor of Mainz († 1905) June 8:
- Alajos Hauszmann , Austro-Hungarian architect (d. 1926) June 9:
- Charles P. Snyder , American politician (died 1915) June 9
- June 11 Millicent Garrett Fawcett , British suffragette (died 1929)
- June 12: Friedrich von Payer , German politician (died 1931)
- June 13: Eduard Gaston Pöttickh von Pettenegg , Knight of the Teutonic Order and Priest († 1918)
- June 13: John M. Pattison , American politician (d. 1906)
- June 19: Ernst Justus Haeberlin , German numismatist and lawyer († 1925)
- June 20 Gina Krog , Norwegian women's rights activist (died 1916)
- June 24: Gaston Salvayre , French composer (died 1916)
- June 26: Conrad Justus Bredenkamp , German theologian and university teacher († 1904)
- June 29: Paul Flechsig , German psychiatrist and brain researcher († 1929)
- Heinrich Gelzer , Swiss classical philologist, ancient historian and Byzantinist (died 1906) July 1:
- Max Bösenberg , German architect (died 1918) July 3:
- Julius Lassen , Danish jurist (died 1923) July 4:
- Carl Bernhard von Ibell , lawyer and notary, Lord Mayor of Wiesbaden († 1924) July 8:
- Nikolai of Astudin , Russian landscape painter (died 1925) July 9:
- Wong Fei Hung , Chinese doctor and martial artist (d. 1924) July 9:
- July 10: Henry A. Houston , American politician (d. 1925)
- July 12 Karl Heinrich Barth , German piano teacher and pianist († 1922)
- July 14 Gustav Eberlein , German sculptor, painter and writer (died 1926)
- July 20: Max Liebermann , German painter (died 1935)
- July 24: Margarete Steiff , entrepreneur and founder of the Steiff company (Steiff animals) († 1909)
- July 25: Paul Langerhans , German pathologist (died 1888)
- July 27: Otto Perutz , German businessman (died 1922)
- July 29: Theophil Forchhammer , Swiss composer, church musician and organist († 1923)
- July 29 Thomas S. Martin , American politician (died 1919)
- Emil Ferdinand Fehling , German politician (died 1927) August 3:
- Jan de Louter , Dutch constitutional and international law scholar (died 1932) August 3:
- Caroline Barbey-Boissier , Swiss botanist and writer (d. 1918) August 4
- Julius Bodenstein , German landscape painter (died 1932) August 4:
- Ludwig Salvator , Archduke of Austria and Tuscany (died 1915) August 4:
- August 10: Wilhelm Rein , German educator and later representative of Herbartianism († 1929)
- August 12: Raimund Grübl , Austrian lawyer and politician († 1898)
- August 13 Georg Friedrich Bihl , German architect (died 1935)
- August 14: Robert Comtesse , Swiss politician (died 1922)
- August 20: Bolesław Prus , Polish writer and publicist (died 1912)
- August 22: John Forrest , Australian explorer and politician (d. 1918)
- August 26: August Amrhein , German clergyman (died 1934)
- August 26: Richard Godeffroy , Austrian chemist (d. 1895)
- August 28 Nathan Fellows Dixon , American politician (died 1897)
- August 28: Bellamy Storer , American diplomat and politician (d. 1922)
- August 29: Moritz von Egidy , German officer and moral philosopher († 1898)
- August 30: Ernst Julius Arnold , German politician (died 1926)
- Heinrich Kielhorn , German pioneer of special education (died 1934) September 2:
- James Hannington , British missionary and bishop (died 1885) September 3
- Jesse James , American gunslinger (d. 1882) September 5:
- Ella Magnussen , German painter (died 1911) September 5:
- September 10: Osee M. Hall , American politician (died 1914)
- September 10: John R. Lynch , American politician (d. 1939)
- September 15: Friedrich von Schele , German officer and governor of German East Africa (died 1904)
- September 20: Paul-Joseph Bodin , French civil engineer (died 1926)
- September 21 Charles James Faulkner , American politician (died 1929)
- September 26: Anna von Lieben , became known as Sigmund Freud's patient Cäcilie M. († 1900)
- September 30: Henry Augustus Buchtel , American politician (d. 1924)
- September 30 – James Taliaferro , American politician (died 1934)
- Annie Besant , British suffragette, theosophist and author (died 1933) October 1 –
- Paul von Hindenburg , German Field Marshal, Reich President of the Weimar Republic († 1934) October 2:
- Carl Friedrich Glasenapp , Russian State Councilor, Richard Wagner biographer († 1915) October 3:
- Agneta Matthes , Dutch entrepreneur (d. 1909) October 4:
- Adolf von Hildebrand , German sculptor (died 1921) October 6:
- Emil Holub , Bohemian explorer of Africa (died 1902) October 7:
- Nathan Zuntz , German physician of Jewish faith (died 1920) October 7:
- Alexander Franken , German legal scholar († 1896) October 7:
- October 16: Maria Pia of Savoy , Italian princess and Portuguese queen (d. 1911)
- October 17 Chiquinha Gonzaga , Brazilian pianist and composer (died 1935)
- October 20: Oscar Swahn , Swedish sports shooter and oldest Olympic champion (d. 1927)
- October 20: Kurt Bernhardi , German educator (died 1892)
- October 21 – Edvard Brandes , Danish cultural politician and writer († 1931)
- October 21 Giuseppe Giacosa , Italian poet, actor and librettist (died 1906)
- October 22: Koos de la Rey , Boer general (d. 1914)
- October 24: John P. Buchanan , American politician, Governor of Tennessee (d. 1930)
- October 25: Karl Alfred Lanz Swiss painter and sculptor († 1907)
- October 26 Haydn Keeton , English organist, music teacher and composer (died 1921)
- October 29: Philipp Christian Theodor Conrad von Schubert , Prussian officer and member of the German Reichstag († 1924)
- October 31: Galileo Ferraris , Italian engineer and physicist (d. 1897)
- Emma Albani , Canadian singer (d. 1930) November 1:
- Karl Augustin , German auxiliary bishop (died 1919) November 1:
- Hiệp Hòa , sixth emperor of Vietnam's Nguyễn dynasty (died 1883) November 1:
- Georges Sorel , French engineer and social philosopher (died 1922) November 2
- Gustav Hirschfeld , German archaeologist (died 1895) November 4:
- Lothar Meggendorfer , caricaturist and painter († 1925) November 6:
- Volkmar Otto Erdmann von Arnim , German naval officer (died 1923) November 7:
- Karl Koehl , German physician and prehistorian (died 1929) November 7
- George Armitstead , Russian engineer, entrepreneur and the fourth mayor of Riga (d. 1912) November 8:
- Bram Stoker , Irish writer (died 1912) November 8:
- Carlo Alberto Castigliano , Italian builder, engineer and scientist (died 1884) November 8
- Jean Casimir-Périer , French President, Prime Minister († 1907) November 8:
- November 11 Marie Andree-Eysn , Austrian folklorist, botanist and collector (d. 1929)
- November 14: Ekaterina Mikhailovna Dolgorukaya , second wife of Tsar Alexander II of Russia (died 1922)
- November 15 Albert Lang , German painter and graphic artist (died 1933)
- November 18 Eliška Krásnohorská , Czech writer (died 1926)
- November 18: Hermann von Tappeiner , Austrian physician and pharmacologist († 1927)
- November 20: Nelson B. McCormick , American politician (died 1914)
- November 24 Alexander Edmund Batson Davie , Canadian politician (died 1889)
- November 25: Philipp Biedert , German pediatrician and university teacher († 1916)
- 26 November: Dagmar of Denmark , when Marja Fyodorovna wife of Tsar Alexander III. of Russia († 1928)
- November 27: Andreas Arzruni , Armenian mineralogist († 1898)
- November 30: August Klughardt , German composer and conductor (d. 1902)
- Christine Ladd-Franklin , American mathematician (died 1930) December 1
- Johann Martin Schmid , German organ builder (died 1923) December 3:
- Vinzenz Feckter , German photo pioneer and amateur photographer († 1916) December 5:
- Rudolf Krügener , entrepreneur in the photographic industry († 1913) December 8:
- Carl Weitbrecht , German poet and literary historian (died 1904) December 8:
- Johannes Leo von Mergel , German Benedictine abbot and Bishop of Eichstätt († 1932) December 9:
- December 10: Adolph Woermann , German merchant, shipowner and politician (died 1911)
- December 13: Carl de Ahna , German physician and politician (died 1906)
- December 18 Theodore Stark Wilkinson , American politician (died 1921)
- December 20: Sape Talma , Dutch physician (died 1918)
- December 21: John Rouse Merriott Chard , commanded the British troops at Rorke's Drift (d. 1897)
- December 21 Jakob Arnold von Salis , Swiss Reformed theologian, poet and historian († 1923)
- December 23: Anton Lux , Austrian artillery lieutenant and traveler to Africa († 1908)
- December 23: Pleasant Crump , last survivor known to have served in the American Civil War as a Confederate soldier (d. 1951)
- December 25: William Anthony Shinkman , American chess problem composer (d. 1933)
- December 27 Albert Amlacher , German teacher, pastor and writer (died 1939)
- December 27: Donato Maria Cardinal dell'Olio , Archbishop of Benevento (died 1902)
- December 30: John Peter Altgeld , American politician (died 1902)
- December 30: Paul Otto Apian-Bennewitz , German organist and teacher († 1892)
- December 31: Wilson S. Bissell , American politician (d. 1903)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Francesca Arundale , English Freemason and Theosophist (died 1924)
- Sepahsalar Tonekaboni , Supreme Commander of the Iranian Armed Forces supporting the Constitutional Revolution and Prime Minister of Iran († 1926)
- Jaroslaw de Zielinski , American pianist, organist, choir director, music teacher and composer († 1922)
- Camillo Ehrlichgott Zschille , German draftsman († 1910)
Born around 1847
- Crazy Horse , chief of the Lakota Indians (died 1887)
January to April
- Caroline Friedrich , wife of the painter Caspar David Friedrich (b. 1793) January 3:
- January 12: Isaac S. Pennybacker , American politician (b. 1805)
- January 13: Samuel Simons , American politician (b. 1792)
- January 19: Charles Bent , American politician (b. 1799)
- January 19: Antoinette Murat , Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (b. 1793)
- January 22: Hermann Fitting , German landowner and politician (b. 1765)
- January 27: Jana Wynandina Gertrut d'Aubigny von Engelbrunner , German writer, singer and music teacher (b. 1770)
- Ernst von Bernuth , German jurist (b. 1779) February 3:
- February 11: Johann Philipp von Ladenberg , Berlin honorary citizen (b. 1769)
- February 15: Germinal Pierre Dandelin , Belgian mathematician (b. 1794)
- February 15: José de Palafox y Melci , Duke of Zaragoza and General (b. 1775)
- February 19: José Joaquín de Olmedo , Ecuadorian jurist, politician and head of the interim government of 1845 (b. 1780)
- February 27: Jean-Baptiste Riché , President of Haiti (b. 1776/80)
- Armand de Polignac , French nobleman and Bavarian prince (b. 1771) March 1:
- Toussaint von Charpentier , German geologist and entomologist (born 1779) March 4:
- Mathias Aberle , Austrian physician (b. 1784) March 5:
- Mary Anning , British, believed to be the first female paleontologist (b. 1799) March 9:
- March 11: Johnny Appleseed , American ecological pioneer (b. 1774)
- March 17: Grandville , French draftsman, book illustrator and caricaturist (b. 1803)
- March 20: Anne-Françoise-Hippolyte Boutet , better known as Mademoiselle Mars, French actress (b. 1779)
- March 29: Jules de Polignac , Prime Minister of France (b. 1780)
- March 30: Friedrich Jacobs , German classical scholar (b. 1764)
- Diederich Heinrich Schrader , German swimming champion (b. 1801) April 4:
- Elisha Phelps , American politician (b. 1779) April 6:
- Jan Paweł Lelewel , Polish engineer officer, freedom fighter and architect (born 1796) April 9:
- April 18: Edward Douglas White , American politician (b. 1795)
- April 21: Friedrich von Gärtner , German architect (b. 1791)
- April 23: Erik Gustaf Geijer , Swedish Romantic writer (b. 1783)
- April 27: Henry Wellesley , English statesman and diplomat (b. 1773)
- April 29: Tomás Manuel de Anchorena , Argentine lawyer and statesman (b. 1783)
- 30 April: Charles of Austria-Teschen , Austrian archduke and general (b. 1771)
May to August
- Jesse Speight , American politician (b. 1795) May 1:
- May 14: Fanny Hensel , German composer (b. 1805)
- May 15: Daniel O'Connell , Irish freedom fighter (b. 1775)
- May 16: Caspar Ett , German organist and composer (b. 1788)
- May 16: Vicente Rocafuerte , President of Ecuador (b. 1783)
- May 20: Mary Ann Lamb , British novelist (b. 1764)
- May 23: Heinrich Luden , German historian (b. 1778)
- May 23: Friedrich Schmalz , German agronomist (b. 1781)
- May 25: Ludwig Aurbacher , German writer (b. 1784)
- May 29: Emmanuel de Grouchy , French general, Marshal of France (b. 1766)
- May 31: Thomas Chalmers , Scottish writer and founder of the Free Church of Scotland (b. 1780)
- Johann Christian Reinhart , German painter, draftsman and etcher (b. 1761) June 9:
- June 11: John Franklin , English sea captain and polar explorer (b. 1786)
- June 20: Gottlieb Heise , German organ builder (b. 1785)
- June 24: Carlo Francesco Remonda , French general (b. 1761)
- Georg Friedrich Kersting , German painter (b. 1785) July 1:
- Johann Christian August Grohmann , German philosopher, psychologist and rhetorician (b. 1769) July 3:
- Franz Martin Seuffert , German-Austrian organ and piano builder (b. 1772) July 3:
- Phineas White , American politician (b. 1770) July 6:
- July 12: Franz Ignatz Cassian Hallaschka , Moravian naturalist, mathematician, physicist and astronomer (born 1780)
- July 25: Johann Gottfried Rohlfs , German organ builder (b. 1759)
- July 26: Job Durfee , American politician (b. 1790)
- July 27: Adam Karl Wilhelm Nikolaus Paul Eugen , Prince of Württemberg and officer (b. 1792)
- Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Duncker , German jurist (born 1804) August 2:
- Johann Christoph Arnold , Saxon publisher, bookseller and local politician (b. 1763) August 6:
- Henry M. Ridgely , American politician (b. 1779) August 6:
- Thomas Butler , American politician (b. 1785) August 7:
- Johann Georg Rapp , German Pietist leader (b. 1757) August 7:
- Wilhelm von Schütz , German poet (b. 1776) August 9:
- August 14: John Mattocks , American politician (b. 1777)
- August 24: Charles Théobald de Choiseul-Praslin , French nobleman (b. 1805)
September to December
- František Vladislav Hek , Czech patriot, poet and publicist (b. 1769) September 4:
- 13 September: Charles Nicolas Oudinot , Marshal of France (b. 1767)
- September 14: Meinrad Rahm , Swiss stenographer (b. 1819)
- September 16: Grace Aguilar , English novelist (b. 1816)
- 18 September: József Kopácsy , Hungarian Archbishop (b. 1775)
- 29 September: Anton Gottfried Claessen , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (b. 1788)
- Gustav Vorr , architect, royal Bavarian building officer and board member of the Bavarian State Beautification Association (b. 1778) 1 October:
- Vasil Evstatiev Aprilov , Bulgarian physician (b. 1789) October 2
- Alexandre Brongniart , French chemist, mineralogist, geologist and zoologist (b. 1770) October 7:
- October 13: Leander van Eß , German Catholic theologian (b. 1772)
- October 22: Henriette Herz , German writer (b. 1764)
- 22 October: Sahle Selassie , Meridazmatch and Negus of Shoah (b. 1795)
- Jabez W. Huntington , American politician (b. 1788) November 1:
- Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , German composer (b. 1809) November 4:
- Thiệu Trị , third emperor of Vietnam's Nguyễn dynasty (b. 1807) November 4:
- November 11: Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach , German physician and surgeon (b. 1792)
- November 12: Johann Gottfried Hoffmann , German statistician, political scientist and political economist (b. 1765)
- November 11: Benjamin Swift , American politician (b. 1781)
- November 14: Josef Jungmann , Czech philologist and poet (b. 1773)
- November 18: Philemon Thomas , American politician (b. 1763)
- 20 November: Henry Francis Lyte , Scottish Anglican theologian and hymn writer (b. 1793)
- November 27: James Ross , American politician (b. 1762)
- 30 November: Ludwig Wilhelm Neumann , Berlin honorary citizen (b. 1762)
- December 11: Thomas Barker , English painter (b. 1767)
- December 14: Manuel José Arce y Fagoaga , first President of the Central American Federation (b. 1787)
- 17 December: Marie-Louise von Habsburg , wife of Napoleon I (b. 1791)
- December 18: Timothy Pitkin , American politician (b. 1766)
- December 22 Engelbert Schue , German Catholic clergyman and university teacher (b. 1772)
- December 24: Edmund Tyrell Artis , British pioneer of paleobotany and archeology (b. 1789)
- December 24: Karl Gustav Brinckmann , Swedish diplomat and German poet (born 1764)
- December 29: William Crotch , English composer and organist (b. 1775)
Exact date of death unknown
- Modibo Adama , African politician (b. c. 1786)
- Faustino Anderloni , Italian engraver (b. 1766)
- Louis-Philibert Brun d'Aubignosc , French count (b. 1774)
- Jeanne Labrosse , French balloonist and parachutist (born 1775)