Heinrich Luden (historian)

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Heinrich Luden
Relief by Heinrich Luden in Loxstedt

Heinrich (Hinrich) Luden (born April 10, 1778 in Loxstedt in the administrative district of Stade , † May 23, 1847 in Jena ) was a German historian .


Heinrich Luden comes from a rural background. He was born as the youngest child of the farmer Claus Luden (* 1728 in Loxstedt; † May 3, 1780 ibid.) And his cousin Catrine Luden (* 1734; † December 21, 1811 in Loxstedt). On April 12 of the same year he was baptized in the name of Hinrich, with his maternal grandfather Claus Luden from Nesse , his later stepfather Hinrich Schmidt (* 1741; † September 2, 1815 in Loxstedt), a Berend Hüllen and an Agnete Kammann as Godparents acted. From 1796 he attended the cathedral school in Bremen and in 1799 initially studied theology at the University of Göttingen . Encouraged by the historian August Ludwig von Schlözer and later Johannes von Müller , he turned to historical studies. After a position as private tutor in Bremen (1802), he went to Berlin in 1804 as private tutor with the State Councilor Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland . In 1805 he received his doctorate in Jena on Christian Thomasius . He also wrote biographies on Hugo Grotius (1806) and Sir William Temple (1808).

In 1806 he was appointed associate professor of history at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, and in 1808 he was appointed honorary professor and in 1810 full professor of history. Luden also took part in the organizational tasks of the Salana and was rector of the Alma Mater in the summer semester of 1822 and in the winter semester of 1829 . From 1823 he was a member of the state parliament of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach for the state of the estate owners in the Weimar-Jena district. He was appointed Hofrat of Saxe-Weimar and the Privy Councilor of Saxe-Gotha and received the Knight's Cross and the Commander's Cross of the White Falcon Order . He turned to German history in order to promote the development of German national consciousness . This motif subsequently led to several publications on the subject of unity and freedom. From 1814 to 1818 he was editor of the magazine “ Nemesis ” and from 1816 to 1817 of the “ General Constitutional Archives ”, the so-called “Sidecar of Nemesis ”. In Leipzig he edited the " Deutsche Blätter ".


In his “almost legendary” lectures, which are popular with students, he called for popular sovereignty, among other things . This important demand shows the intellectual influence of the French Enlightenment, especially Rousseau . It is fairly certain that he came into contact with this idea through Johann Gottlieb Fichte , who taught philosophy in Jena until 1799 and who represented this demand. In contrast to some other Jenenser professors such as the physician Dietrich Georg von Kieser (1779–1862), the physician and natural scientist Lorenz Oken or the philosopher and mathematician Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773–1843) he did not personally take part in the Wartburg Festival in 1817 ; but his ideas and writings are directly related to it. The "Principles and Resolutions of the Eighteenth of October", which emerged from the Wartburg Festival and published in 1818, can largely be traced back to Luden. In 1820 Luden joined the state estates of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach as a deputy and remained one of the most active members until 1832. As a result of the Karlsbad resolutions , an investigation was carried out at the German Confederation under pressure from Prussia , which led to its political lectures being banned. However, a request to the Grand Duchy to stop Luden's teaching activity remained unsuccessful.

His main work, the "History of the German People", was under the impression of a new German national feeling. However, Luden and his work are by no means to be classified in the romanticizing history of the German Middle Ages that predominated in the 19th century. Above all, the Ranke School accused him of not using a historical-critical method . In the meantime, however, his German history is considered to be a far more neutral representation than that of the subsequent national German historians who politically exaggerated the German kingship of the Ottonians , Salians and Staufers in their striving for unification.

Along with Lorenz Oken , Jakob Friedrich Fries , Dietrich Georg von Kieser and Christian Wilhelm Schweitzer, Luden is one of the so-called political professors at the University of Jena around 1800. He is considered to be one of the ' spiritus rectores ' of the Jena student fraternity , whose founding statutes he at least helped formulate. One of Luden's students was the later Königsberg history professor and university archivist Johannes Voigt , who made an outstanding contribution to the history of Prussia .


Luden married in 1804 with Johanna Catharina Sophia Köhler (born December 1, 1780 in Celle; † 1847), the daughter of the innkeeper Johann Gottlieb Köhler in Celle and his wife Anna Louise Dorothea Voss. The following well-known children emerged from the marriage:

Letter from Heinrich Ludens to his father
On Luden's hundredth birthday (April 10, 1880): Two letters from Goethe to Luden
  • Johanna Dorothea Luden (* March 12, 1805 in Celle) married on June 23, 1829 in Jena with the pastor Friedrich Wilhelm Tod (* November 14, 1801 in Niederreißen; † 1881)
  • Johannes Bernhard Luden (born October 2, 1807 in Jena) became a doctor and went to America
  • Johann Heinrich Gottlieb Luden (born March 9, 1810 in Jena; † December 24, 1880 ibid.) Professor of Law at the University of Jena
  • Carl Ludwig Luden (born January 25, 1812 in Jena; † 188? In Weimar) Lawyer in Weimar, married. Auguste de la Croix
  • Clothilde Luden (born July 2, 1813 in Jena, † January 9, 1884 in Hanau) married. 1832 with the Gießen professor of theology Karl August Credner (born January 10, 1797 in Waltershausen near Gotha, † July 16, 1857 in Gießen)
  • Louise Luden (born July 16, 1815 in Jena; † March 6, 1902 ibid.) Married. April 24, 1834 with the Jena chemistry professor Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand Wackenroder (* 1798; † September 4, 1854 in Jena)
  • Carl Friedrich Alexander Luden (born October 24, 1816 in Jena; † June 11, 1882 ibid.) Was a bookseller and publisher, married. February 26, 1826 Emilie Gröber
  • Sophie Luden (born April 29, 1820 in Jena; † August 19, 1899 ibid.) Married. October 9, 1842 with botany professor Christian Eduard Langethal (* 1806; † July 25, 1878 in Jena)
  • Daughter NN. (* and † 1818)
  • Dorothea Emilie Phillipine (* 1821; † July 20, 1827 in Jena)

Works (selection)

  • Christian Thomasius, depicted after his fates and writings. Berlin 1805 ( online )
  • Hugo Grotius, depicted according to his fates and writings. Berlin 1806 ( online )
  • Sir William Temple. Biography. Göttingen 1808 ( online )
  • Small essays, mostly historical. Göttingen 1807 ( online )
  • The last letters of Jacopo Ortis. From the Italian. Göttingen 1807 ( online )
  • Views of the Rhine Confederation. Letters from two statesmen. Göttingen 1808 and 1809
  • Basics of aesthetic lectures, for academic use. Göttingen 1808 ( online )
  • A few words about the study of patriotic history. Four lectures. Jena 1810 ( online ), Gotha 1828
  • Handbook of State Wisdom or Politics. A scientific attempt. Jena 1811 ( online )
  • About the meaning and content of the manual of state wisdom. Jena 1811 ( online )
  • Diss.Meletamatum historico-criticorum ad antiquam Germanorum statum spectantium Specimen I. Jena 1811 ( Online )
  • Herder's ideas on the philosophy of human history. Edited with an introduction. Leipzig 1813, Leipzig 1821, 4th edition Leipzig 1841, 2 vol.
  • General history of the peoples and states of ancient times. Jena 1814 ( online ), Jena 1819 ( online )
  • Nemesis. Journal of Politics and History. Weimar 1814-1818, 12 vols.
  • Story of the day. To the German papers. Altenburg 1815
  • General State Constitution Archive. Journal of the Theory and Practice of Legal Governance. Weimar 1816, 3 volumes (1st volume online ; 2nd volume online , 3rd volume online )
  • The Kingdom of Hanover according to its public relations, especially the negotiations of the general estates in the years 1814, 1815 and 1816. Nordhausen 1818 ( online )
  • Condemnation and justification in the Kotzebueschen Bülletin matter. With an introductory speech by CG Gensler. Heidelberg 1818 ( online )
  • Neigebauer's presentation of the provisional administration on the Rhine from 1813 to 1819. With a preface. Cologne 1821
  • The Landtag of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach 1820 Negotiation about the public of the meetings. Jena 1821
  • General history of the peoples and states of the Middle Ages. Jena 1821–1822 (2nd volume, 1st department online ; 2nd volume, 2nd department ( online ); 2nd edition Jena, 1824, (1st volume online ); 2nd volume online ; 3rd volume online ;)
  • IC Simonde de Sismondi, History of the French. With notes. Jena 1822 ( online )
  • History of the German people (12 volumes, 1825 to 1837) Various online editions on Google Books
    • First volume, Gotha 1825, 752 pages, online.
    • Second volume, Gotha 1826, 600 pages, online.
    • Third volume, Gotha 1827, 810 pages, online.
    • Fourth volume, Gotha 1828, 567 pages, online.
    • Fifth volume, Gotha 1830, 642 pages, online.
    • Sixth volume, Gotha 1831, 650 pages, online.
    • Seventh volume, Gotha 1832, 634 pages, online.
    • Eighth volume, Gotha 1833, 721 pages, online.
    • Ninth volume, Gotha 1834, 666 pages, online.
    • Tenth volume, Gotha 1835, 666 pages, online.
    • Eleventh volume, Gotha 1836, 716 pages, online.
    • Twelfth volume, Gotha 1837, 718 pages, online.
  • His Highness Duke Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach's journey through North America in 1825 and 1826. Weimar 1828, 2 vols. (2nd vol. Online )
  • History of the Germans (three volumes)
    • First volume, Jena 1842, 552 pages, online.
    • Second volume, Jena 1842, 689 pages, online.
    • Third volume, Jena 1843, 616 pages, online.
  • Review of my life. From the estate of Heinrich Luden . Friedrich Luden, Jena 1847. MDZ Reader
  • History of Louis XVI's government in the years when the French Revolution could be prevented or managed. By Joseph Droz. Edited from the French, with a preface. Jena 1843, 3 vols. (2nd vol. Online ;)
  • Hauptmann von Gerlach (General von Grolmann) 1812 student in Jena. Jena 1843 ( online )

Heinrich Luden Prize

The Neue Deutsche Burschenschaft has been awarding the Heinrich Luden Prize, now endowed with 2000 €, to committed students every year since 2008 , whereby they share “the academic achievements, the social commitment and [the] commitment to corporations in equal parts considered."

Literature (in alphabetical order)

  • Spirit from Luden's historical works. In: Hermann I. Meyer: Groschen library of the German classics. Hildburghausen, 1870, Vol. 131 ( Online )
  • Gerd Althoff , The Reception of the Empire since the End of the Middle Ages; in: Matthias Puhle ; Claus-Peter Hasse (ed.), Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation 962 to 1806: From Otto the Great to the End of the Middle Ages ; Dresden 2006; Pp. 477-485.
  • Irene CrusiusLuden, Heinrich (Hinrich). In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6 , pp. 283-285 ( digitized version ).
  • Heinrich Döring : Jena University Almanac 1845. Jena 1845, p. 125 ( online )
  • Heinrich Carl Abraham Eichstädt : Annales Academiae Ienensis. Croecker, Jena, 1823, p. 42 ( online )
  • Johannes Haage: Heinrich Luden. 1930.
  • Heinrich Luden: Looking back on my life. Friedrich Luden, Jena, 1847 ( online )
  • Ralph Marks: The Development of National Historiography. Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-8204-0069-9
  • Sabine Mattasch: The offense of the crime with Heinrich Luden. 2003, ISBN 3-415-03504-2
  • Gerhard Müller: Heinrich Luden as a parliamentarian . In: Writings on the history of parliamentarism in Thuringia , Vol. 10. Wartburg-Verlag, Weimar 1998, ISBN 3-86160-510-4 , pp. 11–177.
  • Erich Rosendahl: The Ludens. History of a Jena family of professors. In: Journal of the Association for Thuringian History and Archeology. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1933, Vol. 33, pp. 505-525 ( online )
  • Elisabeth Reissig: Heinrich Luden as a publicist and politician. , Jena 1916 (part 1 online ; part 2 online ; part 3 online )
  • Friedrich Thieme: a real, German man. In: Old and new from home. Supplement to the Jenaer Volksblatt. Jena, July 25, 1921 ( online )
  • Franz Xaver von WegeleLuden, Heinrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, pp. 370-375.

Web links

Commons : Heinrich Luden  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Heinrich E. Hansen: Heinrich Luden - Loxstedts important son . In: Men from Morgenstern , Heimatbund an Elbe and Weser estuary e. V. (Ed.): Niederdeutsches Heimatblatt . No. 171 . Nordsee-Zeitung GmbH, Bremerhaven March 1964, p. 4 ( digital version [PDF; 19.5 MB ; accessed on October 12, 2018]).
  2. ^ Klaus Ries: word and deed. Political professorships at the University of Jena in the early 19th century . Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, cf. also the baptism entry in Loxstedt.
  3. In some sources on the Internet and in the " Großer Brockhaus " it is incorrectly stated born 1880 (→ see: above Niederdeutsches Heimatblatt ).
  4. ^ Gerhard Müller: Heinrich Luden as a parliamentarian . In: Writings on the history of parliamentarism in Thuringia , vol. 10. Wartburg-Verlag, Weimar 1998, quotation p. 16.
  5. ^ Gustav Seibt : Desire for freedom and fire stench. The famous Wartburg Festival 200 years ago was a milestone on the way to a German democracy. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung of October 14, 2017, p. 55.
  6. ^ Heinrich-Luden Prize. In: Website Neue Deutsche Burschenschaft e. V. Retrieved October 23, 2018 .
  7. http://neuedb.de/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/presse/2007_11_12_Pressemitteilung_Luden_Preis.pdf  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Press release "NeueDB awards sponsorship prize to students"@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / neuedb.de