Prussian Jewish Law of 1847
The Prussian Jewish Law of July 23, 1847 ( Law on the Conditions of the Jews ) reorganized the position of Jews in Prussia .
The law created - as a continuation of the Jewish edict of 1812 - an extensive standardization of the law applicable up to that point. The province of Poznan with its larger Jewish population was excluded.
The law was previously discussed in the First United State Parliament . The question of state offices played an important role. The new regulation ultimately became a compromise between conservatives and liberals . It made it possible for Jews to take on state offices, provided that these did not include “judicial, police or executive power” and gave them access to full professorships in the subjects of medicine, mathematics, natural sciences, geography and linguistics.
The law enabled a decentralized administration of the Jewish community and granted the communities the rights of a corporation under public law . They were therefore granted certain sovereign rights, in particular the so-called parochial compulsion , i.e. the obligation of all Jews living in the community district to belong to the community, the right of the community to levy taxes with enforcement of collection, as well as proper administration with the right to freely organize their religious affairs and to determine their officials themselves. At the same time, the law made it compulsory to provide religious instruction: "Every synagogue community is [...] obliged to establish such facilities that no Jewish child of school age lacks the necessary religious instruction".
In addition, the law determined the freedom of movement and settlement of Jews.
- Kurt Aterman: Jan Evangelista Purkyně's votum (1847) on the admission of Jews to academic positions at the University of Breslau. In: Würzburger medical history reports 11, 1993, pp. 311–331.
- Heinrich Immanuel Ritter : Illumination of Wagener 's writing "Judaism and the State" . Hasselberg, Berlin 1857.
- Hans-Werner Hahn : Between Emancipation and Restoration. The disputes over the Prussian Jewish legislation between the Congress of Vienna and the Jewish Law of 1847 . In: Winfried Speitkamp, Hans-Peter Ullmann (Ed.): Conflict and Reform. Festschrift for Helmut Berding . Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995, ISBN 3-525-36235-8 , p. 183ff.
- Moritz Kalisch: The Jewish question. In their true meaning for Prussia . Veit-Verlag, Leipzig 1860.
- Jacob Toury : Social and political history of the Jews in Germany 1847–1871. Between revolution, reaction and emancipation . Droste-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1977, ISBN 3-7700-0472-8 .
- Complete negotiations by the First United Prussian Landtag on the emancipation question of the Jews . Berlin: Hofmann, 1847
- Ernest Hamburger : Jews in public life in Germany: members of the government, civil servants, etc. Parliamentarians in d. monarch. Time. 1848-1918 . Tübingen: Mohr, 1968
- Original text, from p. 263
- Alfred Michaelis (Ed.): The legal situation of the Jews in Prussia since the beginning of the 19th century. Laws, edicts, ordinances, decisions . Lamm Verlag, Berlin 1910.
- ↑ on the verbal contributions in the negotiation see Jutta Ditfurth : The Baron, the Jews and the Nazis. Journey into a family story . Hamburg: Hoffmann and Campe, 2013, ISBN 978-3-455-50273-2 , pp. 63–80
^ Alfred Michaelis: Legal relations of the Jews in Prussia since the beginning of the 19th century , p. 75.
For the discussion in the Prussian Landtag and the subsequent votes of the Prussian Ordinaries see p. Moritz Kalisch: Die Judenfrage , pp. 27–232 (sources).
- ↑ Law collection for the Royal Prussian States 1847 , § 62, p. 275