- 1870 to 1871 : Franco-German War .
- January 18, 1871: Foundation of the German Empire .
- 1871: First socialist revolution in France (see Paris Commune ) .
- 1873 : The three emperor agreement (Germany, Austria, Russia) is concluded in Berlin.
- 1875 : In the German Reich join in Gotha that of Ferdinand Lassalle in 1863 founded General German Workers' Association (ADAV) and that of Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel in 1869 founded Social Democratic Labor Party (SDAP) for the Socialist Workers Party of Germany (SAP) together, the 1,890 in Social Democratic Party Germany's (SPD) was renamed.
- 1876 : Battle of Little Bighorn : The seventh US cavalry regiment under George A. Custer is defeated by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians under their leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse .
- 1878 : Bismarck's Socialist Law against Social Democracy.
- 1878: Austria occupies Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- March 3, 1878: Bulgaria's independence from the Ottoman Empire.
- Jules Verne publishes Journey around the world in 80 days .
- Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy publishes Anna Karenina .
- Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu publishes In a Glass Darkly .
- Franz Joseph I , Emperor in Austria-Hungary
- Wilhelm I , German Emperor
- Otto von Bismarck , German Chancellor
- Victor Emmanuel II , King in Italy
- Umberto , king in Italy
- Pius IX , Pope
- Leo XIII. , Pope
- Alexander II , Tsar in Russia
- Victoria , Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- Benjamin Disraeli , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- William Ewart Gladstone , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- Patrice de Mac-Mahon , President of France
- Rutherford B. Hayes , President of the United States
- Ulysses S. Grant , President of the United States
- Meiji , emperor in Japan
- Cixi , Dowager Empress of China
- Naser ad-Din Shah , Shah in Persia