- The 1848 was elected president of France elected Louis Napoleon can be 1,852 to Emperor Napoleon III. proclaim and establish the Second French Empire .
- The Peace of Berlin on July 2, 1850 ended the Schleswig-Holstein War between Prussia and Denmark .
- 1853 to 1856 : Crimean War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire , Great Britain, France and Sardinia-Piedmont .
- In 1853 the Japanese ports are opened to trade with the west.
- The peace of Paris in 1856 as a result of the Crimean War led to a new order in Europe .
- From 1857 to 1859 the first world economic crisis developed .
- In 1859 Charles Darwin published “ On the Origin of Species ”, the theory of evolution through natural selection .
- The epidemiology begins when John Snow discovers the cause of the cholera outbreak in London .
- Johann Carl Fuhlrott discovers fossils in the Neandertal near Düsseldorf.
- Richard Christopher Carrington discovers the sun's solar flare .
- Vincent van Gogh , Dutch painter
- Heinrich Heine , German poet
- Napoleon III , Emperor in France
- Franz Joseph I , Emperor in Austria-Hungary
- Friedrich Wilhelm IV. , King of Prussia
- Otto von Bismarck , German politician
- Victor Emmanuel II , King in Italy
- Isabella II , Queen of Spain
- Pius IX , Pope
- Nicholas I , Tsar in Russia
- Alexander II , Tsar in Russia
- Victoria , Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- Benjamin Disraeli , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- James Buchanan , President of the United States
- Franklin Pierce , President of the United States
- Millard Fillmore , President of the United States
- Naser ad-Din Shah , Shah in Persia
- Kōmei , Emperor of Japan
- Xianfeng , Emperor of China