Calendar overview 1858
|Second Opium War ends with the Treaty of Tianjin .||
is elected President
of Mexico .
sepoy uprising in India
is finally crushed by the British.
|1858 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1306/07 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1850/51 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||14/15 (20/21 March)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1263/64 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2401/02 (southern Buddhism); 2400/01 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1220/21 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4191/92 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1236/37 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1274/75 (August 10-11)|
|Jewish calendar||5618/19 (September 8/9)|
|Coptic calendar||1574/75 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1273/74 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2168/69 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2169/70 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1914/15 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 14th : In Paris the Italian Count Felice Orsini fails in an assassination attempt on Emperor Napoleon III.
- July 20 : The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont Cavour concludes a secret treaty with Emperor Napoleon III in Plombières-les-Bains . about a war against Austria. The Savoy rulers are to receive large parts of northern Italy and cede the counties of Nice and Savoy to France.
- August 19 : At a conference in Paris the major European powers decide to form a principality from the two Danube principalities of Wallachia (Țara Românească) and Moldova (Moldova), the Principality of Romania .
- October 7th : King Friedrich Wilhelm IV hands over the reign of Prussia to his brother Wilhelm I.
Great Britain and Ireland / India
- March 14th : With the recapture of the city of Lucknow by British troops, the Indian Sepoy uprising gradually comes to a standstill.
- March 17 : Returning from American exile, James Stephens founds the Irish Republican Brotherhood on St. Patrick's Day in Dublin as a resistance movement against British rule in Ireland . In the same year the secret organization Fenian Brotherhood is founded in the USA with the same goal .
- July 28 : The British colonial official William James Herschel asks for the first time a handprint in addition to the signature from a Bengali contract partner. With this the dactyloscopy was born . Two years later, he insists on fingerprints in pension payments.
- August 2nd : In London, the British Parliament passes the Government of India Act . The law ends the rule of the British East India Company over India and creates the Crown Colony of British India .
- May 20 : In the Second Opium War against China, the British and French conquer the so-called Taku forts . This clears the way to Tianjin , the port city for Beijing .
- May 28 : The Treaty of Aigun regulates the Amur border between Russia and China .
- June 27 : The Treaty of Tianjin is China further to open ports to trade by Britain and France forced. He finally turns the Chinese Empire into a de facto protectorate of European foreign powers.
- September 1st : The capture of Đà Nẵng in the Annam Empire (Vietnam) by French troops marks the beginning of the conquest of Cochinchina .
- July 29 : The US and Japan sign the Harris Treaty negotiated between Townsend Harris and Hotta Masayoshi .
- The so-called Ansei purge begins under Ii Naosuke , with which he tries to eliminate his political opponents.
United States of America
- April 12 : Brigham Young turns over the governor of the Utah Territory to Alfred Cumming . This ends the US government's Utah war against the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ( Mormons ) after more than a year.
- May 11th : The eastern part of the former Minnesota Territory is incorporated under the name Minnesota as the 32nd state of the United States . The western part becomes "disorganized area" until 1861 .
- June 16 : Abraham Lincoln delivers his house-divided speech at the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois at the start of the Republican Party's campaign for the United States Senate . In his speech, he warns against the division of the nation and the spread of slavery in the territories and states where it is illegal, such as Illinois. Lincoln is defeated by his Democratic rival Stephen Arnold Douglas after several debates in the November 2nd elections , but the speech made him known throughout the USA and the debates make him appear as an honest, eloquent politician ( Honest Abe ).
- The Fraser Canyon gold rush begins when the governor of the Vancouver Island colony , James Douglas , sends a shipment of ore to the San Francisco mint and becomes so famous that gold was found at the confluence of the Thompson River and the Nicoamen River .
- August 2nd : The British Colonial Ministry proclaims New Caledonia a colony of British Columbia . Colonial Secretary Edward Bulwer-Lytton appoints James Douglas as first governor. He will be sworn in on November 19th .
- In autumn the Fraser Canyon War breaks out between gold prospectors and the Nlaka'pamux people who live on the Fraser River .
- December 24 : Race riot breaks out at Yale when a released slave is beaten up by two white prospectors.
- Benito Juárez is elected President of Mexico . Until 1861 he asserted himself in a civil war against his opponents.
- 5 November : Start of subscription period for Suez Canal - shares .
- December 15 : The Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez for the construction of the Suez Canal is founded by Ferdinand de Lesseps .
Trade and money economy
- October 31 : The Maria Theresa Thaler loses its status as legal tender in the Austrian Empire , like other Convention thalers . From November 1st, the Austrian currency will apply according to the decimal system and on a guilder basis.
- July 6th : Rudolph Otto Meyer founds a craft business in Hamburg, which later became Imtech Deutschland GmbH & Co KG.
- October 27 : Rowland Hussey Macy opens a store with partners in New York City . Over time, it expands into the world's largest Macy’s department store .
- The Viennese banker Franz Schaup buys a small brewery from which the Zipf brewery develops.
- January 31 : After a previous failed attempt on November 3, 1857 successful launch of the British sailing steamer Great Eastern . Isambard Kingdom Brunel's novel ship design, built in collaboration with John Scott Russell , will remain the world's largest ship for three decades.
- June 19 : The steamer Bremen of Norddeutscher Lloyd starts regular shipping between Bremerhaven and New York City .
- September 19 : The railway line from Verona to Trento , later part of the Brenner Railway , is opened.
- November 24th : The Lower Inn Valley Railway from the Bavarian border to Innsbruck is opened as the first western Austrian railway line .
- December 15 : The Kaiserin Elisabeth-Bahn officially opened on the section from Wien Westbahnhof to Linz .
science and technology
- February 13 : In search of the source of the Nile , the British discover explorer Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke to Lake Tanganyika .
- August 3rd : In his search for the source of the Nile , the British John Hanning Speke is the first European to come to Lake Victoria .
- June 2 : The Great Comet Donati ( C / 1858 L1 ) is discovered by the Italian astronomer Giambattista Donati . In the following months it develops into an imposing celestial phenomenon that is also open -eyed , which makes many fearful of impending disaster .
- September 28 : British photographer William Usherwood was the first to take a photo of a tail star on the meanwhile very bright comet Donati . The following night, US astronomer William Cranch Bond also took a picture of the comet .
mathematics and physics
- Julius Plücker discovers the cathode rays (later identified as free electrons ) in a gas discharge tube , which are magnetically deflected.
- Friedrich August von Quenstedt publishes his standard palaeontological work Der Jura .
- Joseph Leidy discovers the first almost intact skeleton of a dinosaur in North America, Hadrosaurus foulkii .
Other scientific and technical events
- First successful laying of a submarine cable between Europe and the USA
- The Lac des Settons is dammed.
- With his book Der rationelle Waldwirth and his silviculture of the highest yield, Max Preßler triggers a forestry debate about the theory of pure soil yield that lasted into the first third of the 20th century .
- Development of the Hoffmann ring furnace
- The French photographer Nadar takes the first aerial photos from a tethered balloon .
- February 16 : Near Xanten , six fishermen find the Xanten boy , a bronze statue from Roman times, on the banks of the Rhine .
- April: Some Pre-Raphaelite members found the Hogarth Club .
Music and theater
- January 14th : Max Bruch's opera Scherz, List und Rache based on the libretto by Ludwig Bischoff is premiered in Cologne . The literary template comes from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe .
- May 15 : With the opera Les Huguenots by Giacomo Meyerbeer , the Royal Italian Opera opens in its present form in London's Covent Garden after it burned down on March 5, 1856 .
- December 15 : At the world premiere of the comic opera The Barber of Baghdad by Peter Cornelius at the Weimar Court Theater , a theater scandal breaks out when opponents of Franz Liszt , standing at the conductor's desk, disrupt the performance. Liszt then ended his activity as a conductor in Weimar.
- March 3 : Mesdames de la Halle , an operette-bouffe in one act by Jacques Offenbach with a libretto by Armand Lapointe , premieres at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- April 19 : The world premiere of the one-act operetta La chat métamorphosée de femme ( The turning cat ) from Jacques Offenbach to the libretto by Eugène Scribe takes place at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- October 21 : At the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris, the operetta Orpheus in the Underworld by Jacques Offenbach is premiered . Offenbach's first full-length work based on a libretto by Hector Crémieux was a sensational success.
- January 30th : The Hallé Orchestra has its first appearance as a symphony orchestra in its hometown of Manchester .
- November 24th : Johann Strauss gives a concert with his brother Josef in the Großer Zeisig , an inn on Spittelberg in Vienna. Among other things, the Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka has its world premiere with great success. The piano sheet music published by the publisher Carl Haslinger is sold out within a few hours.
- December 25th : The Oratorio de Noël by Camille Saint-Saëns is premiered in the Parisian Madeleine .
- The 1st piano concerto by Camille Saint-Saëns successfully premiered. The work is dedicated to the pianist Marie Jaëll .
- December 5th : The Munich Marionette Theater gives its first performance with Prince Rosenroth and Princess Lilienweiß or the enchanted Lily . It is considered the oldest stationary stage for puppets in the German-speaking area.
- January 29th : The Prussian Crown Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm marries Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland , the daughter of the British Queen Victoria .
In London there is a great stench in summer due to the unhindered discharge of sewage into the Thames . Parliament then decides to build the London sewer system and provides three million pounds for it.
- The Swill milk scandal is exposed in New York .
- February 11 : Bernadette Soubirous experiences the first of 18 apparitions of Mary near a grotto in Lourdes .
- February 12th : Fummies are abolished in Japan . By entering them publicly, in case of doubt, it was possible to prove that there was no adherence to Christianity .
- May 3 : In the encyclical Amantissimi redemptoris , Pope Pius IX turns . against the development observed in some places that the celebration of Mass is no longer practiced by the priest . The Pope exhorts all priests to dutifully exercise their office.
- June 15 : Adolf Jellinek gives the inauguration speech at the opening of the Leopoldstadt Temple, which was built according to plans by Ludwig Förster .
- February 21 : An earthquake destroys the Greek city of Corinth . It will then be rebuilt six kilometers away.
- May 28 : During a volcanic eruption of Vesuvius , the places Fosso della Vetrana, Fosso Grande and Piano delle Ginestre are buried.
- June 13 : Up to 250 passengers and crew are killed when the paddle steamer Pennsylvania explodes and the ship burns down on the Mississippi River near Memphis .
- September 13 : 471 passengers and crew members die in the sinking of the German passenger liner Austria caused by a fire on board .
- June 3 : Francis Thomas Gregory becomes the first European to climb the largest monolith on earth in Western Australia . Gregory named the mountain shortly afterwards Mount Augustus , taking his brother as the namesake.
- August 11th : Christian Almer , Charles Barrington and Peter Bohren succeed in the first ascent of the Eiger in the Bernese Alps , which is considered to be impassable .
- September 11th : A group of four mountaineers stands for the first time in the Valais Alps on the cathedral , the highest mountain that lies entirely within Switzerland.
Historical maps and views
- January 3 : Richard Franck , German composer and pianist († 1938 )
- January 3 : Léon Ringuet , Canadian organist, conductor and composer († 1932 )
- January 4 : Friedrich Christian Georg Ahlborn , German zoologist and physicist († 1937 )
- January 4 : Carter Glass , American politician († 1946 )
- January 5 : Gustaf af Geijerstam , Swedish writer († 1909 )
- January 5 : Lucien-Léon Guillaume Lambert , French composer and pianist († 1945 )
- January 10 : Heinrich Zille , German painter, draftsman and photographer († 1929 )
- January 13 : Oskar Minkowski , German doctor († 1931 )
- January 15 : Giovanni Segantini , Italian painter († 1899 )
- January 16 : Eugen Zintgraff , German Africa explorer and colonial propagandist († 1897 )
- January 19 : Georg von Below , German constitutional and economic historian († 1927 )
- January 20 : Enrique Reig y Casanova , Spanish clergyman, Archbishop of Toledo and Cardinal († 1927 )
- January 22nd : Frederick Lugard , British researcher on Africa († 1945 )
- January 22nd : Beatrice Webb , English socialist and social reformer († 1943 )
- January 28 : Eugène Dubois , Dutch anatomist and geologist († 1940 )
- January 28 : Abraham Hammerschmidt , German lawyer, notary and politician († 1934 )
- January 28 : Gerhard Korte , German mine operator († 1945 )
- January 28 : Tannatt William Edgeworth David , British geologist, surveyor and polar explorer († 1934 )
- January 29 : Otto Baumgarten , German Protestant theologian († 1934 )
- January 31 : André Antoine , French stage manager († 1943 )
- February 3 : Porter J. McCumber , American politician († 1933 )
- February 4 : Carl Seitz , German medic († 1942 )
- February 10 : Alice Heine , Duchess of Richelieu and Princess of Monaco († 1925 )
- February 11 : Johannes Bolte , German literary scholar, folklorist and narrative researcher († 1937 )
- February 11 : Désiré Thomassin , Austrian painter and composer († 1933 )
- February 14 : Joseph Thomson , Scottish explorer and Africa traveler († 1895 )
- February 15 : William Henry Pickering , American astronomer († 1938 )
- February 17 : Vincenzo Ferroni , Italian composer and music teacher († 1934 )
- February 18 : Louise of Belgium , Belgian princess († 1924 )
- February 18 : Wilhelm Schmidt , German engineer and inventor († 1924 )
- February 18 : Charles Henri Hubert Spronck , Dutch doctor († 1932 )
- February 19 : Tobias Matthay , English music teacher, pianist and composer († 1945 )
- February 20 : Howard Atwood Kelly , American gynecologist († 1943 )
- February 21 : Oldfield Thomas , British zoologist († 1929 )
- February 22nd : Gus Hill , American vaudeville artist and producer († 1937 )
- February 23 : Johann Peter , Austrian writer († 1935 )
- February 24 : Marie Louise von Larisch-Wallersee , German blackmailer from Emperor Franz Joseph I († 1940 )
- February 26 : Heinrich Philippsen , Schleswig-Holstein homeland researcher († 1936 )
- March 1 : Jan de Vries , Dutch mathematician († 1940 )
- March 1 : Georg Simmel , German sociologist and cultural philosopher († 1918 )
- March 3 : Heinrich Brockhaus , German art historian († 1941 )
- March 5 : Anton Elter , German classical philologist († 1925 )
- March 5 : José Relvas , Portuguese politician and Prime Minister of Portugal († 1929 )
- March 6 : Gustav Wied , Danish writer († 1914 )
- March 6 : Jiří Polívka , Czech Slavist, literary scholar and folklorist († 1933 )
- March 11 : Thomas James Clarke , Irish revolutionary († 1916 )
- March 11 : Jean Charles Naber , Dutch legal scholar († 1950 )
- March 13 : Gerald Portal , British diplomat in Africa († 1894 )
- March 14 : Arturo Berutti , Argentine composer († 1938 )
- March 14 : Edmund König , German educator, local politician and philosopher († 1939 )
- March 18 : Rudolf Diesel , German engineer and inventor († 1913 )
- March 19 : Kang Youwei , Chinese reformer, educator and philosopher († 1927 )
- March 19 : Virgile Rossel , President of the Swiss National Council and politician († 1933 )
- March 22 : Louis Baur , Swiss businessman and commercial agent († 1915 )
- March 22nd : Hans Meyer , German geographer, mountaineer and Africa explorer († 1929 )
- March 23 : Adolph Hoffmann , German politician and MdR († 1930 )
- March 23 : Ludwig Quidde , German historian, politician and pacifist († 1941 )
- March 26 : Luis Barros Borgoño , Chilean politician († 1943 )
- March 28 : Willem Alberda van Ekenstein , Dutch chemist († 1937 )
- April 1 : Friedrich Springorum , German manager († 1938 )
- April 2 : Alfons Szczerbiński , Polish composer and music teacher († 1895 )
- April 3 : Albert Samain , French poet († 1900 )
- April 4 : Robert Stock , German telecommunications pioneer († 1912 )
- April 5 : Ernst Falkenthal , German colonial official († 1911 )
- April 9 : May Robson , Australian-American actress († 1942 )
- April 10 : Pierantonio Tasca , Italian composer († 1934 )
- April 12 : Alfred Emil Oskar Agster , German politician († 1904 )
- April 14 : Cella Thoma , German painter († 1901 )
- April 15 : Émile Durkheim , French sociologist († 1917 )
- April 16 : Stanisław Barcewicz , Polish pianist, chamber musician, conductor and music teacher († 1929 )
- April 16 : Basilio Pompili , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1931 )
- April 16 : Johann Flierl , German missionary († 1947 )
- April 18 : Corrado Ricci , Italian archaeologist and art historian († 1934 )
- April 19 : Siegfried Ochs , German choir director and composer († 1929 )
- April 20 : Michaele Helene Aronheim , German benefactress († 1943 )
- April 20 : Auguste Chapuis , French composer, organist and music teacher († 1933 )
- April 20 : Carlos Luis Spegazzini , Italian-Argentinian botanist and mycologist († 1926 )
- April 23 : Ethel Smyth , English composer, conductor, writer and women's rights activist († 1944 )
- April 23 : Max Planck , German physicist, is considered the founder of quantum theory († 1947 )
- April 25 : Raffaele Scapinelli Di Leguigno , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1933 )
- April 27 : Hilda Sehested , Danish pianist and composer († 1936 )
- May 10 : Willem Leonard Pieter Arnold Molengraaff , Dutch legal scholar († 1931 )
- May 11 : Carl Hauptmann , German playwright and writer († 1921 )
- May 19 : Roland Bonaparte , French scientist, anthropologist and writer († 1924 )
- May 20 : Emma Adler , Austrian journalist and writer († 1935 )
- May 20 : Friedrich Robert Kretschmann , German doctor and pioneer of ear medicine († 1934 )
- May 22 : Jurij Pilk , Sorbian composer († 1926 )
- May 27 : Christian Grünig , Swiss farmer, pietist and supporter of the sanctification movement († 1925 )
- May 28 : Heinrich Wolf , German writer († 1942 )
- May 30 : Pius Ferdinand Messerschmitt , German painter († 1915 )
- June 1 : Ernesto Quesada , Argentine sociologist, lawyer, publicist, historian and linguist († 1934 )
- June 4 : Otto Tschirch , German historian († 1941 )
- June 10 : Gustav Kemmann , German transport scientist († 1931 )
- June 10 : Berthold Riehl , German art historian († 1911 )
- June 12 : Henry Hamilton Johnston , English explorer of Africa († 1927 )
- June 14 : Carl Heinrich Stratz , German gynecologist († 1924 )
- June 16 : William D. Boyce , American entrepreneur and publisher († 1929 )
- June 16 : Gustav V , King of Sweden († 1950 )
- June 16 : John Peter Russell , Australian painter, the "lost impressionist" († 1930 )
- June 18 : Ludwig Johannes Tschischko , Latvian pastor and Protestant martyr († 1918 )
- June 18 : William C. Redfield , American politician († 1932 )
- June 19 : Dirk Fock , Governor of Suriname († 1941 )
- June 20 : Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst , Viceroy of India (1910–1916) († 1944 )
- June 21 : Medardo Rosso , Italian sculptor († 1928 )
- June 24 : George von Lengerke Meyer , American politician († 1918 )
- June 25 : Georges Courteline , French writer († 1929 )
- June 29 : Leopold von Casselmann , German politician († 1930 )
- June 29 : George Washington Goethals , US Army officer and engineer († 1928 )
- June 29 : Ludwig Heinrich Ihmels , German theologian and regional bishop of Saxony († 1933 )
- June 30 : Robert Browne Hall , American composer and conductor († 1907 )
- June 30th : Henri Hyvernat , French-American Coptologist, Semitist and Orientalist († 1941 )
- June 30 : Jesse Fuller McDonald , American politician († 1942 )
- June 30 : Julius von Waldthausen , German diplomat († 1935 )
- July 2 : Georg Heinrich Maria Kirstein , Bishop of Mainz († 1921 )
- July 6 : Heinrich Otto , German painter († 1923 )
- July 9 : Franz Boas , German ethnologist († 1942 )
- July 13 : Cesare Pollini , Italian pianist, composer, conductor, music teacher and concert organizer († 1912 )
- July 13 : Otto Rossbach , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1931 )
- July 13 : Emil Strub , Swiss designer, engineer, railway builder and inventor († 1909 )
- July 14th : Friedrich von Feilitzsch , politician in the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe and its first Prime Minister († 1942 in Bückeburg)
- July 15 : Emmeline Pankhurst , British feminist theorist and philosopher († 1928 )
- July 16 : Eugène Ysaÿe , Belgian violinist and composer († 1931 )
- July 16 : José Miguel Gómez , President of Cuba 1909–1913 († 1921 )
- July 20 : Ivan Vučetić , Argentine criminologist († 1925 )
- July 21 : Lovis Corinth , German painter († 1925 )
- July 21 : Maria Christina of Austria , Spanish regent († 1929 )
- July 24th : Wolfgang Kapp , General Landscape Director in Königsberg († 1922 )
- July 25 : William C. McDonald , American politician († 1918 )
- July 26 : Karl Tappenbeck , German politician († 1941 )
- July 29 : Julius Emil Alfred Appelius , German lawyer and politician († 1932 )
- July 31 : Richard Dixon Oldham , British geologist and member of the Royal Society († 1936 )
- August 1 : Hans Rott , Austrian composer and organist († 1884 )
- August 2nd : Emma zu Waldeck and Pyrmont , as the second wife of Wilhelm III. Queen of the Netherlands († 1934 )
- August 4th : Josef Armin , Austrian comedian, couplet singer and playwright († 1925 )
- August 7th : Oskar Ziethen , Mayor of Lichtenberg († 1932 )
- August 10 : Gaston Milhaud , French science theorist and science historian († 1918 )
- August 11 : Christiaan Eijkman , Dutch hygienist and Nobel Prize winner († 1930 )
- August 12 : Alessandro Lualdi , Italian clergyman, Archbishop of Palermo and Cardinal († 1927 )
- August 15 : Emma Calvé , French opera singer († January 6, 1942 )
- August 15 : Michael Hainisch , Federal President of the Republic of Austria († 1940 )
- August 15 : Edith Nesbit , English author († 1924 )
- August 15 : John K. Shields , American politician († 1934 )
- August 16 : Arthur Achleitner , German writer († 1927 )
- August 20 : Fritz Skowronnek , German journalist and writer († 1939 )
- August 21 : Rudolf , Archduke and heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary († 1889 )
- August 27 : Giuseppe Peano , Italian mathematician († 1932 )
- August 27 : Per Winge , Norwegian composer, conductor, pianist and organist († 1935 )
- August 28 : Gabriel Anton , Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist († 1933 )
- August 30 : Ignaz Sowinski , Austrian architect († 1917 )
- September 1 : Carl Auer von Welsbach , Austrian chemist and entrepreneur († 1929 )
- September 1 : Paul Wolters , German archaeologist († 1936 )
- September 12 : Fernand Khnopff , Belgian painter, graphic artist, sculptor and art writer († 1921 )
- September 13 : Catharinus Elling , Norwegian composer, folk music collector, music critic and teacher († 1942 )
- September 13 : August Köhler , German colonial official and governor of Togo († 1902 )
- September 13 : Carl von Noorden , German internist († 1944 )
- September 15 : Charles de Foucauld , French nobleman and founder of the order († 1916 )
- September 15 : Jenő Hubay , Hungarian composer and violin virtuoso († 1937 )
- September 16 : Andrew Bonar Law , British politician and Prime Minister († 1923 )
- September 21 : Joseph Anton Sickinger , German high school teacher, city school councilor and school reformer († 1930 )
- September 24 : Carl Pulfrich , German physicist and optician († 1927 )
- September 25 : Albrecht Penck , German geographer and geologist († 1945 )
- September 28 : Gustav Cleemann , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant confessor († 1919 )
- September 28 : Paul Gisevius , German agricultural scientist († 1935 )
- September 28 : Gustaf Kossinna , German philologist and archaeologist († 1931 )
- September 29 : Leopoldo Mugnone , Italian conductor and composer († 1941 )
- October 1 : Lorenz Werthmann , Catholic priest and founder of the German Caritas Association († 1921 )
- October 3 : Eleonora Duse , Italian actress († 1924 )
- October 4 : Stephan Freiherr Sarkotić von Lovćen , Colonel General of the Austro-Hungarian Army († 1939 )
- October 7 : Albert Hirth , German inventor († 1935 )
- October 12 : Pietro Maffi , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1931 )
- October 13 : Heinrich Christian Graf von Attems-Heiligenkreuz , Austrian KuK state president in the Duchy of Carniola and Privy Councilor († 1937 )
- October 15 : John L. Sullivan , American heavyweight boxing champion († 1918 )
- October 15 : Frank Van der Stucken , American composer and conductor († 1929 )
- October 19 : George Albert Boulenger , British zoologist and ichthyologist († 1937 )
- October 22 : Auguste Viktoria , German Empress and wife of Wilhelm II. († 1921 )
- October 22 : Hermann von Littrow , Austrian engineer († 1931 )
- October 23 : Frank M. Byrne , American politician († 1928 )
- October 24 : Wilhelm Fließ , German biologist and doctor († 1928 )
- October 25 : Johann Gottlieb von Langen , German industrialist († 1940 )
- October 26 : Arthur Sifton , Canadian politician and judge († 1921 )
- October 27 : Theodore Roosevelt , American President and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 1919 )
- October 27 : Waldemar of Denmark , Danish Prince († 1939 )
- October 28 : Friedrich von Kalitsch , German forester († 1938 )
- October 31 : Franz Ahrens , German industrial architect († 1937 )
- October 31 : Julius Caldeen Gunter , American politician († 1940 )
- November 1 : Kurt von Morgen , German officer and explorer († 1928 )
- November 1 : Ludwig von Struve , German-Baltic astronomer († 1920 )
- November 5 : Edward W. Carmack , American politician († 1908 )
- November 7th : Willibald Hentschel , German writer († 1947 )
- November 8 : Lawrence Yates Sherman , American politician († 1939 )
- November 8 : Gustaf Wickman , Swedish architect († 1916 )
- November 9 : John Stromberg , Canadian composer, pianist and conductor († 1902 )
- November 10 : Adelgunde of Portugal , Duchess of Guimarães and an Infanta of Portugal († 1946 )
- November 12 : Alexis Contant , Canadian composer, organist and music teacher († 1918 )
- November 13 : Rudolf Oeser , German politician († 1926 )
- November 13 : Edmond Aman-Jean , French painter († 1936 )
- November 13 : Edgar Steiger , Swiss writer († 1919 )
- November 20 : Selma Lagerlöf , Swedish children's book author († 1940 )
- November 20 : Nellie Stewart , Australian actress and singer († 1931 )
- November 20 : Franz Zorn von Bulach , German clergyman, auxiliary bishop of Strasbourg and titular bishop of Erythrae († 1925 )
- November 21 : Bruno Schmitz , German architect († 1916 )
- November 24th : Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Antrick , German industrialist († 1924 )
- November 24th : Marie Bashkirtseff , Russian painter, writer and philosopher († 1884 )
- November 26th : Israel Abrahams , British Judaist († 1925 )
- November 29 : Christian Hülsen , German archaeologist († 1935 )
- November 30 : Jagadish Chandra Bose , Indian physicist and botanist († 1937 )
- November 30 : Rosa Mayreder , Austrian women's rights activist († 1938 )
- December 1 : Lon Stephens , American politician († 1923 )
- December 7th : Gustav Gull , Swiss architect († 1942 )
- December 10 : Asle Gronna , American politician († 1922 )
- December 12 : Emmanuel Villanis , French artist († 1914 )
- December 12 : Karl von Gravenreuth , German officer and explorer († 1891 )
- December 15 : Adolf Rettelbusch , German painter, is nicknamed Brockenmaler († 1934 )
- December 20 : Jan Toorop , Dutch symbolist painter († 1928 )
- December 22nd : Giacomo Puccini , Italian composer († 1924 )
- December 27 : Juan Luis Sanfuentes , Chilean President († 1930 )
- December 31 : Harry S. New , American politician († 1937 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ali Asghar Khan Atabak , Iranian Prime Minister for many years († 1907 )
- Giuseppe Aureli , Italian painter († 1929 )
- Ahmed Rızâ , Ottoman politician († 1930 )
- Frank Lynes , American composer, organist and music teacher († 1913 )
- Alfred De Sève , Canadian violinist, music teacher and composer († 1927 )
January to April
- January 3 : Rachel Félix , French actress (* 1821 )
- January 5 : Josef Wenzel Radetzky von Radetz , Austrian military leader (* 1766 )
- January 5 : David Stewart , American politician (* 1800 )
- January 9 : Bonifaz Kaspar von Urban , Archbishop of Bamberg (* 1773 )
- January 12th : Joachim Haspinger , pastor and Tyrolean patriot (* 1776 )
- January 18 : Margarethe Jonas , German embroiderer and painter (* 1783 )
- January 20 : Wilhelm August Friedrich Genßler , German Protestant clergyman (* 1793 )
- January 22nd : Carl Friedrich Plattner , German metallurgist and chemist (* 1800 )
- January 22nd : Ludwig II , Grand Duke of Baden (* 1824 )
- January 23 : Luigi Lablache , Italian opera singer (bass) (* 1794 )
- February 13 : Hermann Heinrich Gossen , Prussian economist (* 1810 )
- February 16 : Friedrich Creuzer , German philologist (* 1771 )
- February 27 : Wilhelm Joseph Imhoff , German sculptor (* 1791 )
- March 4 : Matthew Calbraith Perry , American naval officer (* 1794 )
- March 16 : Wilhelm von Brockhausen , Prussian general and honorary citizen of Wittenberg (* 1773 )
- March 16 : Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck , German botanist and natural philosopher (* 1776 )
- March 27th : Jean-Guillaume Audinet-Serville , French entomologist (* 1775 )
- April 8 : Anton Diabelli , Austrian composer (* 1781 )
- April 9 : Joseph Karl Stieler , German painter (* 1781 )
- April 10 : William Marks , American politician (* 1778 )
- April 11 : Bernard Sarrette , French conductor and music teacher (* 1765 )
- April 13 : Carl Hasenpflug , German architectural painter (* 1802 )
- April 13th : Ignacij Knoblehar , Slovenian missionary in Africa (* 1819 )
- April 16 : Johann Baptist Cramer , pianist and composer (* 1771 )
- April 17th : James Abercromby, 1st Baron Dunfermline , British lawyer and politician (* 1776 )
- May 3 : Auguste Brizeux , French writer (* 1803 )
- May 6 : Josiah J. Evans , American politician (* 1786 )
- May 9 : Adolf Spieß , German sports pedagogue (* 1810 )
- May 12 : Georg Benedikt Winer , German Protestant theologian and philologist (* 1789 )
- May 15 : Robert Hare , American chemist (* 1781 )
- May 17 : Persifor Frazer Smith , American Army officer (* 1798 )
- May 27th : Friedrich Schlemm , German physician and anatomist (* 1795 )
- May 30th : Ludwig Roth von Schreckenstein , Prussian Minister of War and General of the Cavalry (* 1789 )
- June 3 : Julius Reubke , British composer of German descent (* 1834 )
- June 10 : Robert Brown , Scottish botanist (* 1773 )
- June 10 : Karl Mager , German school teacher and school politician (* 1810 )
- June 12 : Karel František Pič , Bohemian organist and composer (* 1786 )
- June 15 : Ary Scheffer , French etcher and sculptor (* 1795 )
- June 21 : Adolf Ivar Arwidsson , Finnish journalist, writer and historian (* 1791 )
- June 25 : Friedrich August Gotthold , German pedagogue and school director (* 1778 )
- June 26 : Johannes Roth , German zoologist and explorer (* 1815 )
- July 3 : Alexander Ivanov , Russian painter (* 1806 )
- July 5 : Valentín Gómez Farías , Mexican politician and multiple interim President of Mexico (* 1781 )
- July 8 : Ferdinand von Stelzhammer , Austrian lawyer (* 1797 )
- July 10 : Auguste de Montferrand , French-Russian architect (* 1786 )
- July 21 : Gaspar Hernández from Peru, priest, educator and politician in the Dominican Republic (* 1798 )
- August 7th : Charles Galibert , French composer (* 1826 )
- August 13 : William Gardner Angel , American politician (* 1790 )
- August 22 : Christoph Merian , Swiss landowner and foundation founder (* 1800 )
- August 23 : Calvin Willey , American politician (* 1776 )
- August 26 : Ralph Metcalf , American politician (* 1796 )
September to December
- September 5 : Moritz Gottlieb Saphir , Austrian writer (* 1795 )
- September 11th : Alexander Guriljow , Russian composer (* 1803 )
- September 17 : Theodor Franz Christian von Seckendorff , Prussian diplomat (* 1801 )
- September 25th : Antoine Brun-Rollet , French explorer of Africa (* 1810 )
- September 25 : Amalie Schoppe , German writer (* 1791 )
- October 1st : Alois Negrelli von Moldelbe , Austrian engineer and pioneer of transport engineering (* 1799 )
- October 5 : Francisco Solano Antuña , Uruguayan politician (* 1793 )
- October 8 : Luigi Catenazzi , Swiss educator and politician (* 1783 )
- October 8 : Yanagawa Seigan , Japanese poet (* 1789 )
- October 9 : Charles Wellesley , British general and politician (* 1808 )
- October 10 : Karl August Varnhagen von Ense , German chronicler and biographer (* 1785 )
- October 12 : Utagawa Hiroshige , Japanese artist (* 1797 )
- October 15 : Carl Gustav Mosander , Swedish chemist and surgeon (* 1797 )
- October 27 : Ida Pfeiffer , Austrian explorer and travel writer (* 1797 )
- October 31 : Carl Thomas Mozart , Austrian civil servant, son of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (* 1784 )
- November 8 : Benjamin Franklin Butler , American politician (* 1795 )
- November 14 : Ferrante Aporti , Italian educator and theologian (* 1791 )
- November 15 : Johanna Kinkel , German composer and writer (* 1810 )
- November 16 : Robert Hanna , American politician (* 1786 )
- November 17th : Robert Owen , British entrepreneur, early socialist (* 1771 )
- November 20 : William Schley , American politician (* 1786 )
- November 25th : Victor Franz Freiherr von Andrian-Werburg , Austrian politician (* 1813 )
- November 28 : Johann Heinrich Kopp , German doctor and naturalist (* 1777 )
- November 30th : Friedrich Gotthilf Osann , German classical philologist (* 1794 )
- December 5 : Johann Leonhard Appold , German copper and steel engraver (* 1809 )
- December 9th : August Wilhelm Papen , German military engineer, geodesist and cartographer (* 1799 )
- December 14 : Michael Woolston Ash , American politician (* 1789 )
- December 19 : Emma Wanda von Arbter , Austrian writer (* 1819 )