Calendar overview 1794
is with 13 companions
on the guillotine executed.
leads the Kościuszko uprising
in Poland .
|Maximilien Robespierre and his supporters, the terror regime in France ends .|
|1794 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1242/43 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1786/87 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1199/1200 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2337/38 (southern Buddhism); 2336/37 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1156/57 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4127/28 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||Year II./III. of the Republic (September 21/22)|
|Islamic calendar||1208/09 (turn of the year 28/29 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5554/55 (September 24/25)|
|Coptic calendar||1510/11 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2104/05 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2105/06 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1850/51 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 4th : France abolishes slavery in its territories .
- February 15 : In the First Republic , the tricolor becomes the national flag of France .
- March 24 : The editor of the ultra-revolutionary magazine Le père Duchesne , Jacques-René Hébert , is executed with several of his supporters .
- April 5th : Georges Danton is guillotined with 13 of his companions ( indulgents ) .
- June 1st : On "Glorious June 1st" the British defeat the French revolutionary fleet about 400 nautical miles off the coast of France in the naval battle on the 13th Prairial .
- June 4th : Abbé Henri Grégoire presents a report to the French National Convention in which he calls for the suppression of the “dialects” and the exclusive use of French . The accompanying measures introduce a long-term policy that will lead to the decline of regional and minority languages such as Occitan .
- June 10 : The French National Convention adopts the Prairial Decree to intensify terror on the 22nd Prairial II of the French Revolutionary Calendar . The new law allows the Revolutionary Tribunal to impose death sentences based on mere suspicion and deprives the accused of legal counsel. So-called “ enemies of the people ” must be punished with death and citizens are obliged to denounce “conspirators and counter-revolutionaries” to the authorities. The law was drafted by Maximilien de Robespierre alone. In the seven weeks of its validity, 1,376 people are guillotined in Paris.
- June 26th : The Battle of Fleurus ends the rule of the Habsburgs in the Netherlands after the victory of the French Revolutionary Army .
- June 27th : The French writer Simon Nicolas Henri Linguet is executed in Paris for “flattering the tyrants of London and Vienna”.
- July 23 : The renewal of the law on maximum wages breaks the sans-culottes with the Jacobins . The latter now lose their support among workers and petty bourgeoisie during the French Revolution .
- July 27 : ( 9th Thermidor II ) Robespierre , one of the leaders of the Jacobins in the French Revolution , is arrested by the Thermidorians and executed one day later after his reign of terror was tightened by the Prairial Decree . In France, the Montagnard regime ends .
- July 28 : Maximilien de Robespierre and 21 of his supporters are executed, including Antoine de Saint-Just and Georges Couthon . This ends the time of terror in France.
- August 9th : Napoleon Bonaparte is arrested by the Jacobins in Nice because of his relationship with Augustin Robespierre . He is now a political prisoner. But eleven days later he is free again.
- September 18 : During the French Revolution , the decision National Convention of under dechristianization for the separation of religion and state .
- October 2 : In the Battle of Aldenhoven , the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and Jean Baptiste Bernadotte defeat a superior Austrian army.
- October 3 : The citadel of Jülich is handed over to the French without a fight.
- October 4th : The French march into Mönchengladbach .
- October 6th : The French occupy Cologne .
- October 23 : The French conquer Koblenz and drive the Elector of Trier Clemens Wenzeslaus from Saxony .
- December 24th : After the Jacobins are overthrown in the French Revolution , the maximum laws they enacted are repealed.
- December 27 : The French Revolutionary Army invades the Republic of the Seven United Provinces ("United Netherlands" for short) under the command of Jean-Charles Pichegrus . The state had declared itself neutral in the First Coalition War , but was still an important donor to Great Britain . This triggered a declaration of war by the French the year before.
- March 24 : Partitions of Poland : Under the leadership of Tadeusz Kościuszko , the Polish uprising named after him against the partition powers Prussia and Russia breaks out in the rump state of Poland , which will provide them with the pretext for the third partition and thus the final liquidation of Poland .
- April 4 : The insurgents win the Battle of Racławice against Russia. Since the Polish fighters are not strong enough to drive the Russians out of Poland, the effects of the battle are purely psychological.
- September 30th : A small battle breaks out near Łabiszyn , in which the Poles repel a Prussian regiment. This withdraws in the direction of Bromberg .
- October 2 : Polish units under Jan Henryk Dąbrowski defeat the Prussians in the Battle of Bromberg .
- October 10 : In the Kościuszko uprising in "Rump Poland" (after the Second Partition of Poland in 1793), Tadeusz Kościuszko and his army , who led the uprising, are defeated by General Alexander Wassiljewitsch Suworow's Russian troops in the battle of Maciejowice and are captured. The uprising continues in Warsaw .
- November 4th : In the Battle of Praga , east of Warsaw , Russian troops finally crush the Kościuszko uprising in Poland . After the battle there is a massacre of the civilian population. The uprising gave rise to the final liquidation of Poland in 1795.
Holy Roman Empire
- January 29th / February 25th : Hundreds of master weavers storm the Augsburg town hall and enforce an import ban on foreign goods.
- June 1st : General land law for the Prussian states, valid until 1900, comes into force
- December 24th : The weavers' uprising in the Free Imperial City of Augsburg is put down by the deployment of troops of the Swabian Imperial Circle , who move into quarters in the city at the expense of the weavers.
- January 9th : An entry by German immigrants in the USA leads to the Muhlenberg legend . It is a vote on an application for the publication of laws in German. This is rejected with 42 to 41 votes.
- August 7 : Several thousand armed settlers from the Monongahela Valley in western Pennsylvania's move to Pittsburgh to face a tax on alcohol to fight. The " Whiskey Rebellion " is quickly put down by the military under the command of US President George Washington .
- August 20 : United States forces strike an alliance of Chippewa , Ottawa , Potawatomi , Shawnee , Delaware and Mingo led by Shawnee Chief Weyapiersenwah at the Battle of Fallen Timbers .
- November 19 : US negotiator John Jay and the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom sign the Jay Treaty in London .
- Adoption of the Act to Prohibit the Carrying on the Slave Trade from the United States to any Foreign Place or Country (also: Slave Trade Act of 1794 ), a federal law that restricts the import of slaves (mostly people from Africa).
- March 14 : The farmer's son Eli Whitney receives in the US, the patent on his invention of gin for ginning of cotton . This makes the large-scale cultivation of the plant in the southern states lucrative. Slaves are needed and used for harvesting .
- November 1 : Heinrich Anton Christoph Seeliger opens a trading business in Wolfenbüttel , from which the CL Seeliger banking house emerged in the 1880s .
science and technology
- March 11th : The École centrale des travaux publics is founded in Paris , which later becomes one of the elite universities in France as the École polytechnique .
- September 10 : The University of Tennessee is founded as Blount College .
- Erasmus Darwin provides considerations on whether there was a possible family tree of all life. They go into his work Zoonomia .
- The Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin discovered with yttrium , the first chemical element from the group of rare earth metals .
- The miller's plan for the city of Zurich appears.
- The religion within the limits of bare reason by Immanuel Kant appearsonly a year latebecause of censorship problems .
- February 26 : The world premiere of the opera Le Congrès des rois by Henri Montan Berton takes place at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- July 1 : The comedy Agricol Viala ou Le Héros de la Durance by Henri Montan Berton premieres at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- August 24 : In the text Rapport sur les destructions opérées par le vandalisme , the French priest Henri Grégoire denounces the destructiveness of the radical Jacobins during the revolution and uses the word vandalism for the first time .
- August 26th : The first performance of the musical comedy Le astuzie femminili ( The Female Lists ) by Domenico Cimarosa takes place at the Teatro dei Fiorentini in Naples.
- December 13 : The world premiere of the opera Eliza ou Le Voyage au glaciers du Mont Saint-Bernard ( Elisa or The Journey to the Great St. Bernard ) by Luigi Cherubini takes place at the Théâtre Feydeau in Paris.
- The copperplate and drawing cabinet of Elector Carl Theodor von der Pfalz , founded in 1758 , was brought to safety from the advancing French army and transferred from Mannheim Palace to Munich.
- June 8th : Maximilian de Robespierre leads the official events for the festival of the Supreme Being in France in the Tuileries and on the Marsfeld . The cult is supposed to replace the Christian religion.
- February 26 : The first Christiansborg Palace burns down in Copenhagen .
- July 15 : A lava flow from Vesuvius buried the town of Torre del Greco .
- December 8th : Six years after the first major fire, another fire disaster destroys a large part of New Orleans .
- January 6 : Gašpar Mašek , Czech composer († 1873 )
- January 7th : Eilhard Mitscherlich , German chemist and mineralogist († 1863 )
- January 7th : Heinrich Wilhelm Schott , Austrian botanist († 1865 )
- January 9 : Jacques-Arsène-Polycarpe-François Ancelot , French playwright and librarian († 1854 )
- January 15 : Noah Noble , American politician († 1844 )
- January 16 : Maximilian Joseph von Chelius , German ophthalmologist and surgeon († 1876 )
- January 21 : Adolf Ludwig Follen , German fraternity , writer and publisher († 1855 )
- February 8 : Agnes Franz , German writer († 1843 )
- February 8 : Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge , German chemist († 1867 )
- February 12 : Alexander Petrow , Russian chess player († 1867 )
- February 13 : Johann Jacob Achelius , German master glazier († 1870 )
- February 17 : Heinrich Eduard Schmieder , theologian and honorary citizen of Wittenberg († 1893 )
- February 20 : William Carleton , Irish writer († 1869 )
- February 21 : Antonio López de Santa Anna , Mexican general and politician († 1876 )
- February 22 : Joseph Duncan , American politician († 1844 )
- January 23 : Eduard Friedrich von Eversmann , German biologist and explorer († 1860 )
- February 26 : Heinrich August Pierer , German officer, publisher and lexicographer († 1850 )
- March 3 : Friedrich Busse , German operations director and inventor († 1862 )
- March 5 : Jacques Babinet , French physicist († 1872 )
- March 10 : Henriette d'Angeville , French mountaineer († 1871 )
- March 14 : Józef Bem , Polish general († 1850 )
- March 15 : Friedrich Christian Diez , German Romanist († 1876 )
- March 15 : Felician Martin von Zaremba , Russian diplomat, preacher and missionary († 1874 )
- March 16 : Lawrence Brainerd , American politician († 1870 )
- March 20 : René Primevère Lesson , French doctor and naturalist († 1849 )
- March 24 : Samuel Weishaupt , Swiss theologian and choirmaster († 1874 )
- March 26 : Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld , German painter of the German Romantic period († 1872 )
- March 31 : Thomas McKennan , American politician († 1852 )
- March 31 : Karl Friedrich Christian Hasselmann , German pastor and politician († 1882 )
- April 9 : Theobald Böhm , flautist and master flute builder († 1881 )
- April 10 : Matthew C. Perry , American naval officer († 1858 )
- April 10 : John McCracken Robinson , American politician († 1843 )
- April 11 : Edward Everett , American politician and Secretary of State († 1865 )
- April 12 : Germinal Pierre Dandelin , Belgian mathematician († 1847 )
- April 13 : Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens , French physiologist († 1867 )
- April 17 : Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius , German naturalist, botanist and ethnographer († 1868 )
- April 25 : Asaf Jah IV. , Prince of Hyderabad († 1857 )
- May 4 : Heinrich Boie , German zoologist († 1827 )
- May 6 : Carl Arnold , Norwegian composer († 1873 )
- May 12 : George Cathcart , British general († 1854 )
- May 13 : Karl Hoeck , German classical philologist and ancient historian († 1877 )
- May 19 : Johann-Peter Weyer , Cologne city architect and art collector († 1864 )
- May 23 : Ignaz Moscheles , Bohemian composer, pianist and music teacher († 1870 )
- May 24th : William Whewell , British philosopher and economic historian († 1866 )
- May 26 : Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg , Russian field marshal († 1874 )
- May 27 : Cornelius Vanderbilt , American entrepreneur († 1877 )
- May 29 : Johann Heinrich von Mädler , German astronomer († 1874 )
- June 4 : Friedrich von Römer , member of the Frankfurt National Assembly († 1864 )
- June 12 : Karl Horn , theologian, co-founder of the Jenaer Fraternity († 1879 )
- June 24 : Henricus Egbertus Vinke , Dutch Reformed theologian († 1862 )
- June 27 : Karl Joseph Beck , German doctor and university professor († 1838 )
- June 28 : John Biscoe , English explorer († 1843 )
- June 29 : Ferdinand Wachter , German historian and university lecturer († 1861 )
- July 3 : Eberhard Friedrich Walcker , German organ builder († 1872 )
- July 5 : Sylvester Graham , advocate of the reform diet in the USA († 1851 )
- July 6 : Wilhelm Hensel , German painter († 1861 )
- July 9 : Gotthilf August von Maltitz , German writer († 1837 )
- July 25 : Nikolai Muravyov , Russian general in the Crimean War († 1866 )
- July 25 : Amalie Sieveking , co-founder of organized diakonia in Germany († 1859 )
- July 29 : Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angely , French general and Marshal of France († 1870 )
- July 29 : Thomas Corwin , American politician († 1865 )
- July 30 : Johann Martin Lappenberg , German historian († 1865 )
- August 4 : Josef Proksch , Czech-German composer († 1864 )
- August 9 : Achille Valenciennes , French zoologist († 1865 )
- August 10 : Amalie von Sachsen , German composer and writer († 1870 )
- August 10 : Leopold Zunz , German scientist († 1886 )
- August 15 : Elias Magnus Fries , Swedish botanist († 1878 )
- August 16 : Richard La Nicca , Swiss engineer († 1883 )
- August 22 : Friedrich Gotthilf Osann , German classical philologist († 1858 )
- August 30 : Stephen W. Kearny , American officer († 1848 )
- September 2 : Friedrich August Köttig , inventor at the Royal Porcelain Manufactory in Meissen († 1864 )
- September 3 : Kurt Alexander Winkler , German chemist and metallurgist († 1862 )
- September 8 : Douglas Charles Clavering , Scottish explorer († 1827 )
- September 10 : François Benoist , French organist, organ teacher and composer († 1878 )
- September 15 : Heinrich Emanuel Merck , chemist and manufacturer († 1855 )
- September 17 : Ephraim Hubbard Foster , American politician († 1854 )
- September 25 : Chiarissimo Falconieri Mellini , Italian Archbishop and Cardinal († 1859 )
- September 26 : Wilhelm Legrand , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1874 )
- September 30 : Carl Joseph Begas , German painter († 1854 )
- October 1 : Leopold IV , Duke of Anhalt-Dessau († 1871 )
- October 3 : Herman Johan Royaard's Dutch Reformed theologian and church historian († 1854 )
- October 7 : Wilhelm Müller , German poet († 1827 )
- October 10 : Ichabod Goodwin , American politician († 1882 )
- October 12 : Carl von La Roche , German actor († 1884 )
- October 13 : Josef Annegarn , German theologian, educator and professor († 1843 )
- October 13 : Anselm Hüttenbrenner , Austrian composer and music critic († 1868 )
- October 18 : Ferdinand Schubert , Austrian composer († 1859 )
- October 19 : Nikolaus Munich , Provost of Cologne Cathedral († 1881 )
- October 23 : Oliver H. Smith , American politician († 1859 )
- October 28 : Leopold Ferdinand Eduard Dietrich von Arnim , Prussian lieutenant general († 1856 )
- November 3 : William Cullen Bryant , American poet and journalist († 1878 )
- November 5 : Johann Jacob Baeyer , Prussian lieutenant general and geodesist († 1885 )
- November 6 : Aimable Pélissier , French general and statesman, Marshal of France († 1864 )
- November 10 : Alexander O. Anderson , American politician († 1869 )
- November 11th : Friedrich Albert Fallou , German lawyer and soil scientist († 1877 )
- November 13 : William Wright , American politician († 1866 )
- November 16 : Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg , military and civil governor in the Banat and the Serbian Voivodeship († 1880 )
- November 20 : Eduard Rüppell , German scientist and Africa explorer († 1884 )
- November 23 : Juan Cruz Varela , Argentine writer, journalist and politician († 1839 )
- November 30 : Gottlieb Heinrich Zeller , Württemberg pharmacist and pharmacist († 1864 )
- December 6th : Luigi Lablache , Italian opera singer (bassist) († 1858 )
- December 27 : William C. Preston , American politician († 1860 )
Exact date of birth unknown
January to April
- January 3 : Giuseppe Paladini , Italian painter (* 1721 )
- January 4th : Nikolaus von Luckner , Marshal of France (* 1722 )
- January 8 : Justus Möser , German writer and politician (* 1720 )
- January 10 : Johann Georg Adam Forster , natural scientist, journalist, revolutionary (* 1754 )
- January 11 : Jakob Mauvillon , German military writer (* 1743 )
- January 16 : Edward Gibbon , British historian (* 1737 )
- January 17 : Wilhelm Paul Verpoorten , German educator and Lutheran theologian (* 1721 )
- January 22 : Anton Fürst Esterházy , prince of the Esterházy magnate family (* 1738 )
- February 10 : Jacques Roux , French revolutionary (* 1752 )
- February 16 : Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne , French politician and cleric (* 1727 )
- February 21 : Natalis Pinot , French priest and martyr (* 1747 )
- February 27 : Vicente de Herrera y Rivero , Spanish lawyer and viceroy of New Spain (* 1743 )
- March 4 : Franz Anton Zeiller , Austrian painter (* 1716 )
- March 24th : Anacharsis Cloots , politician and revolutionary in Paris (* 1755 )
- March 24th : Jacques-René Hébert , French revolutionary (* 1757 )
- March 24th : Antoine-François Momoro , French politician (* 1756 )
- March 24th : Charles-Philippe Ronsin , French politician (* 1751 )
- March 24th : François-Nicolas Vincent , French politician (* 1767 )
- March 25 : Christian Friedrich Franke , German Protestant theologian (* 1767 )
- March 26th : Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra , Spanish naval officer, navigator and explorer (* 1743 )
- March 29 : Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet , French philosopher, mathematician (* 1743 )
- March 31 : Bernardino Galliari , Italian painter (* 1707 )
- April 5 : François Chabot , French revolutionary (* 1756 )
- April 5 : Georges Danton , lawyer, politician in the French Revolution (* 1759 )
- April 5 : Jean-François Delacroix , French revolutionary (* 1753 )
- April 5 : Camille Desmoulins , French revolutionary (* 1760 )
- April 5 : Fabre d'Églantine , French poet (* 1750 )
- April 5 : Junius Frey , French revolutionary (* 1753 )
- April 5 : Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles , politician during the French Revolution (* 1759 )
- April 5 : François-Joseph Westermann , French general (* 1751 )
- April 13 : Nicolas Chamfort , French writer (* 1741 )
- April 13 : Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette , politician during the French Revolution (* 1763 )
- April 13 : Lucile Desmoulins , wife of Camille Desmoulins (* 1770 )
- April 22nd : Georg Philipp Dohlhoff , pharmacist and mayor of the Palatinate Colony in Magdeburg (* 1734 )
- April 22nd : Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier , French politician (* 1754 )
- April 23 : Chrétien-Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes , French statesman, minister and defender of Louis XVI. (* 1721 )
- April 27 : James Bruce , Scottish traveler (* 1730 )
- April 27 : William Jones , English orientalist and lawyer, judge at the Supreme Court in Calcutta (* 1746 )
- April 27 : Everard Scheidius , Dutch Reformed theologian, philologist and orientalist (* 1742 )
- April 28 : Charles Henri d'Estaing , French naval officer and admiral (* 1729 )
- April 30 : Johann Daniel Müller , theologian (* 1721 )
May to August
- May 8 : Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier , co-founder of modern chemistry (* 1743 )
- June 2 : Friedrich von Anhalt , Count of Anhalt (* 1732 )
- June 2 : Gottlieb Lebrecht Spohn , German educator, philologist and Protestant theologian (* 1756 )
- June 8 : Gottfried August Bürger , German poet (* 1747 )
- June 11 : Christoph Friedrich Reinhold Lisiewsky , German portrait painter (* 1725 )
- June 18 : François-Nicolas-Léonard Buzot , French revolutionary (* 1760 )
- June 19 : Ildephons Schwarz , German Catholic theologian (* 1752 )
- June 27 : Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz , Austrian politician (* 1711 )
- June 27 : Simon Nicolas Henri Linguet , French writer (* 1736 )
- June 27 : Claude-Victor de Broglie , French politician and general (* 1756 )
- June 27 : Philippe de Noailles, duc de Mouchy , Marshal of France (* 1715 )
- July 2 : František Xaver Pokorný , Bohemian composer (* 1729 )
- July 14th : Jean Frédéric Edelmann , Alsatian composer (* 1749 )
- July 23 : Alexandre de Beauharnais , French President of the National Assembly (* 1760 )
- July 25 : Friedrich von der Trenck , Prussian officer and adventurer (* 1727 )
- July 25 : André Chénier , French writer (* 1762 )
- July 28th : Georges Couthon , French revolutionary (* 1755 )
- July 28th : François Hanriot , French revolutionary (* 1759 )
- July 28th : Maximilien de Robespierre , politician during the French Revolution (* 1758 )
- July 28 : Augustin Robespierre , French politician, younger brother of Maximilien de Robespierre (* 1763 )
- August 7th : Edmund Angerer , Austrian Benedictine priest and church musician (* 1740 )
- August 12 : Johann David Beil , German actor and playwright (* 1754 )
- August 14 : George Colman the Elder , English writer (* 1732 )
- August 15 : François de Théas Count von Thoranc , French officer and art collector (* 1719 )
September to December
- September 4 : Daniel Freiherr Peharnik-Hotkovich , Austrian general (* 1745 )
- September 13 : Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian , French poet (* 1755 )
- September 15 : Abraham Clark , American politician (* 1725 )
- September 24th : Edvard Storm , Norwegian poet and teacher (* 1749 )
- September 25 : Paul Rabaut , French evangelical preacher and pastor (* 1718 )
- October 6 : Friedrich Gottlieb Barth , German educator and linguist (* 1738 )
- November 4th : Levin Gideon Friedrich von Apenburg , Prussian cavalry officer (* 1724 )
- November 9th : Hryhorij Skoworoda , Ukrainian philosopher, poet and musician (* 1722 )
- November 15 : Maria Franziska von Pfalz-Sulzbach , Countess Palatine and Duchess of Birkenfeld (* 1724 )
- November 16 : Rudolf Erich Raspe , German writer (* 1736 )
- November 28 : Cesare Beccaria , Italian legal philosopher (* 1738 )
- November 28 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben , American general (* 1730 )
- December 2 : Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost , German medic and theologian (* 1715 )
- December 14 : Georg Theodor Strobel , German Lutheran theologian and church historian (* 1736 )
- December 16 : Jean-Baptiste Carrier , French revolutionary (* 1756 )
- December 24th : Bartholomew III. Imperial Baron von Tinti , farmer in Tyrol (* 1736 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Michael Nestius , German Evangelical Lutheran clergyman (* 1721 )
- Tsuga Teishō , Japanese writer (* 1718 )