Calendar overview 1742
Wittelsbach Charles I. Albrecht of Bavaria is
as Charles VII. To German Roman Emperor crowned.
|Prussia defeats Austria in the battle of Chotusitz .||
Karl Theodor becomes the
new regent in the Electoral Palatinate .
|1742 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1190/91 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1734/35 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1147/48 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2285/86 (southern Buddhism); 2284/85 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1104/05 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4075/76 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1120/21 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1154/55 (turn of the year March 7/8)|
|Jewish calendar||5502/03 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic calendar||1458/59 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2052/53 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2053/54 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1798/99 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Austrian Succession
- March 14th : Battle near Lesch
- May 13th : Great Britain and the Netherlands join Maria Theresa in the War of the Austrian Succession .
- May 17 : In the Battle of Chotusitz during the First Silesian War , Prussia under Friedrich II decisively defeats the Austrian army under Field Marshal Karl Alexander von Lothringen .
- June 11th : The preliminary peace in Breslau between Frederick II of Prussia and Austria comes about through British mediation . The original proposal that Upper Silesia should remain with Austria is rejected. Austria had to cede almost all of Silesia and the County of Glatz to Prussia. Only a strip of territory around Troppau and Teschen remains with the Archduchy as Austrian Silesia .
- July 28th : The Peace of Berlin between Prussia and Austria ends the First Silesian War and confirms the preliminary peace in Breslau .
- Austria then sends its freed troops in the War of the Austrian Succession against the Bavarian-French army in Bohemia. In August they besiege Prague.
- A new theater of war opens up in Italy: Spain tries to expand its territory from Naples at the expense of Austria . But an Austro-Sardinian army conquers Modena and Mirandola and penetrates as far as central Italy after Naples , threatened by a British fleet, has declared itself neutral. In September, another Spanish army penetrated through France against Nice, but had to retreat to Savoy before the onset of winter.
- December: The French army under Duke François-Marie de Broglie withdraws to Eger .
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- January 24 : Elector Karl I. Albrecht of Bavaria is in Frankfurt am Main as Charles VII. To the Holy Roman Emperor chosen and on Feb. 12 awards.
- January: In the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , the Office Vorsfelde founded.
- December 31 : After the death of Charles III. Philipp becomes Karl Theodor new Count Palatine and Elector in the Electoral Palatinate as well as Duke of Jülich-Berg .
Russia / Sweden
- January 29 : The opponents of the new Tsarina Elisabeth , who were sentenced to the cruel death penalty last year , among them the former War Minister Burkhard Christoph von Münnich and Foreign Minister Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann , learn of their pardon at the place of execution and are then sent into lifelong exile. The crowd does not agree with the pardon of the public enemies: There is a tumult that has to be put down by force of arms.
- May 6 : Elisabeth is crowned empress in Moscow. She puts the crown on her head, which no Russian head of state has dared to do before, and swears not to sign a death warrant.
- Russian troops under General Peter Graf von Lacy march into southern Finland in the Russo-Swedish War and take Hamina , Porvoo and Hämeenlinna without major resistance . In August Lacy succeeds in encircling the approximately 17,000-strong Swedish main army near Helsinki and forcing it to surrender.
- November 18 : Empress Elisabeth appoints Peter , the son of her late sister Anna Petrovna , as her successor.
War of Jenkins' Ear
- March 5 : An attempt by the British to attack Panama with fresh troops from overseas fails.
- July: A Spanish counterattack on Georgia fails.
- With the dissolution of the British expeditionary force, the War of Jenkins' Ear , which began in 1738 , is considered over, even if the Georgia conflict is not resolved until 1748.
- January 3 : The first issue of the Silesian Privileged State, War and Peace Newspaper appears.
- September: Faneuil Hall , a central market hall in Boston donated by Peter Faneuil , is opened.
- Today's Vilmorin company is founded as a plant and seed business in France.
- The Reuth Castle Brewery is founded.
science and technology
Science and math
- June 7th : In a letter to Leonhard Euler, the Prussian mathematician Christian Goldbach puts forward Goldbach's conjecture , today one of the best-known unsolved problems in mathematics .
- The Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius introduces the degree Celsius scale, assigning the boiling point of water 0 ° and its freezing point 100 °.
- The British mathematician Colin Maclaurin wrote his most important work A treatise of fluxions , one of the first systematic representations of Newton's calculus , written in response to George Berkeley's criticism of the foundations of analysis. In it he mentions the Trisektrix and the Maclaurin series named after him as well as the Euler-Maclaurin formula , the Maclaurin ellipsoid ( equilibrium figure ) and the Maclaurin inequality .
- The Dutch physicist Willem Jacob 's Gravesande mentions the heliostat for the first time in a book .
Teaching and Research
- November 13th : As Collegium Antiquitatum , by royal decree of Christian VI. today's Royal Danish Academy of Sciences was founded.
- April 13th : Georg Friedrich Handel's oratorio Messiah , composed the previous year, is enthusiastically received at its world premiere in Dublin. Handel then returned to London, where establishing the work was much more difficult.
- August 30 : The secular cantata Mer hahn en neue Oberkeet by Johann Sebastian Bach is premiered in Leipzig. The text comes from Christian Friedrich Henrici .
- December 7th : The State Opera Unter den Linden , built according to plans by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff in the style of Palladianism , opens as the Royal Court Opera in Berlin .
- Christmas: Johann Sebastian Bach's Christmas cantata Gloria in excelsis Deo is premiered in Leipzig.
- January 17th : Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz marries his cousin Elisabeth Auguste von Pfalz-Sulzbach at the age of 17 on her 21st birthday.
- September 25th : A decree of Louis XV. regulates the confidentiality of letters in France . Postal officials who break open letters and parcels and acquire the items they contain face the death penalty.
- July 11 : In the papal bull Ex quo singulari Pope treated Benedict XIV. , The Jesuit missionary practice in China and India. The accommodation of indigenous rites is forbidden by him. Missionaries must take an oath to undertake to practice Catholic rites alone.
Historical maps and views
January to April
- January 3 : Jean-Baptiste Treilhard , French politician and member of the board of directors († 1810 )
- January 5 : Claus von der Betten , German lawyer and Hanoverian State and Cabinet Minister († 1826 )
- January 7th : Christian Garve , German philosopher († 1798 )
- January 8 : Philip Astley , founder of the modern circus († 1814 )
- January 15 : Beda Mayr , German Christian scholar († 1794 )
- January 25 : Manuel Caetano de Sousa , Portuguese architect († 1802 )
- February 3 : Christian Friedrich Duttenhofer , Protestant theologian († 1814 )
- February 20 : James Gandon , British architect and engraver in Dublin († 1823 )
- February 28 : Johann Sebastian von Clais , German-Swiss watchmaker, inventor and entrepreneur, royal Bavarian real secret court chamber councilor, salt works superintendent and mine director († 1809 )
- March 5 : John Parish , Hamburg merchant († 1829 )
- March 9 : Jean-Baptiste Janson , French cellist and composer († 1803 )
- March 12 : Aletta Haniel , German entrepreneur († 1815 )
- March 13 : Anne Hunter , British poet and composer († 1821 )
- March 16 : Georg Johann Ludwig Vogel , German orientalist and Protestant theologian († 1776 )
- March 19 : Franziska von Corvin-Krasińska , Polish-Saxon noblewoman († 1796 )
- March 19 : Christian Gottlob Thube , German Protestant theologian, mystic and prophet († 1826 )
- March 30th : Johann Heinrich Suhrlandt , Mecklenburg court painter († 1827 )
- April 7th : Gunning Bedford , American politician, governor of Delaware († 1797 )
- April 13 : August Gottlieb Richter , German surgeon and author († 1812 )
- April 14 : Sophie Reimarus , German thought leader of the Enlightenment († 1817 )
- April 17 : Salomé de Gélieu , Swiss educator and educator at European royal courts († 1820 )
- April 20 : Josias von Qualen , Herr auf Damp, Bitter von Itzehoe, Privy Conference Council, Convent of Uetersen († 1819 )
- April 28 : Urban Bruun Aaskow , Danish medic († 1806 )
- April 28 : Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville , Scottish statesman and lawyer († 1811 )
- John Kay , Scottish caricaturist and miniature painter († 1826 ) April:
May to August
- May 7th : Johann Christian Hendel , German printer and publisher († 1823 )
- May 12 : Karl Heinrich Geisler , German legal scholar († 1789 )
- May 13 : Manasseh Cutler , American politician († 1823 )
- June 1 : Rudolf Steiner , German architect († 1804 )
- June 2 : Eugen Johann Christoph Esper , German entomologist, botanist, mineralogist and pathologist († 1810 )
- June 4 : Ignacio de Asso , Spanish lawyer, diplomat and naturalist († 1814 )
- June 12 : David Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan , Scottish nobleman († 1829 )
- June 24 : Johannes Jacobus van Rhijn , old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht († 1808 )
- June 26 : Arthur Middleton , American politician, signatory of the Declaration of Independence († 1787 )
- June 27th : José de Iturrigaray , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, Viceroy of New Spain († 1814 )
- July 1 : Georg Christoph Lichtenberg , German mathematician, experimental physicist and writer († 1799 )
- July 2 : Franz Wenzel von Kaunitz-Rietberg , Imperial-Austrian General and Landkomtur of the Ballei Westphalia of the German Order († 1825 )
- July 3 : Johann I. Nepomuk Anton Joseph Joachim Prokop Prince of Schwarzenberg , German-Bohemian nobleman († 1789 )
- July 24 : Giocondo Albertolli , Swiss sculptor, ornament draftsman and architect († 1825 )
- July 27 : Friedrich von Hahn , German landowner, natural philosopher and astronomer († 1805 )
- August 4 : Alexei Wassiljewitsch Naryschkin , Russian military, diplomat, statesman and author († 1800 )
- August 6 : Christian Gottlieb Kluge the Younger , German Protestant theologian and educator († 1824 )
- August 14 : Luigi Barnaba Niccolò Maria Chiaramonti, under the name of Pius VII Pope († 1823 )
- August 14 : Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland , English nobleman and soldier († 1817 )
- August 14 : Luigi Barnaba Niccolò Maria Chiaramonti, under the name of Pius VII Pope († 1823 )
- August 20 : Christian Gottlieb Geyser , German painter and engraver († 1803 )
- August 20 : Tadeusz Reytan , member of the Polish Sejm († 1780 )
- August 22 : Johann Heinrich Ludwig Meierotto , German geographer and teacher († 1800 )
- August 25 : Peter Burckhardt , Swiss politician († 1817 )
September to December
- September 8 : Ozias Humphry , English painter († 1810 )
- September 16 : John Smilie , American politician († 1812 )
- September 19 : Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard , French clergyman and deaf-mute teacher († 1822 )
- September 29 : Pierre Roussel , French doctor and author († 1802 )
- October 14 : Jakow Borissowitsch Knjaschnin , Russian poet, dramaturge and translator († 1791 )
- October 14 : Antonio de Olaguer y Feliú , Spanish politician and military († 1810 / 1813 )
- November 12 : Friedrich Carl Christian Ulrich von Ahlefeldt , German officer in the Danish service († 1825 )
- November 28 : Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Younger , German painter and engraver († 1808 )
- November 30th : Johann Andreas Sixt , German Protestant theologian and philologist († 1810 )
- December 6 : Nicolas Leblanc , French doctor, chemist and manufacturer († 1806 )
- December 15 : Francisco Antonio García Carrasco , Spanish officer and governor of Chile († 1813 )
- December 19 : Carl Wilhelm Scheele , German-Swedish pharmacist and chemist († 1786 )
- December 20 : Johann Ernst Schulz , Prussian Lutheran theologian († 1806 )
- December 24th : Everard Scheidius , Dutch Reformed theologian, philologist and orientalist († 1794 )
- December 25 : Charlotte von Stein , lady-in-waiting of Duchess Anna Amalia and close confidante of Duchess Luise von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, close friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Gottfried von Herder's family and Friedrich von Schiller († 1827 )
- December 26th : Ignaz von Born , Austrian mineralogist, malacologist and geologist († 1791 )
- December 27 (baptized): Maria Carolina Benda , singer, pianist, composer and chamber singer at the court of Duchess Anna Amalia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach († 1827 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Aga Mohammed Khan , Shah of Persia, founder of the Qajar dynasty († 1797 )
- Antonio Amar y Borbón , panicked officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Granada († 1826 )
- François d'Arlandes , French aviation pioneer († 1809 )
- Thomas Arnold , English psychiatrist and reformer († 1816 )
- Mihály Bakos , Slovenian-Hungarian Lutheran pastor, teacher and writer († 1803 )
- José de Ezpeleta , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Granada and Navarre († 1823 )
- Benjamin Frobisher , English-Canadian fur trader († 1787 )
- João Baptista Vieira Godinho , Portuguese military and colonial administrator, governor of Portuguese Timor († 1811 )
- John Ireland , English biographer, watchmaker and writer († 1808 )
- Thomas Jones , English painter († 1803 )
- Kawila , King of Lan Na in Northern Thailand († 1816 )
- Jakob Reinhard, known as Hannikel , a Württemberg robber († 1787 )
- Franz Joachim von Reinhardt , Prussian lieutenant general and vice governor of Glogau († 1809 )
Born around 1742
First half of the year
- January 1st : Philippe de Brueys , Prussian governor of the Principality of Neuchâtel (* 1682 )
- January 6th : Johann Georg Reinhardt , Austrian composer and organist (* 1676 or 1677 )
- January 8 : Johann Christoph von Naumann , German engineer, officer and architect (* 1664 )
- January 15 : Diana Beauclerk, Duchess of St Albans , Chief Chamberlain and close confidante of Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach, Princess of Wales and Queen of Great Britain and Ireland as well as Electress of Hanover (* around 1679 )
- January 25 : Edmond Halley , British astronomer, mathematician, cartographer, geophysicist and meteorologist (* 1656 )
- January 27 : Giovanni Venceslao Piccolomini , Duke of Amalfi, imperial prince and landlord of the Nachod rule (* 1695 )
- February 8 : Philipp Ludwig Wenzel von Sinzendorf , Austrian diplomat and statesman, Obersthofkanzler (* 1671 )
- February 24 : Johann Adam Dietz , Bohemian sculptor (* 1671 )
- February 26 : Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun , Scottish nobleman (* 1681 )
- February 28 : Willem Jacob 's Gravesande , Dutch astronomer, philosopher, physicist and mathematician (* 1688 )
- March 9 : James Douglas-Hamilton, 5th Duke of Hamilton , Scottish nobleman (* 1702 )
- March 9 : Michael Klahr the Elder , German sculptor (* 1693 )
- March 13 : Alfons Ambuel , Swiss officer and politician (* 1664 )
- April 10 : Wilhelmine Amalie von Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Empress of the Holy Roman Empire as wife of Joseph I (* 1673 )
- April 13 : Giovanni Veneziano , Neapolitan composer and organist (* 1683 )
- April 16 : Pierre Brumoy , French Jesuit and man of letters (* 1688 )
- April 17th : Arvid Horn , Swedish Prime Minister (* 1664 )
- April 23 : Mihael Omerza , Slovenian composer (* 1679 )
- May 5 : Elisabetta Pilotti , Italian singer (soprano), Handel interpreter (* around 1685–1690)
- May 13 : Nicolas Andry de Boisregard , French doctor and man of letters (* 1658 )
- 14 May : Dominique Varlet , Roman Catholic titular bishop of Askalon, co-founder of the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (* 1678 )
- May 21 : Lars Roberg , Swedish medic (* 1664 )
- May 24th : Pylyp Orlyk , leader of the Zaporozhe Cossacks (* 1672 )
- June 2 : Giuseppe Appiani , Italian singer, Altkastrat (* 1712 )
- June 16 : Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans , Queen of Spain (* 1709 )
- June 24th : Jacopo Appiani , Italian plasterer (* 1687 )
- June 29 : Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach , Austrian architect (* 1693 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Bohuslav Matěj Černohorský , Bohemian composer and organ teacher (* 1684 )
- July 12 : Evaristo Dall'Abaco , Italian violinist, cellist and composer (* 1675 )
- July 14 : Richard Bentley , English philologist and text critic (* 1662 )
- July 19 : Johann Baptist Xavery , Dutch sculptor (* 1697 )
- July 21 : Johannes Steuchius , Swedish Lutheran theologian, Archbishop of Uppsala (* 1676 )
- July 23 : Susanna Wesley , English pastor's wife, "mother of Methodism" (* 1669 )
- July 24th : Octavio Broggio , Bohemian architect and builder of the High Baroque (* 1670 )
- August 10 : Georg Philipp Rugendas , Augsburg painter and engraver (* 1666 )
- August 11th : August Bohse , German lawyer, rhetorician and writer (* 1661 )
- August 11 : Georg Pacák , Bohemian sculptor (* 1670 )
- August 25 : José Antonio Carlos de Seixas , Portuguese composer and harpsichordist (* 1704 )
- September 4th : Sophia Albertine von Erbach-Erbach , Duchess of Saxony-Hildburghausen (* 1683 )
- September 24th : Johann Matthias Hase , German mathematician, astronomer, cartographer and historical geographer (* 1684 )
- October 9 : Alexander von Dönhoff , Prussian lieutenant general and confidante of King Friedrich Wilhelm I (* 1683 )
- October 19 : Pedro de Ribera , Spanish architect (* 1681 )
- October 30th : Magdalena Wilhelmine von Württemberg , Margravine of Baden-Durlach (* 1677 )
- October 31 : Ki no Kaion , Japanese writer (* 1663 )
- November 6th : Martin Frantz , Baltic-Silesian architect (* 1679 )
- November 7th : Johann August , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (* 1677 )
- November 12th : Christoph Hochreutiner , Swiss Mayor and Envoy to the Diet (* 1662 )
- November 12th : Friedrich Hoffmann , German medic (* 1660 )
- November 17 : Carl Rudolf , Duke of Württemberg (* 1667 )
- November 17th : Maria Theresia von Montfort , abbess of the free worldly women's monastery Buchau (* 1663 )
- November 30th : Jean Baptiste Bassand , French medic (* 1680 )
- December 3 : Claude Aubriet , French nature painter and botanist (* 1665 )
- December 18 : Adam Friedrich Zürner , German Protestant pastor and cartographer (* 1679 )
- December 19 : Johann Michael Senckeisen , Leipzig architect and builder (* 1652 )
- December 31 : Charles III. Philipp , Count Palatine and Elector Palatinate (* 1661 )
- December 31 : Louis Bourguet , Swiss polymath (* 1678 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Marie-Anne Barbier , French playwright (* 1670 )
- Matteo Goffriller , Venetian violin maker of Tyrolean descent (* 1659 )
- Johann Adam Karinger , Tyrolean stonemason and stone sculptor (* before 1690)
- Giovanni Mossi , Italian composer and violinist (* around 1680 )
- Stefano Pallavicini , Italian court poet, dramaturge and director (* 1672 )