Different Celsius


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Different Celsius

Anders Celsius ( pronunciation : [ ˌanːdəʂ sɛlːsiɵs ], born November 27 Swe. / 7. December 1701 greg. In Uppsala , † April 25 jul. / 6. May  1744 greg. ) Was a Swedish astronomer , mathematician and physicist .

Life

Anders Celsius was born in Uppsala in 1701 and comes from a noble family from the Doma estate in Ovanåker . He studied at Uppsala University and became a professor there in 1730. On August 25, 1733 he was elected member ( matriculation no. 441 ) of the Leopoldina with the academic surname Marcus Manilius II . From 1734 he was a foreign member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences . In 1739 and 1743 he was rector of Uppsala University.

In 1736 Celsius took part in an expedition to measure the shape of the earth . In 1741 he completed the first Swedish observatory in Uppsala. He was also a poet and author of popular science literature .

Celsius was the first to investigate the brightness of stars using measurements; He also found out that auroras the magnetic field disturb the earth.

Celsius died of tuberculosis at the age of 42 and was buried in Gamla Uppsala Church.

Celsius temperature scale

Celsius Observatory in Uppsala

In 1742, Celsius defined the temperature classification named after him, degrees Celsius , differently . In contrast to the Celsius scale used today, he set the boiling point of water at 0 ° and the freezing point at 100 °. By Carl Linnaeus the fixed points of the scale were reversed; nowadays it is only used in the latter form. The revolutionary thing was that Celsius had suggested using it as a universal scale to compare temperatures around the world: In contrast to other researchers, when precisely determining the fixed points, he also noted the prevailing air pressure (760 mm on the mercury column ) and thus established precise measurement conditions.

In 1948, about 200 years after the introduction of the scale, the scale distance of a centigrade or centesimal degree on a Celsius thermometer was officially renamed to the temperature unit degrees Celsius by the 9th International General Conference on Weights and Measures . The original thermometer can now be viewed in the Museum of Uppsala University , the Gustavianum . Just like today's thermometer , it consists of a mercury reservoir with attached capillary mounted on a wooden board with a scale .

Honors

The asteroid (4169) Celsius and the lunar crater Celsius are named after him.

literature

Web links

Commons : Anders Celsius  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Memorial plaque in the old church in Uppsala .
  2. Dirk Lorenzen : New calendar and wrong birthdays. In: Stardate. Deutschlandfunk , December 7, 2013, accessed on December 9, 2013 .
  3. ^ Member entry by Anders Celsius at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on April 17, 2017.
  4. ^ Members of the previous academies. Different Celsius. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences , accessed on March 7, 2015 .
  5. Anders Celsius (1701–1744) - biography about Anders Celsius, from The Uppsala Astronomical Observatory ( English )
  6. heise online: Pay, please! - 273.15 ° C - the temperature that defines the zero point. Retrieved August 7, 2018 .