Anders Celsius ( pronunciation : [ ˌanːdəʂ sɛlːsiɵs ], born November 27 Swe. / 7. December 1701 greg. In Uppsala , † April 25 jul. / 6. May 1744 greg. ) Was a Swedish astronomer , mathematician and physicist .
Anders Celsius was born in Uppsala in 1701 and comes from a noble family from the Doma estate in Ovanåker . He studied at Uppsala University and became a professor there in 1730. On August 25, 1733 he was elected member ( matriculation no. 441 ) of the Leopoldina with the academic surname Marcus Manilius II . From 1734 he was a foreign member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences . In 1739 and 1743 he was rector of Uppsala University.
In 1736 Celsius took part in an expedition to measure the shape of the earth . In 1741 he completed the first Swedish observatory in Uppsala. He was also a poet and author of popular science literature .
Celsius temperature scale
In 1742, Celsius defined the temperature classification named after him, degrees Celsius , differently . In contrast to the Celsius scale used today, he set the boiling point of water at 0 ° and the freezing point at 100 °. By Carl Linnaeus the fixed points of the scale were reversed; nowadays it is only used in the latter form. The revolutionary thing was that Celsius had suggested using it as a universal scale to compare temperatures around the world: In contrast to other researchers, when precisely determining the fixed points, he also noted the prevailing air pressure (760 mm on the mercury column ) and thus established precise measurement conditions.
In 1948, about 200 years after the introduction of the scale, the scale distance of a centigrade or centesimal degree on a Celsius thermometer was officially renamed to the temperature unit degrees Celsius by the 9th International General Conference on Weights and Measures . The original thermometer can now be viewed in the Museum of Uppsala University , the Gustavianum . Just like today's thermometer , it consists of a mercury reservoir with attached capillary mounted on a wooden board with a scale .
- Olof Beckman: Different Celsius . Uppsala University 2003, ISBN 91-554-5661-8 .
- Horst Kant : Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit , René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, Anders Celsius . Teubner Verlag, Leipzig 1984 ISBN 3-322-00622-0 .
- NVE Nordenmark: Anders Celsius , Uppsala 1936.
- P. Volkmann: Technology pioneers: namesake of units of physical units , VDE Verlag, Berlin / Offenbach 1990, ISBN 3-8007-1563-5 , pp. 37-39
- Isaac Asimov : Biographical Encyclopedia of Natural Sciences and Technology , Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 1974, ISBN 3-451-16718-2 , p. 137
- Sten Lindroth: Celsius, different . In: Charles Coulston Gillispie (Ed.): Dictionary of Scientific Biography . tape 3 : Pierre Cabanis - Heinrich von Dechen . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1971, p. 173-174 .
- Literature by and about Anders Celsius in the catalog of the German National Library
- Anders Celsius exchanged letters with Carl von Linné
- Anne Preger: April 25, 1744 - Anniversary of the death of the astronomer Anders Celsius WDR ZeitZeichen from April 25, 2014 (podcast)
- Memorial plaque in the old church in Uppsala .
- Dirk Lorenzen : New calendar and wrong birthdays. In: Stardate. Deutschlandfunk , December 7, 2013, accessed on December 9, 2013 .
- Member by Anders Celsius at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on April 17, 2017.
- Members of the previous academies. Different Celsius. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences , accessed on March 7, 2015 .
- Anders Celsius (1701–1744) - biography about Anders Celsius, from The Uppsala Astronomical Observatory ( English )
- heise online: Pay, please! - 273.15 ° C - the temperature that defines the zero point. Retrieved August 7, 2018 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Marcus Manilius II|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Swedish astronomer, mathematician and physicist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 7, 1701|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Uppsala|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 6, 1744|
|Place of death||Uppsala|