Calendar overview 1666
The great fire of London
destroyed four fifths of the city in four days .
Académie royale des science .
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Cathedra petri .
|1666 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1114/15 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1658/59 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1071/72 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2209/10 (southern Buddhism); 2208/09 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1028/29 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3999/4000 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1076/77 (July 3-4)|
|Jewish calendar||5426/27 (September 29/30)|
|Coptic calendar||1382/83 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1976/77 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1977/78 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1722/23 (April)|
Politics and world events
Second Anglo-Dutch naval war
- June 14 : After gained four days' battle ( Four Days Battle ) who believe the Dutch , the English fleet in the Anglo-Dutch War to have destroyed.
- August 4th / 5th : The St. James's Day Fight ( Tweedagse Zeeslag ), a two-day naval battle , ends with a success for the English. Admiral Michiel de Ruyter manages, however, to skilfully cover the retreat of his Dutch fleet.
- August 20 : The English set fire to West-Terschelling and almost completely destroy the place.
Second Bremen-Swedish War
- October 28 : In The Hague , the States General , Denmark , the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg and the Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg form a quadruple alliance to protect the city of Bremen from being attacked by Sweden .
- November 15 : The Peace of habenhausen between Bremen and Sweden is concluded.
War for Crete
- Spring: The Ottomans intensify their attacks in the war for Crete at the siege of Candia, which has now been going on for 18 years . They begin to storm the fortress, but lose almost 20,000 men by autumn. An army of slaves and bulwark workers dig trenches and mine tunnels. The struggle is moving underground. The mine war remains unique in its scope until the First World War.
Other events in Europe
- June 2nd : Pastor Andreas Koch is executed as part of the witch hunt in Lemgo .
- September 9 : With the Treaty of Kleve , the Electorate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg try to finally end the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute.
- The “Charnoy” fortress is being built in Charleroi .
- March 30th : Erik Niels Smit hoists the Dannebrog on the Caribbean island of Saint Thomas , thereby founding the Danish West Indies colony .
science and technology
- December 19 : Lund University in Sweden is founded. Its purpose is to push back the Danish influence in Lund and the regions of Schonen , Blekinge and Halland , which were only ceded to Sweden in 1658 in the Second Northern War .
- Isaac Newton developed the classical mechanics and brought the name annus mirabilis to 1666 in the 19th century .
- The Irish scientist Robert Boyle , who works in Oxford, reports in his work Hydrostatical paradoxes, made out by new experiments ... about the hydrostatic paradox .
- In Rome , the French government founds the Académie de France à Rome . The study center aims to offer talented students from the Paris Academy of Fine Arts ( Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture ) the opportunity to study the art treasures of Italy.
- Gian Lorenzo Bernini completes the Cathedra petri , the papal throne in Rome. Work on the plant began in 1656 .
- The first work by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen appears: Black and White or the Satirical Pilgrim .
- The English writer George Alsop publishes the work A Character of the Province of Maryland in London , in which he processes his time as a debt servant in the colony of Maryland .
Music and theater
- June 4th : Le Misanthrope ou l'Atrabilaire amoureux ( The Misanthrope ), a five-act comedy by Molière , premieres at the Palais Royal in Paris. As in most of his pieces, the author plays the protagonist himself.
- August 6th : The comedy The Doctor Against Will ( French Le médecin malgré lui ) by Molière has its world premiere at the Palais Royal in Paris. The piece combines elements of the Italian commedia dell'arte with the French farce and the medieval fabliau .
- The Accademia Filarmonica is founded in Bologna . It becomes the center of the Bolognese School of Music .
- Heinrich Schütz composes the St. Matthew Passion and the final version of his St. John Passion .
- The Evangelical Lutheran theologian Paul Gerhardt composes the Christmas hymn Come and let us honor Christ .
- The Reformed Church in Lübeck is orally recognized by the mayors Gotthard von Höveln and Gottschalk von Wickede . On August 26th, Pastor Wilhelm Momma celebrates the first public service in the house of a parishioner.
- September 15 : The self-proclaimed Jewish Messiah Shabbetaj Zvi converts to Islam .
- The Great Plague of London that broke out last year is ending. About 70,000 people, around a fifth of the city's population, fell victim to it. In February it seems safe enough for the king and his entourage to return to the city. In the meantime, the plague has reached France via trade routes, where the chain of infection then breaks off in the following winter. In London , the epidemic claimed further deaths in the course of the year, albeit within a manageable range.
- 2nd to 5th September : The Great Fire of London , which broke out in a bakery, destroyed four fifths of the city in 4 days , including most of the medieval buildings. The fire makes around 100,000 people homeless, but according to official figures only a few are killed. The conspiracy theory quickly spread that the Jesuits had started the fire. The French watchmaker Robert "Lucky" Hubert confesses - probably under torture - that he was an agent of the Pope and that he started the fire in Westminster. Despite overwhelming evidence of his innocence, he was convicted and hanged on September 28th . Only afterwards does it emerge that he only came to London two days after the fire.
January to August
- January 3 : Johann Christoph Egedacher , Salzburg organ builder († 1747 )
- January 17th : Johann Daniel Preissler , Nuremberg painter of Bohemian descent († 1737 )
- February 1 : Marie Thérèse de Bourbon-Condé , Princess of Conti († 1732 )
- March 15 : George Bähr , German master builder, builder of the Frauenkirche in Dresden († 1738 )
- March 16 : Taco Hajo van den Honert , German Reformed theologian († 1740 )
- March 21 : Ogyū Sorai , Japanese Neo-Confucian philosopher († 1728 )
- April 7th : Wilhelm Hyacinth , Prince of Orange († 1743 )
- April 12 : Pierre Le Gros the Younger , French sculptor in Rome († 1719 )
- May 5 : Johann Heinrich Buttstedt , German organist and composer († 1727 )
- May 14 : Vittorio Amadeo II , Duke of Savoy, King of Sicily and Sardinia († 1732 )
- June 9 : Louis-Armand de Lom d'Arce , French officer and traveler in the French colonies of North America († 1716 )
- June 17 : Antonio Maria Valsalva , Italian anatomist and surgeon († 1723 )
- July 27 : Heinrich Freiherr von Huyssen , German diplomat and advisor to Peter the Great († 1739 )
- August 6 : Marie Sophie of the Palatinate , Queen of Portugal († 1699 )
- August 12 : Antonio Balestra , Italian painter, draftsman and engraver († 1740 )
- August 12 : Odoardo II. Farnese , Duke of Parma and Piacenza († 1693 )
- August 24 : Damian Hugo Count von Virmont zu Neersen , German general and diplomat († 1722 )
- August 26 : Henriette Amalie von Anhalt-Dessau , Princess of Nassau-Diez and governor of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe († 1726 )
September to December
- September 4 : Anna Maria Ehrenstrahl , Swedish painter († 1729 )
- September 5 : Gottfried Arnold , German theologian, did a great job writing church history († 1714 )
- September 6 : Ivan V , Tsar of Russia († 1696 )
- September 15 : Sophie Dorothea von Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Queen of Great Britain († 1726 )
- September 17th : Sigmund Friedrich von Khevenhüller , Governor of Carinthia († 1742 )
- October 2 : Marie Anne de Bourbon , illegitimate daughter of Louis XIV, Princess of Conti († 1739 )
- October 9 : Christian August von Sachsen-Zeitz , Archbishop of Gran and Imperial Principal Commissioner († 1725 )
- October 30 : Nicolaus Vetter , German organist and composer († 1734 )
- November 5 : Attilio Ariosti , Italian composer († 1729 )
- November 12th : Mary Astell , English feminist writer, rhetorician and philosopher († 1731 )
- November 17 : Francisco Fernández de la Cueva Enríquez , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1733 )
- November 17 : Benedetto Luti , Italian painter († 1724 )
- November 19 : Carl Gustaf Armfelt , Swedish general († 1736 )
- November 25th : Giuseppe Giovanni Guarneri , Italian violin maker († 1739 )
- November 27 : Georg Philipp Rugendas , Augsburg painter and engraver († 1742 )
- November 28 : Magnus Berg , Norwegian painter and ivory carver († 1739 )
- December 5 : Francesco Scarlatti , Italian violinist and composer († around 1741 )
- December 16 : Auguste Dorothea , Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1751 )
- December 22nd : Gobind Singh , tenth and last human guru of Sikhism († 1708 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Josef Auer , German sculptor and wood carver († 1739 )
- Michelangelo Faggioli , Italian lawyer and composer († 1733 )
- Ejima Kiseki , Japanese writer († 1735 )
First half of the year
- February 1 : Shah Jahan , Mughal Mughal of India and builder of the Taj Mahal (* 1592 )
- February 16 : Jean de Lauzon , Governor of New France (* around 1584 )
- February 21 : Armand de Bourbon , Prince of Conti (* 1629 )
- March 17th : Diego Benavides de la Cueva , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of Navarre and viceroy of Peru (* 1607 )
- April 1 : Wenceslaus Leszczynski , Bishop of Warmia, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland-Lithuania (* 1605 )
- April 1 : Valentin Schäfer , councilor and mayor of Dresden (* 1592 )
- April 7th : Johann Lorentisch , Italian master stonemason and sculptor (* 1610 )
- April 8 : Hans Georg von Schleinitz , German administrative officer and occasional poet (* 1599 )
- April 12 : Johann Rudolf Wettstein , Swiss politician and mayor of Basel (* 1594 )
- May 1 : Christoph Notnagel , German mathematician and astronomer (* 1607 )
- May 5th : Paul Siefert , German organist and composer (* 1586 )
- May 13 : Pier Francesco Mola , Italian painter (* 1612 )
- May 21 : Filiberto Lucchese , Italian builder and geodesist (* 1606 )
- May 22 : Caspar Schott , student and collaborator of the polymath Athanasius Kircher (* 1608 )
- May 30th : Michael Beer , Austrian architect and builder of the Baroque period (* around 1605 )
- June 2 : Andreas Koch , Protestant pastor at the Church of St. Nicolai in Lemgo and victim of the witch madness (* around 1619 )
- June 3 : Christian Chemnitz , German Lutheran theologian (* 1615 )
- June 16 : Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet , English poet, translator, diplomat and politician (* 1608 )
- June 29th : Mateo Cerezo the Younger , Spanish painter (* 1637 )
- June 30th : Adam Krieger , German composer and church musician (* 1634 )
Second half of the year
- July 23 : Katharina Steb , victim of the persecution of witches in Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
- July 27 : Georg Lilien , German Lutheran theologian (* 1597 )
- July 30th : Franz Erdmann , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg and Imperial Field Marshal General (* 1629 )
- August 10th : Georg Friedrich vom Holtz zu Niederholz , Colonel Sergeant and General Feldzeugmeister in the Thirty Years' War (* 1597 )
- August 15 : Adam Schall von Bell , German scientist and missionary (* 1592 )
- August 19 : Anton Günther I , Count in Sondershausen (* 1620 )
- August 26 : Frans Hals , Dutch painter (* between 1580 and 1585 )
- August 30 : Benedikt Carpzov , criminalist and witch theorist, is considered the founder of German law (* 1595 )
- September 10 : Christian Günther II , Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of Arnstadt (* 1616 )
- September 11th : Paul Fürst , German publisher, book and art dealer (* 1608 )
- September 17th : August the Younger , Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1579 )
- September 23 : Hannibal Sehested , Danish statesman (* 1609 )
- September 25 : Abbas II , Shah of Persia (* 1633 )
- November 3rd : Ascanio Filomarino , Archbishop of Naples (* 1583 )
- November 6th : Luisa von Guzmán , Queen of Portugal (* 1613 )
- December 22nd : Giovanni Francesco Barbieri , called Il Guercino , Italian painter (* 1591 )
- December 26 : Alexandrine von Taxis , Postmaster General of the Imperial Post and Postmaster General in the Spanish Netherlands (* 1589 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Frans Hals , Dutch painter (* between 1580 and 1585 )
- Johann Rudolf Philipp Forer , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1598 )