|Henry III. of France abrogates all Huguenot liberties in the Treaty of Nemours .||Sixtus V on.|
|Andrea Palladio completes the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza .|
|1585 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1033/34 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1577/78 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||990/991 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2128/29 (southern Buddhism); 2127/28 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||947/948 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3918/19 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||992/ 993 /994 (Year 2/3 January. // 22/23. December)|
|Jewish calendar||5345/46 (23/24 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1301/02 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1895/96 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1896/97 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1641/42 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Eighty Years War
- April 4 : A at the siege of Antwerp in the Eighty Years' War by the Spaniards under Alessandro Farnese on the Scheldt stricken ship's bridge is explosive ships of the Italian Federigo Giambelli partially destroyed. As the success of this action is not immediately noticed in Antwerp , the Spaniards can restore the bridge. On August 17 must Antwerp to the Spanish result. The treaty of Nonsuch of August 10 , in which Queen Elizabeth I of England pledges support for the city, comes too late.
- June 23 : During the Eighty Years War the battle of Amerongen in the province of Utrecht takes place . Count Adolf von Neuenahr and his troops consisting of Dutch and German mercenaries fail in an attempt to stop the marauding of Spanish units.
Huguenot Wars in France
- July 7th : King Henry III. of France abolishes all the freedom of the Huguenots in the Treaty of Nemours with the Catholic League founded in 1576 .
- The eighth Huguenot War between the Catholic League and the Huguenots begins.
Republic of Venice
- July 30th : Nicolò da Ponte dies. Pasquale Cicogna is chosen as his successor as Doge of the Republic of Venice . During the procession for his coronation he only allows silver coins to be scattered among the people instead of the usual gold ducats, which is a clear break with tradition.
Holy Roman Empire
- June 16 : Jakobe von Baden-Baden marries the heir to the throne Johann Wilhelm von Jülich-Kleve-Berg .
- The Baden Treaty regulates the state relationship as well as the territorial and confessional sovereignty between Basel and the Principality of Basel . The treaty is a great success for the Swiss Counter Reformation .
- The Truchsessian War continues.
England / Spain / Caribbean
Sir Francis Drake , who married his second wife Elizabeth Sydenham on February 9 , receives a commission from Queen Elizabeth I of England on July 1, authorizing him to attack Spanish ports and ships. A total of 25 ships and eight pinnacles under his command will leave on September 14th and sail for the Caribbean . First, Drake attacks Santo Domingo , where he destroys a third of the city and sets all ships in the port on fire. He then turns against Cartagena .
North American colonies
Richard Grenville sets out on April 9th with 600 people from Plymouth for the new world. Together with 107 other people, he founds the first English settlement on the east coast of North America. The settlement of Roanoke Island planned by Sir Walter Raleigh last year is developing into a disaster. The settlers arrive too late for a cheap harvest and also get into a dispute with the native Indian tribes.
- September 9 : The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is founded. 84 merchants come to set the course initially .
- December 26th : The Geislautern ironworks is founded.
- The gentlemen von Schlitz found the Auerhahn brewery in Sandlofs . The Schlitzer distillery also produces in an adjoining building .
science and technology
- Giordano Bruno publishes the Eroici furori (dialogues between heroes and enthusiasts).
- John Davis embarks on a multi-year voyage of discovery in search of the Northwest Passage . Among other things, he becomes a new discoverer of Greenland . He drives through Davis Strait and discovers what will later become Baffin Bay .
- Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria founds the University of Graz .
- March 3 : The Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza , built according to plans by Andrea Palladio as the first free-standing theater building in Europe since antiquity, opens with the tragedy of King Oedipus by Sophocles .
- April 10 : Pope Gregory XIII. dies in Rome after almost 13 years of pontificate.
- April 24 : Cardinal Felice Peretti di Montalto is after three days of conclave by acclamation elected Pope and takes the name of Sixtus V on. One of his first official acts is the appointment of his great-nephew Alessandro Damasceni-Peretti di Montalto as cardinal. This takes on the function of a cardinal depository . Sixtus is also working on the financial situation of the Papal States, which was under his predecessor Gregory XIII. has deteriorated rapidly, to renovate through radical austerity measures.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 8 : Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse , French nobleman († 1656 )
- January 23 : Maria Ward , founder of the English lady and pioneer of girls' education († 1645 )
- January 28 : Domenico II. Contarini , 104th Doge of Venice († 1675 )
- February 25 : Johannes Ardüser , Swiss mathematician and fortress engineer († 1665 )
- March 5 : Johann Georg I , Elector of Saxony († 1656 )
- March 5 : Friedrich I , founder of the noble family Hessen-Homburg († 1638 )
- March 6 : Francesco Cornaro , 101st Doge of Venice († 1656 )
- April 7 : Niklaus Geisler , Swiss sculptor and architect († 1665 )
- April 15 : Adam Graf von Herberstorff , Bavarian governor of Upper Austria († 1629 )
- May 5 : Vincenzo Carafa , general of the Jesuits († 1649 )
- June 28 : Baltasar Elisio de Medinilla , Spanish writer and religious poet († 1620 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel , English nobleman († 1646 )
- July 11 : Nikolaus Hunnius , German Lutheran theologian († 1643 )
- August 1 : Wilhelm von Proeck , member of the Fruit Bringing Society († 1654 )
- August 25 : Giovanni Biliverti , Italian painter († 1644 )
- October 4 : Anna of Austria-Tyrol , Empress of the Holy Roman Empire († 1618 )
- October 11 : Johann Heermann , German hymn poet († 1647)
- October 18 : Heinrich Schütz , German musician, composer and organist of the Baroque († 1672 )
- October 28 : Cornelius Jansen , Dutch theologian († 1638 )
- November 16 : Reinhold Franckenberger , German historian († 1664 )
- December 5 : Heinrich Julius von Wietersheim , Stiftshofmeister in Quedlinburg († 1645 )
- December 10 : Gregor Francke , German Protestant theologian († 1651 )
- December 31 : Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba , Spanish general († 1635 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Edmund Arrowsmith , English Jesuit priest († 1628 )
- David Gregor Corner , German abbot, hymn poet and theologian († 1648 )
- Johann Jakob Irminger , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1649 )
- Pho Thisarath II , King of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Chang († 1627 )
- Voravongse II , King of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Chang († 1622 )
Born around 1585
First half of the year
- April 10 : Ugo Boncompagni, under the name Gregor XIII. Pope (* 1502 )
- Mid-April: Christoph Stathmion , Coburg town doctor, astrologer and Kalendermacher (* 1508 / 1509 )
Second half of the year
- July 10th : Anna Witthovedes , victim of the witch hunt in Soest
- July 16 : Bartholomäus Schobinger , Swiss merchant and alchemist (* 1500 )
- July 27 : Ichijō Kanesada , Japanese nobleman (* 1543 )
- July 30th : Nicolò da Ponte , 87th Doge of Venice (* 1491 )
- August 6 : Yermak Timofejewitsch , Russian explorer and Cossack ataman (* between 1537 and 1540 )
- September 6 : Luca Cambiaso , Italian painter (* 1527 )
- November 5 : Pontus De la Gardie , Swedish military leader and governor of Livonia (* 1520 )
- November 13 : Laurentius Lindemann , German legal scholar and Saxon statesman (* 1520 )
- November 23 : Thomas Tallis , English composer of sacred, predominantly vocal music at the time of the English Reformation (* 1505 )
- November 27th : Ambrosius Lobwasser , German writer (* 1515 )
- November 28 : Johannes Lencker , Nuremberg goldsmith and graphic artist (* 1523 )
- December 19 : Wenzel Jamnitzer , Nuremberg goldsmith, engraver and stamp Schneider (* 1507 / 08 )
- December 22nd : Vittoria Accoramboni , Italian nobleman (* 1557 )