Calendar overview 1523
Gustav Wasa becomes
King of Sweden .
Pope Clement VII.
Sweden breaks away from the Kalmar Union ,
which ceases to exist.
|1523 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||971/972 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||4th rabbit - Nahui Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 3rd house - Jei Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2066/67 (southern Buddhism); 2065/66 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||885/886 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3856/57 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||929/930 (turn of the year 9/10 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5283/84 (9/10 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1833/34 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1834/35 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1579/80 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Siege of Rhodes
- January 1st : The siege of Rhodes by the Ottoman Empire ends after six months with the capture of the island by Sultan Suleyman I. The knights of the Order of St. John are given safe conduct and initially settle on the island of Crete , which at that time is in Venetian hand is located.
The dissolution of the Kalmar Union
- January 20th : The nobility of Denmark and Norway rise up against King Christian II , who is already struggling with the Swedish War of Liberation under Gustav Wasa . Christian is forced to abdicate and flees to the Netherlands. His uncle Friedrich I is elected king by the Danish estates. In the corresponding duchies of Schleswig and Holstein he is also recognized as a duke, but in the same year he hands over part of the northern duchy with Hadersleben to his son Christian .
- May 27th : Gustav Wasa conquers Kalmar with the help of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck .
- June 6th : With the election of Gustav I. Wasa in front of Strängnäs Cathedral, Sweden becomes an independent kingdom and breaks away from the Kalmar Union , which finally ceases to exist.
- June 21st : Gustav Wasa solemnly enters Stockholm , which had been captured by the Lübeck fleet four days earlier.
Holy Roman Empire
- May 10th : The rebellious knights in the Knight's War have to surrender to the sovereign superiority under Philip I of Hesse after their leader Franz von Sickingen was fatally wounded by a cannonball on May 7th . Sickingen's Drachenfels Castle in Wasgau is destroyed by the victors, although it was handed over by the bailiff without a fight; its reconstruction is prohibited.
- May 23 : The Hildesheim collegiate feud ends with the Quedlinburg Recess . The Hildesheim Monastery is reduced to the so-called Small Monastery, while the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and the Principality of Calenberg recorded large territorial gains.
- In June and July the Swabian Federation destroyed 23 robber barons' castles in Franconia during the Franconian War . After the trigger of the war, the robber baron Thomas von Absberg , whose Absberg castle is burned down on July 21, the war is also called the Absberg feud .
- August 1st : The union of the states , in which the states of Mecklenburg come together to form an "eternal alliance", has formed the basis of the Mecklenburg corporate state for over four centuries .
- October 5th : After the death of the first ruler of the united Duchy of Pomerania , Bogislaw X. , his sons Georg I and Barnim IX follow him . together on the throne after.
Other events in Europe
- May 7th : After the death of Antonio Grimani , Andrea Gritti is elected as the new Doge of Venice . His first official act was a treaty with Emperor Charles V , which ended the participation of the Republic of Venice in the Italian Wars . He tries to maintain neutrality in the Franco-Habsburg conflict and to draw the attention of the European powers to the advance of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
- August 22nd : Lucien of Monaco is murdered by his nephew Barthélémy Doria de Dolceacqua, whom he has given hospitality to. Lucien's brother Augustin , who has been in charge of state affairs for a while, becomes the new lord of Monaco .
- For the first time, Emperor Charles V suggested the construction of a water canal as a connection between the Atlantic and Pacific in Central America .
- The war correspondent Hans Wandereisen documents with the Wandereisen woodcuts from 1523 the procession of the Swabian Federation in the Franconian War against the robber barons.
- Lorenzo Lotto paints the portrait of Messer Marsilio and his wife in oil on wood .
- The Bierbaumsche House in Braunschweig is built.
- July 1st : The Augustinians Hendrik Vos and Johannes van Esschen die at the stake in Brussels because they remain true to their Protestant faith. You are the first two martyrs of the Reformation in the Spanish Netherlands .
- September 14th : Pope Hadrian VI. dies in Rome. The historian Hermann Schreiber comes to the conclusion in his book History of the Popes that Hadrian VI. was probably poisoned. The Lexicon of the Saints and Popes , however, assumes a not unlikely feverish death, as millions of mosquitoes have become a plague in the swamps around the Vatican that have not yet been drained . He is first buried in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome .
- November 18 : The conclave elects Giulio de 'Medici as the new Pope, who adopts the name Clement VII .
- By Mikael Agricola which passes Protestantism to Finland .
- Martin Luther creates the Reformation chant Oh God, look into it from heaven .
- Thomas Müntzer writes the Advent song God, holy creator of all stars .
Date of birth saved
- January 18 : Johannes Haller the Younger , Swiss Protestant theologian and reformer († 1575 )
- February 20 : Jan Blahoslav , Czech humanist, grammarian and composer († 1571 )
- March 21 : Kaspar Eberhard , German Lutheran theologian and educator († 1575 )
- March 22nd : Daniel Brendel von Homburg , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz († 1582 )
- April 15 : Blaise de Vigenère , French diplomat and cryptographer († 1596 )
- April 21 : Marcantonio Bragadin , Venetian officer, defender of Cyprus († 1571 )
- June 5 : Marguerite de Valois-Angoulême , Duchess of Berry and Duchess of Savoy († 1574 )
- June 17th : Kunigunde of Brandenburg-Kulmbach , Margravine of Baden († 1558 )
- July 18 : George II of Brieg , Duke of Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau († 1586 )
- October 18 : Anna Jagiellonica , Polish-Lithuanian princess, elected head of state of Poland-Lithuania († 1596 )
- December 22 : Charles I of Bourbon , cardinal, archbishop of Rouen and papal legate of Avignon († 1590 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln , English nobleman († 1534 )
- Rudolf von und zu Frankenstein , Prince-Bishop of Speyer († 1560 )
- Giovanni Battista Moroni , Italian Renaissance painter († 1578 )
Born around 1523
Date of death secured
- January 30th : Fabian von Lossainen , Prince-Bishop of Warmia (* around 1470 )
- February 4 : Simon Pistoris the Elder , German medic (* around 1453 )
- February 6 : Jens Holgersen Ulfstand , Danish knight (* 1450 )
- May 7th : Antonio Grimani , Doge of Venice (* 1434 )
- May 7 : Franz von Sickingen , leader of the Rhenish and Swabian knights (* 1481 )
- May 14 : Nicolas Vaux , English peer and politician (* around 1460 )
- July 1st : Johannes van Esschen and Hendrik Vos , first martyrs of the Reformation (* 15th century)
- August 13 : Gerard David , old Dutch painter (* 1460 )
- August 22nd : Lucien , Lord of Monaco (* 1481 )
- August 27 : Domenico Grimani , Patriarch of Aquilea, important patron and art collector (* 1461 )
- August 29 : Ulrich von Hutten , German humanist and writer (* 1488 )
- September 14 : Hadrian VI. , was Pope from 1522 to 1523 (* 1459 )
- October 5th : Bogislaw X. , Duke of Pomerania (* 1454 )
- October 9 : Peter IV von Rosenberg , Bohemian nobleman from the Rosenbergs (* 1462 )
- October 16 : Luca Signorelli , Italian painter (* around 1450 )
- November 22nd : Achille Grassi , Bishop of Bologna and Cardinal (* 1456 )
- December 16 : Bernhard Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , German humanist (* 1457 or 1459 )
- December 30th : Prospero Colonna , Italian condottiere in the service of the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire during the Italian Wars (* 1452 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Silvester Mazzolini , Italian Dominican and critic of Luther (* 1456 )
- Mehmed I. Giray , Khan of the Crimea (* 1465 )