Calendar overview 1578
Portuguese King Sebastian is killed in the
battle of Alcácer-Quibir .
|Henry I ascends the throne as the last Portuguese king from the house of Avis .|
|Pont Neuf is laid.|
|1578 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1026/27 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2121/22 (southern Buddhism); 2120/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||940/941 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3911/12 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||985/986 (turn of the year 9/10 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5338/39 (September 1st and 2nd)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1888/89 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1889/90 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1634/35 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Europe and North Africa
- January 13th : After several months of siege, the Ottomans conquer the Croatian fortress of Gvozdansko . The entire crew is killed in defense.
- April 27th : Duel of the Mignons : In the fight for the favor of the French King Heinrich III. face one of the most famous duels in French history, three Mignons and three other members of the royal entourage.
- May 26th : Alteratie of Amsterdam : William I of Orange besieges Amsterdam . In the Satisfactie van Amsterdam , Catholics are assured of freedom of religion, and Amsterdam then joins the rebellion against Spain.
- August 4th : At the battle of Alcácer-Quibir, the Portuguese suffer a crushing defeat against the troops of the Sultan of Fez . The Portuguese King Sebastian falls in battle, his body remains missing. In Portugal , which was decisively weakened after this battle, Henry I ascended the throne as the last king of the house of Avis .
- The Ottoman-Safavid War , a military conflict between the Persian Safavid Empire under Mohammad Chodābande and the Ottoman Empire under Murad III. , begins. The Ottomans start the war with the aim of occupying Azerbaijan and the Caucasus and, as a first step, capture Tbilisi .
- May 30th to October 1st : Martin Frobisher undertakes his third trip to the Arctic, on which he has only achieved few successes.
- September 29th : Today's Honduran capital Tegucigalpa is founded.
- At the behest of Elector August I of Saxony , the construction of the Elsterfloßgraben begins . It should enable the transport of wood that is needed for salt production.
science and technology
- May 31 : The French King Henry III. lays the foundation stone for what is now the oldest bridge in Paris , the Pont Neuf .
- July 7th : The oldest university in the Baltic States , the University of Vilnius , is founded.
- Pope Gregory XIII founds the Vatican observatory to review his planned calendar reform and has the later so-called Tower of the Winds built for this purpose , the construction of which will take until 1580. The Jesuit Christophorus Clavius , as the person responsible for the calendar reform, becomes the de facto first head of the observatory, although there is no official appointment.
- Count Palatine Johann Casimir von Pfalz-Simmern founded the Casimirianum in Neustadt an der Haardt in the Palatinate (today Neustadt an der Weinstrasse ), a Calvinist university that only lasted five years.
- The construction of the Kranichstein hunting lodge near Darmstadt for Landgrave Georg I of Hessen-Darmstadt begins.
- February 9 : In Brucker Libell Archduke granted Charles II. After the country stands also the towns and markets of Inner Austria full conscience and religion freedom on condition guilty obedience to him. The Brucker Libell contains an express rejection of the Calvinist faith by the estates attached to the Augsburg Confession .
- February 27 : The Emden religious conversation between Reformed and Mennonites begins. The 14 agreed points of discussion include questions of the Trinity , predestination , the excommunication , baptism and the Lord's Supper . 124 meetings will take place until May 17th .
- September 14th : Duke Emanuel Philibert of Savoy has the Turin Shroud transferred from Chambéry to his new residence city of Turin , where it is kept in Turin Cathedral to this day .
- In 1575 founded Meidaizhao Monastery gives the Mongolian ruler Altan Khan to Sonam Gyatsho the honorary title of Dalai Lama .
Date of birth saved
- January 1 : Iwasa Matabē , Japanese painter († 1650 )
- March 2 : George Sandys , English traveler, colonist and poet († 1644 )
- March 18 (baptized): Adam Elsheimer , German painter († 1610 )
- April 1 : William Harvey , English physician and anatomist, discoverer of the blood circulation, pioneer of modern physiology († 1657 )
- April 5 : Tobias Hübner , Chamber and Justice Councilor of Prince Johann Kasimir († 1636 )
- April 14th : Philip III. , King of Spain and (as Philip II) of Portugal (1598–1621) († 1621 )
- May 11 : Christian Günther I , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen († 1642 )
- June 5 : Claude de Lorraine, duc de Chevreuse , French nobleman († 1657 )
- June 23 : Hans Christoph von Ebeleben , German lawyer and administrative officer († 1651 )
- June 23 : Johann Behm , German Lutheran theologian († 1648 )
- July 9 : Ferdinand II , Holy Roman Emperor († 1637 )
- July 31 : Katharina Belgica of Oranien-Nassau , Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg († 1648 )
- August 8 : Matteo Rosselli , Italian painter († 1650 )
- August 17 : Francesco Albani , Italian painter († 1660 )
- August 17 : Johann , first Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen († 1638 )
- October 1 : Fidelis von Sigmaringen , martyr († 1622 )
- October 19 : Enoch Pöckel , lawyer, council member and council builder in Leipzig, Hammerherr in the Erzgebirge († 1627 )
- November 1 : Dmitri Michailowitsch Poscharski , Russian prince, leader of an uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian occupation during the time of turmoil († 1642 )
- November 4 : Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg , Duke of Pfalz-Neuburg and Duke of Jülich-Berg († 1653 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Fede Galizia , Italian painter († 1630 )
- François Ravaillac , murderer of Henry IV of France († 1610 )
Born around 1578
Date of death secured
- January 1st : Ioan Potcoavă , Prince of Moldova
- January 5th : Giulio Clovio , Italian miniature painter (* 1498 )
- January 21 : Piyale Pascha , Ottoman admiral and vizier (* around 1515 )
- January 25 : Mihrimah Sultan , Ottoman princess, daughter of Süleyman I (* 1522 )
- February 12 : Catherine of Castile , Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Spain and Queen of Portugal (* 1507 )
- March 3 : Sebastiano Venier , 86th Doge of Venice (* around 1496 )
- March 9 : Margaret Douglas , Scottish noblewoman (* 1515 )
- March 17th : Cornelis Cort , Dutch engraver (* 1533 )
- March 18 : Johann Baumgart , German Lutheran theologian, hymn poet and school dramatist (* 1514 )
- March 29 : Louis I. de Lorraine-Guise , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1527 )
- April 10th : Joan of Austria , Austrian Renaissance princess, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (* 1547 )
- April 14 : James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell , Scottish military and third husband of Mary Queen of Scots (* around 1534 )
- April 19 : Uesugi Kenshin , daimyo of the Japanese Sengoku period (* 1530 )
- April 20 : Mary Gray , English noblewoman, sister of the Nine Day Queen Jane Gray (* 1545 )
- April 27th : Louis de Maugiron , favorite of the French King Henry III. (* 1560 )
- May 1st : Wilhelm II von der Mark , Admiral der Wassergeusen and Governor of Holland (* 1542 )
- May 29 : Jacques de Lévis, comte de Caylus , participant in the duel of the Mignons (* 1554 )
- June 8 : Christoph von Carlowitz , Saxon diplomat (* 1507 )
- August 4th : Sebastian I , King of Portugal from the house of Avis (* 1554 )
- October 1 : Juan de Austria , Austro-Spanish admiral, son of Emperor Charles V (* 1547 )
- November 8th : Hans Saphoy , master builder at St. Stephan in Vienna
- December 19 : Ambrosius Aigen , Swiss businessman and mayor
Exact date of death unknown
- Abu Abdallah Muhammad al-Mutawakkil al-Masluch , 3rd Sultan of the Saadians in Morocco (* unknown)
- Hernando Pizarro , Spanish conquistador (* probably 1502 )