Calendar overview 1577
Sebastiano Venier becomes
Doge of Venice .
Swedish King Erik XIV
dies in captivity.
|comet of 1577 is described by numerous scholars.|
|1577 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1025/26 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2120/21 (southern Buddhism); 2119/20 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||939/940 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3910/11 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||984/985 (turn of the year 20/21 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5337/38 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1887/88 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1888/89 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1633/34 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Northern and Eastern Europe
- February 26th : The Swedish King Erik XIV, who was deposed in 1568, dies after more than eight years of imprisonment. The danger of a renewed change of the throne in Sweden is thus averted. It is possible that Erik's death was due to an order of the reigning King John III. attributed to murdering the former king when there were signs of an attempt at liberation.
- December: The Danzig War ends with a peace treaty mediated by Brandenburg. The city of Danzig , which has successfully withstood a month-long siege, must formally pay homage to the King of Poland , but it retains all its privileges and receives a position on the Baltic Sea comparable to a Hanseatic city . The resistance of the heavily fortified city could not be broken despite the defeat of a Gdansk civil army in the battle of Dirschau in April and a subsequent three-month siege of the city from June to September.
Southern and Western Europe
- June 4th : Alvise Mocenigo I. dies. The 81-year-old Sebastiano Venier is elected as his successor as Doge of Venice . Pope Gregory XIII gives the new Doge the Golden Rose as a special award .
- September: The Sixth Huguenot War , which consisted mainly of diplomatic maneuvers, ends with the Peace of Bergerac .
Holy Roman Empire
- January 21 : Heinrich von Reuschenberg is appointed Landkomtur of the Ballei Alden Biesen and thus head of the largest German order commander in northwestern Europe.
- The community of the free noble lords of the Holy Roman Empire is summarized in three knight circles.
Voyages of discovery and colonies
- May 26th : Martin Frobisher's second journey to the Arctic in search of the Northwest Passage begins. He returns without success on September 23rd .
- December 13th : After a false start on November 15th , Sir Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth to sail around the world .
- December 27th : Francis Drake's expedition reaches the island of Mogador off the Moroccan Atlantic coast.
- The Mexican city of Saltillo is founded.
science and technology
- Numerous astronomers, including Tycho Brahe , describe the appearance and course of the comet from 1577 . By measuring the parallax , Tycho Brahe recognizes that the comet is not, as postulated by Aristotle , a photometeor in the earth's atmosphere , but rather a more distant entity.
- The cartographer Gottfried Mascop produced an atlas of the Archbishopric of Mainz on behalf of the Prince-Bishop of Mainz Daniel Brendel von Homburg .
- The painter Federico Zuccari , together with Cardinal Federico Borromeo , founds the Accademia di San Luca in Rome , the oldest art school in Europe. Zuccari becomes its first president. Girolamo Muziano is one of the founding members .
- The Greek painter El Greco moved from Rome to Madrid , later to Toledo .
- The first edition of Raphael Holinsheds The Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland is published.
- The Dutch fishmonger Adriaen Coenen publishes the Visboeck .
- After Salentin von Isenburg's resignation , Gebhard I. von Waldburg becomes the new Archbishop of Cologne and thus elector in the German Empire .
- At the instigation of the Elector August of Saxony , the formula of the Concord was drawn up as the last confession of the Lutheran Church . This also brings a balance in the Second Supper dispute between the groups of the Gnesiolutherans and the Philippists .
- Amritsar , today's center of Sikhism , is founded by Guru Ram Das . A few years later, his son and successor Arjan Dev began building the Golden Temple .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- February 6 : Beatrice Cenci , Roman patrician († 1599 )
- February 8 : Robert Burton , English writer († 1640 )
- February 12 : Dorothea Augusta von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Abbess of the Gandersheim Monastery († 1625 )
- February 16 : Thomas Lansius , German lawyer († 1657 )
- February 17 : August , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg († 1656 )
- March 3 : Nicolas Trigault , member of the Societas Jesu and French missionary († 1628 )
- March 26th : Elisabeth of Orange-Nassau , Duchess of Bouillon and regent of the independent principality of Sedan († 1642 )
- March 29 : Johann Ulrich Pregizer I , German theologian, university professor, Chancellor of the University of Tübingen († 1656 )
- April 7th : Thomas Sagittarius , German philologist, philosophical logician and educator († 1621 )
- April 12 : Christian IV , King of Denmark and Norway († 1648 )
- May 3 : Johann Günther II. , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen († 1631 )
- June 28 or 29 : Peter Paul Rubens , painter of Flemish origin († 1640 )
- June 29 : Johann Merck , German educator († 1658 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Adolf von Tecklenburg , Count of Tecklenburg († 1623 )
- July 19 : Johannes Oettinger , German geographer, cartographer and geodetician († 1633 )
- September 6 : Pietro Tacca , Italian architect, sculptor and bronze caster († 1640 )
- September 22 : Christoph Besold , German lawyer and state scholar († 1638 )
- September 24 : Ludwig V , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1626 )
- October 1 : Honor Guard of Isenburg , Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg-Schwarzenfels († 1637 )
- October 6 : Ferdinand of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne, Bishop of Münster († 1650 )
- October 17 : Cristofano Allori , Italian painter († 1621 )
- November 4 : Père Joseph , French Capuchin († 1638 )
- November 10 : Jacob Cats , Dutch poet and politician († 1660 )
- November 15 : Piet Pieterszoon Heyn , Dutch privateer († 1629 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Stefano Bernardi , Italian composer and music theorist († 1637 )
- Nur Jahan , 20th and last wife of the Indian Mughal Mughal Jahangir († 1645 )
- Samuel Purchas , English clergyman and editor of travel literature († 1626 )
- Erasmus Sartorius , German composer, organist, music writer and poet († 1637 )
Date of death secured
- February 26 : Erik XIV , King of Sweden from 1560 to 1568 (* 1533 )
- March 6 : Rémy Belleau , French writer (* 1528 )
- April 21 : Diogo Rodrigues , Portuguese navigator, explorer and colonial ruler in India (* around 1500 )
- May 6th : Johann Placotomus , German physician and educator (* 1514 )
- June 4th : Alvise Mocenigo I , Doge of Venice (* 1507 )
- June 12 : Nicolas de Lorraine, duc de Mercoeur , French nobleman (* 1524 )
- July 31 : Johannes Anglicus , Protestant theologian and hymn composer (* 1502 )
- August 11 : Hartmann Beyer , German mathematician, theologian and reformer (* 1516 )
- August 12 : Thomas Smith , English diplomat (* 1513 )
- September 11th : Pedro de Villagra y Martínez , Spanish soldier and governor of Chile (* 1513 )
- October 6 : Abraham Ulrich , German Protestant theologian (* 1526 )
- October 7 : George Gascoigne , English poet (* around 1525 )
- November 3 : Margareta von Brandenburg , Duchess of Pomerania and Princess of Anhalt (* 1511 )
- November 18 : Sebastian Schertlin von Burtenbach , German Landsknechtsführer (* 1496 )
- November 19 : Matsunaga Hisahide , Japanese daimyo (* 1510 )
- November 24 : Ismail II , Safavid Shah of Iran (* 1537 )
- November 24th : Erasmus Ebner , German diplomat, scholar and statesman (* 1511 )
- November 30 : Cuthbert Mayne , English Catholic priest and martyr (* 1543 / 44 )
- December 8th : Melchor Bravo de Saravia , Spanish viceroy of Peru and governor of Chile (* 1512 )
- December 18 : Anna of Saxony , Countess of Nassau-Orange (* 1544 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Benjamin Gonson , Treasurer of the British Navy
- Wenzel Albin von Helfenburg , archivist and chancellor of the Lords of Rosenberg (* around 1500 )