Calendar overview 1638
Sweden founds the American colony
Nya Sverige .
|Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar wins the battle of Rheinfelden .|
|Japan the Shimabara uprising is suppressed.|
|1638 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1086/87 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1630/31 (10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1043/44 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2181/82 (southern Buddhism); 2180/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1000/01 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3971/72 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1016/17 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1047/48 (May 14/15)|
|Jewish calendar||5398/99 (September 8/9)|
|Coptic calendar||1354/55 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1948/49 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1949/50 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1694/95 (April)|
Politics and world events
Thirty Years' War
- February 5 : The Swedish Protestant army under Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar begins the Thirty Years War to besiege the imperial city of Rheinfelden . As a result, the battle of Rheinfelden draws on .
- February 12 : The Swedish-occupied Hanau is conquered by the imperial rulers under Count Ludwig Heinrich von Nassau-Dillenburg and Major Freiherr Johann Winter von Güldenborn and returned to the Hanau Count .
- February 28 : Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar, besieging the imperial city of Rheinfelden , is defeated with his troops in the Battle of Rheinfelden in the Thirty Years' War by a numerically larger Imperial-Bavarian relief army under the command of Federigo Savelli and Johann von Werth . The Swedish Protestant units withdraw but return three days later.
- March 3 : Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar, supported by France , finally defeated imperial-Bavarian troops under the command of Federigo Savelli and Johann von Werth with his army in the Thirty Years' War in the Battle of Rheinfelden, who are taken prisoner with their officer corps.
- April 12th : After an eleven day siege , Freiburg im Breisgau is handed over to Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar.
- August 9th : The Protestants win the Battle of Wittenweiher . The place Wittenweiher is completely destroyed in the fighting.
- October 15 : The Protestant side wins the meeting on the Ochsenfelde .
- October 17 : The imperial under Melchior Graf von Hatzfeldt defeat Ruprecht von der Pfalz in the battle of Vlotho .
- December 17th : Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar, a partisan of France, conquers the imperial fortress of Breisach from the imperial after about seven months of siege .
Other events in Europe
- Under Grand Master Jean de Lascaris-Castellar , more of the so-called Lascaris Towers were built to fortify the island of Malta , including the St George's Tower and the Wied Iż-Żurrieq Tower .
- March 29th : On behalf of the Swedish government under Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, Swedish, Finnish, German and Dutch settlers land with their ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fågel Grip on the east coast of North America and, under the leadership of Dutchman Peter Minuit , found the first colony Nya Sverige Settlement of Delaware . They build Fort Christina and the port Christinahamn on Delaware Bay .
- End of March: Willem Kieft comes to Nieuw Amsterdam as governor of the Dutch colony Nieuw Nederland .
- May 17 : Willem Kieft sends a formal protest note to Peter Minuit because he considers the Delaware Bay area to be part of the Nieuw Nederland colony.
- April 15 : In Japan the rebels of the Shimabara uprising against the daimyo Matsukura Katsuie are defeated by the shogunate . The rebels, who lost around 1,000 men, then retreat to Shimabara . There they besiege the castle and occupy the fortress in Hara . There they put up resistance to the troops of the shogunate, which rose to 200,000 over the course of the months, until they were finally defeated in April. After the defeat, around 37,000 rebels are beheaded. The head of the leader Amakusa Shirō is brought to Nagasaki and the Hara fortress is destroyed.
science and technology
- Galileo Galilei publishes his Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematichi intorno a due nuove scienze attenenti alla mecanica & i movimenti locali ( discussions and mathematical demonstrations about two new branches of science, relating to mechanics and the laws of fall ), in which he sets out the laws of fall and recognizes the meaning of the term acceleration for the mechanics .
- With the death of Willem Blaeu , his son Joan Blaeu is appointed as the official cartographer for the Dutch East India Company .
- November 7th : The Patrona Bavariae , the Marian column in Munich is inaugurated by the Freising Bishop Veit Adam von Gepeckh .
- November 12th : The Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam is created as a municipal facility. It is one of the first botanical gardens in the world.
- September 20 : The Spanish Manila galleon Nuestra Señora de la Concepción sinks heavily laden on the journey from Manila to Acapulco in a storm off Saipan . Only six of the 400 crew members survive.
nature and environment
- October 21 : The church in Widecombe-in-the-Moor is destroyed by ball lightning during the afternoon service . Four people die and 60 are injured. The unusual weather event leads to a documented representation of a ball lightning.
Historical views and maps
First half of the year
- January 1 : Antoinette Deshoulières , French poet and philosopher († 1694 )
- January 1 : Go-Sai , 111th Emperor of Japan († 1685 )
- January 8 : Elisabetta Sirani , Italian painter and engraver († 1665 )
- January 11 : Nicolaus Steno , Danish bishop and naturalist († 1686 )
- January 12 : Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg , Imperial General, defender of Vienna during the Second Turkish Siege († 1701 )
- January 20 : Johann Wolfgang Textor the Elder , German lawyer and archivist († 1701 )
- February 21 : Bernhard , Duke of Saxony-Jena († 1678 )
- March 3 : Michael Walther the Younger , German mathematician and Lutheran theologian († 1692 )
- March 15 : Shunzhi , Chinese emperor of the Qing dynasty († 1661 )
- March 23 : Frederik Ruysch , Dutch anatomist and botanist († 1731 )
- April 2 : John Covel , English clergyman († 1722 )
- June 15 : Samuel Apostool , Dutch doctor of medicine and Mennonite preacher († 1699 )
- June 27 : Samuel Frisching , mayor of the city and republic of Bern († 1721 )
- June 29th Heinrich Meibom , German medic († 1700 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : François Barrême , French mathematician and one of the founders of accounting († 1703 )
- July 15 : Giovanni Buonaventura Viviani , Italian composer († 1692 )
- August 3 : Wilhelm Ludwig , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen († 1665 )
- August 6 : Nicolas Malebranche , French philosopher and monk without religious vows († 1715 )
- September 10 : Maria Teresa of Spain , the cousin and later wife of the Sun King († 1683 )
- September 17 : Jacob Wächtler († 1702 ), German Lutheran theologian
- October 21 : Johann Samuel Adami , theologian, writer and linguist († 1713 )
- October 23 : Elisabeth Marie Charlotte von Pfalz-Simmern , Duchess of Brieg († 1664 )
- October 31 : Meindest Hobbema , Dutch landscape painter († 1709 )
- November 7th : Adam Christoph Jacobi , German lawyer († 1689 )
- December 17 : Anna Sophia II , Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and Abbess of the Quedlinburg Monastery († 1683 )
- December 24 : Tomás Antonio de la Cerda y Aragón , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain († 1692 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Troels Arnkiel , German pastor and archaeologist († 1712 )
- Gottfried Hermann Graf von Beichlingen , Saxon court judge († 1703 )
First half of the year
- January 21 : Ignazio Donati , Italian organist, conductor and composer (* around 1570 )
- March 17 : Charles de Blanchefort de Créquy , French military leader and Marshal of France (* 1578 )
- March 22nd : Johann , first Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (* 1578 )
- March 23 : Georg Flegel , German painter (* 1566 )
- March 28th : Marie Touchet , French nobleman and mistress of the French King Charles IX. (* 1549 )
- April 12th : Shirō Amakusa , Japanese rebel (* around 1621 )
- April 22nd : Johann Jakob Ulrich , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1569 )
- May 6 : Cornelius Jansen , Dutch theologian (* 1585 )
- May 9 : Friedrich I , founder of the noble family Hessen-Homburg (* 1585 )
- May 22nd : Heinrich von dem Bergh , Margrave von Bergen op Zoom, Spanish general (* 1573 )
- June 13 : Zacharias Brendel the Younger , German physician and chemist (* 1592 )
- June 20 : Ippolita Trivulzio , Princess of Monaco (* 1600 )
Second half of the year
- August 1 : Joachim Wtewael , Dutch painter (* 1566 )
- August 3 : Philipp Moritz , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1605 )
- August 10 : Anton Heinrich , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1571 )
- August 12 : Baltasar of Marradas , Spanish nobleman, Knight of Malta, imperial field marshal, governor in Bohemia (* 1560 )
- August 26 : Sebastian Abesser , German theologian (* 1581 )
- August 28 : Matsukura Katsuie , Daimyō of Shimabara (* 1597 )
- September 14th : John Harvard , English theologian (* 1607 )
- September 24th : Georg Friedrich , Margrave of Baden-Durlach and partisan in the Thirty Years War (* 1573 )
- September 25 : Otto Gereon von Gutmann zu Sobernheim , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* 1575 )
- October 4th : Franz Hyazinth , Duke of Savoy (* 1632 )
- October 6 : Stefan Gabriel , Swiss Protestant Reformed pastor and founder of the Romansh written language of the Surselvian idiom (* 1570 )
- October 6 : Jakob Dircksz de Graeff , Amsterdam regent and mayor (* 1571 )
- October 16 : Jacob Isaacsz van Swanenburgh , Dutch painter (* 1571 )
- October 18 : Georg Nymmann , German medic (* 1592 )
- October 23 : Johann Ernst , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach (* 1566 )
- November 2 : Johann Bartholomäus Krüger , German medic (* 1608 )
- November 11 : Cornelis van Haarlem , Dutch painter (* 1562 )
- December 13 : Katharina Wasa , Swedish princess and duchess of Zweibrücken (* 1584 )
- December 18 : Père Joseph , French Capuchin (* 1577 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pieter Brueghel the Younger , Brabant genre painter (* 1564 )
- René Mézangeau , French lutenist and composer (* around 1568 )
- John Wilbye , English Renaissance composer (* 1574 )