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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Map of New Sweden around 1650
Sweden founds the American colony
Nya Sverige .
Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar wins the battle of Rheinfelden .
Siege of Fort Hara
In Japan the Shimabara uprising is suppressed.
1638 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1086/87 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1630/31 (10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1043/44 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2181/82 (southern Buddhism); 2180/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 72nd (73rd) cycle

Year of the Earth Tiger戊寅 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Ox 丁丑)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1000/01 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3971/72 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1016/17 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1047/48 (May 14/15)
Jewish calendar 5398/99 (September 8/9)
Coptic calendar 1354/55 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 813/814
Seleucid era Babylon: 1948/49 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1949/50 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1694/95 (April)


Politics and world events

Thirty Years' War

Bird's eye view of the battle of Rheinfelden, copper engraving by Matthäus Merian , published 1670 in Theatrum Europaeum
Battle of Wittenweiher

Other events in Europe



  • April 15 : In Japan the rebels of the Shimabara uprising against the daimyo Matsukura Katsuie are defeated by the shogunate . The rebels, who lost around 1,000 men, then retreat to Shimabara . There they besiege the castle and occupy the fortress in Hara . There they put up resistance to the troops of the shogunate, which rose to 200,000 over the course of the months, until they were finally defeated in April. After the defeat, around 37,000 rebels are beheaded. The head of the leader Amakusa Shirō is brought to Nagasaki and the Hara fortress is destroyed.

Indian Ocean

science and technology

Galileo's Discorsi ...
  • Galileo Galilei publishes his Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematichi intorno a due nuove scienze attenenti alla mecanica & i movimenti locali ( discussions and mathematical demonstrations about two new branches of science, relating to mechanics and the laws of fall ), in which he sets out the laws of fall and recognizes the meaning of the term acceleration for the mechanics .
  • With the death of Willem Blaeu , his son Joan Blaeu is appointed as the official cartographer for the Dutch East India Company .


Marian column on Marienplatz in Munich



nature and environment

A ball lightning destroys the church

Historical views and maps

Zurich 1638
Bern 1638


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Louis XIV as a child
Diego Velázquez : Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain at the age of 14 or 15

Exact date of birth unknown


First half of the year

Coffin of Landgrave Friedrich I in the crypt of the Homburg Landgrave Castle

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1638  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files