|Joachim II of Brandenburg becomes Duke of Prussia .||Cosimo I de Medici becomes Grand Duke of Tuscany .|
Union of Lublin founds
the Polish-Lithuanian aristocratic republic .
|1569 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1017/18 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2112/13 (southern Buddhism); 2111/12 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||931/932 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3902/03 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||976/977 (turn of the year June 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||5329/30 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1879/80 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1880/81 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1625/26 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Third Huguenot War
- March 13 : In the Third Huguenot War, the Catholic troops win the Battle of Jarnac . They are the later Marshal de Tavannes and the Duke of Anjou , who later became King Henry III. , led into battle. They have their captured opponent Louis I. de Bourbon, prince de Condé , shot without further ado.
- October 3 : In the battle of Moncontour , the Huguenot side suffers a heavy defeat after the defection of mercenaries from the general Admiral Coligny .
Union of Lublin
In view of an increasingly threatening western expansion of Russia ( Russo-Lithuanian wars ), the Lithuanian nobility is pushing for closer ties with Poland. In lengthy negotiations, which were made more difficult by the reluctance of the Lithuanian magnates and exaggerated Polish demands , the Union of Lublin was finally established on July 1st . The Union Treaty provides for the indissoluble unity of Poland and Lithuania under a common ruler, who is elected by the common Diet and crowned in Krakow. The Realunion Poland-Lithuania , the first Rzeczpospolita, is created .
Italy / Holy Roman Empire
- February 26 : With the bull Hebraeorum assets classified Pope Pius V the expulsion of all Jews from the territories of the Papal States to, those except who live in the ghettos of Rome and Ancona. The decision to evict the Jewish community is justified in the document by its social uselessness and alleged crimes of its members. The expellees are given three months to leave the state. Violators are threatened with confiscation of property and "eternal bondage".
- August 27th : Pope Pius V in a bull gives the previous Duke Cosimo I de 'Medici the title of Grand Duke of Tuscany , defying imperial resistance. Florence remains the capital of the new Grand Duchy .
- August 28 : Joachim II. Hector , Elector of Brandenburg , receives his enfeoffment as Duke of Prussia .
- June: The first Desmond Rebellion begins in Munster in southwest Ireland under the leadership of the militant Catholic James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, who was influenced by the Counter Reformation, against the Protestant government of Elizabeth I of England .
- End of January: The Siamese King Chakkraphat dies during the siege of his capital Ayutthaya in the Burmese-Siamese War by the Kingdom of Pegu . He is succeeded as King of Ayutthaya by his son Mahin .
- August 30th : In the Burmese-Siamese War , King Bayinnaung from the Burmese Taungu dynasty, supported by Portuguese mercenaries, succeeds in capturing the capital Ayutthaya after a ten-month siege through treason. He installs Maha Thammaracha as the new vassal king. The previous King Mahin is deported to Burma together with other prisoners of war, where he is believed to be killed on the way there.
- The construction of Fatehpur Sikri , the future capital (1571–1585) of the Mughal Empire , began under Mughal Mughal Akbar I. The monuments of the city are now under UNESCO protection and are part of the world cultural heritage of mankind .
- January 11 : The raffle for first in England conducted lottery begins west of the St Paul's Cathedral in London .
- February 7th : The history of the Wendisches Münzverein , a contractual association of northern German cities for the use of a common coin system, ends with Münztag 1569 .
- August 24th : The first salt is extracted in Bad Harzburg .
- Under Prince Julius , the Lichttaler was first minted in the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel .
science and technology
- By using a wall quadrant in his Uranienborg observatory, Tycho Brahe increases the accuracy of astronomical observations to up to two arc minutes .
- Jacques Besson wrote Theatrum instrumentorum et machinarum, the first modern book on machine technology.
- With his large world map Nova et aucta orbis terrae descriptio ad usum navigantium , Gerhard Mercator publishes the first world map using the Mercator projection named after him . This Mercator image is still used today for the production of sea and aviation charts.
With the twelve-volume work Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España, commissioned in 1540, the Spanish missionary and ethnologist Bernardino de Sahagún completed the most important contemporary work on the life and culture of the Aztecs . The bilingual manuscript in Spanish and Nahuatl is being forgotten and, after its rediscovery, is only published in London from 1829 to 1832.
The Spanish nobleman Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga publishes the first part of the epic verse novel La Araucana at his own expense . In 15 chants it deals with the history of the armed conflicts between the indigenous Mapuche population and the Spanish conquerors in the south of today's Chile, which are known as the Arauco War .
The Italian painter Federico Barocci created his first major work with the Descent from the Cross ( Deposizione dalla croce) .
- The Mindelheim Treaty regulates the simultaneous use of a church in Memmingen by Catholics and Protestants . It is sometimes seen today as the beginning of ecumenism .
Date of birth saved
- February 13 : Count Johann Reinhard I of Hanau-Lichtenberg , Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg († 1625 )
- March 28 : Ranuccio I Farnese , Duke of Parma and Piacenza († 1622 )
- April 11 : Georg Carolides , Czech humanist and poet († 1612 )
- April 11 : Eusebius Schenck , Bohemian medic († 1628 )
- May 31 : Sophia von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , de facto regent of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin († 1634 )
- August 31 : Jahangir , ruler of the Mughal Empire († 1627 )
- September 5 : Georg Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Weikersheim , officer and occasional poet († 1645 )
- September 9 : Joachim Andreas von Schlick , leader of the Protestant estates in Bohemia and the uprising against the Habsburg rule († 1621 )
- September 22nd : Johann Jakob Ulrich , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1638 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Asaf Khan , Indian politician († 1641 )
- Tobias Hume , English composer, gambist and soldier († 1645 )
- Charles I of Liechtenstein , Moravian nobleman, viceroy of Bohemia on the side of the Catholic party at the beginning of the Thirty Years War († 1627 )
- Kinoshita Chōshōshi , Japanese poet († 1649 )
Date of death secured
- January 15 : Catherine Carey , English noblewoman (* around 1523 )
- March 13 : Louis I. de Bourbon , Prince of Condé, French general (* 1530 )
- May 16 : Dirk Willems , Dutch Anabaptist and Anabaptist martyr
- May 17th : Georg von Pfalz-Simmern , Count Palatine and Duke of Simmern (* 1518 )
- May 22 : Georg Aemilius , German theologian, pedagogue, botanist and reformer (* 1517 )
- June 6 : Jost Hoen , German master's degree, educator and statesman (* 1500 )
- June 11 : Wolfgang , Count Palatinate and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken and Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg (* 1526 )
- June 22nd : Melchior Acontius , German humanist and poet (* 1515 )
- June 26 : Viktorin Strigel , German Lutheran theologian (* 1514 )
- July 18 : Anton Lauterbach , German Lutheran theologian (* 1502 )
- September 5 : Edmund Bonner , English Bishop of London (* around 1500 )
- September 5 : Pieter Bruegel the Elder , painter of the Dutch Renaissance (* 1525 )
- September 5 : Bernardo Tasso , Italian poet (* 1493 )
- October 3 : Philibert von Baden , Margrave of Baden (* 1536 )
- October 20 : Abén Humeya , Moorish king in the Andalusian Alpujarras (* 1520 )
- November 11th : Daniel Rantzau , royal Danish field captain (* 1529 )
- November 24th : Celio Secondo Curione , Italian scholar and reformer (* 1503 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Peter Allet (* around 1510), Swiss governor
- January: Maha Chakkraphat , King of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya (now Thailand) (* 1506 )
- Ludovica Torelli von Guastalla , Italian nobleman, founder of religious women's associations (* 1500 )