Martin Luther proposes his
95 theses to the ...
in Wittenberg .
|Theuerdank work commissioned by Emperor Maximilian I is printed in Nuremberg.|
|1517 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||965/966 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||11. Feuerstein - Matlactli ozce Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 10th tubes - Matlactli Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2060/61 (southern Buddhism); 2059/60 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||879/880 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3850/51 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||922/923 (turn of the year 23/24 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5277/78 (September 16-17)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1827/28 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1828/29 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1573/74 (turn of the year April)|
In 1517 events are set in motion that will shape religious and political events for centuries. Outraged by the sale of indulgences practiced by the Roman Catholic Church , the Augustinian monk Martin Luther sends a letter to Archbishop Albrecht of Brandenburg . To this letter he adds his 95 theses in which he speaks out against the commercial trade in letters of indulgence . The resulting church renewal movement of the Reformation leads in the medium term to a split in Western Christianity into different denominations .
Politics and world events
- 23 January : In Egypt , after the defeat of their army in front of Cairo by the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim I, the rule of the Mamluks comes to an end. Their sultan, Tuman Bay, is captured by the Ottomans near Giza and is executed on April 14th . The country becomes part of the Ottoman Empire . A little later, the Ottomans take Cairo . The Mamluks, however, remain the ruling upper class under the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan. Syria is withdrawn from administration by Egypt.
- April 20 : After the death of his father Bogdan III. eleven-year-old Stefan IV ascends the throne of the principality of Moldavia, which is under Ottoman suzerainty . Hetman Luca Arbore takes over the reign .
- After subjugating Egypt, the Ottomans begin conquering Yemen . With the fall of Aden , the Tahirid dynasty ends .
- The Islamic pilgrimage sites Medina and Mecca come under Ottoman rule.
- The semi-autonomous emirate of the Druze is founded in Lebanon under Ottoman suzerainty .
- The Ottomans conquer Diyarbakır in southeastern Anatolia.
- Lopo Soares de Albergaria , Governor General of Portuguese India , was defeated by an Ottoman fleet in the Red Sea during an attack on Jeddah .
Central and Eastern Europe
- Dietrich von Schöneberg , the advisor to Grand Master Albrecht von Prussia , arrives in Moscow on February 24th and, after brief negotiations , concludes a contract on March 10th that provides for mutual military assistance against Poland and Lithuania and Russian financial aid in the event of war. The Teutonic Order is thus approaching the Grand Duchy of Moscow . This became necessary under the influence of the Habsburg-Jagielloz understanding and the double wedding in Vienna in 1515 .
- June 2nd : Christoph dies at the age of 18 after only six years as Herr von Jever , possibly poisoned by the East Frisian Count Edzard I. Christoph's sister Maria is his successor. She and her two sisters Anna and Dorothea quickly see themselves threatened from several sides. Balthasar von Esens is the first to lay claim to the rule of Jever, but soon withdraws without having achieved anything. The claims of Heinrich von Braunschweig are fought off by Maria's guardian and uncle Johann V. von Oldenburg . Edzard also tries to take over the rule.
- The Spanish King Carlos I from the House of Habsburg reinstated his aunt Margaret of Austria as governor of the Habsburg Netherlands . In November he sends his 15-year-old brother Ferdinand to train at Margarete's farm in Flanders.
- In the fight against rebellious Sweden and to restore the Kalmar Union , the Danish King Christian II appoints Søren Norby as Commander-in-Chief of the Danish fleet and Danish- Gotland bailiff in Visby , who has his official residence at Visborg Fortress . In August the Danish army was defeated by the Swedes in the battle of Vädla .
- February: Francesco Maria I della Rovere tries to recapture the Duchy of Urbino, which had been lost to Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici the previous year . In a battle near Mondolfo in Romagna, Lorenzo suffers a head wound on May 25th . But Della Rovere fails preliminary because he was still under the spell of Pope Leo X. stands. In September he has to withdraw with his army of Spanish mercenaries.
- October 8 : France's King Francis I signs the founding charter for a naval port called Franciscopolis , from which the port city of Le Havre on the Atlantic emerges.
- After the death of Abu Abdallah al-Qa'im his son is Ahmed al-Araj Sheikh of Saadi in Morocco . He shares power with his younger brother Mohammed ech-Cheikh . Together they take up the fight against the Portuguese in the region.
The Spanish conquistador Francisco Hernández de Córdoba left Cuba on February 8th with three ships and 110 men on behalf of the local governor Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar . On March 4th he was the first European to reach Yucatán and celebrated a mass on March 22nd near what is now Campeche . On their shore leave, the expedition repeatedly gets into difficult situations with the locals. Nevertheless, she continues her journey along the coast. In another armed clash, several Spaniards are wounded, including the expedition leader de Córdoba. When two of the injured are abducted by the locals, the men decide to start their journey home and sail back to Cuba via Florida, where they arrive again around two months after the trip started after losing two thirds of the team. Francisco Hernández de Córdoba succumbs to his injuries ten days later. The expedition, which was unsuccessful in itself, brings only a few pieces of jewelry, which are, however, sufficient to further fuel the Spanish greed for gold. Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar equipped a new expedition the following year.
- August 15 : Fernão Pires de Andrade is the first Portuguese to arrive in China and negotiates with the Ming rulers about possible Portuguese-Chinese trade contacts.
- November 21 : After the death of Sikandar Lodi , his son Ibrahim Lodi becomes the Muslim sultan of Delhi . He is faced with a Rajput uprising . When he begins to replace the older military and civil servants with younger, devoted ones, he attracts the resentment of the upper class.
- The Bohemian City Conrad Green , where last year large silver deposits have been discovered, is based on the mountain town of Sankt Anna mountain in Jáchymov renamed. At the same time, on behalf of Count Schlik , the construction of Freudenstein Castle began, which was supposed to protect and manage the silver mining industry.
science and technology
- August: The wealthy humanist Hieronymus Buslidius , inspired by Erasmus of Rotterdam , founds the Collegium Trilingue in Leuven with his last will to study the three holy languages Hebrew , Greek and Latin .
- Johannes Aventinus created a systematic presentation of the sciences for the study of the Bavarian duke's son Ernst , which he added as an appendix to his work rudimenta grammaticae under the name Encyclopedia orbisque doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae index ac divisio . It is the first printed stand-alone treatise to be entitled Encyclopedia .
- In Strasbourg, Hans von Gersdorff publishes the medical textbook Feldbuch der Wundarzney , which is illustrated with woodcuts ascribed to Hans Wechtlin.
- After three years of work, Raffael and his student Giulio Romano completed another room in the Apostolic Palace , the Stanza dell'incendio di Borgo .
- The workshop of Paul von Leutschau completes the Gothic high altar in the Church of St. Jacob in Levoča , the tallest wood-carved altar in the world.
- The Italian painter Andrea del Sarto paints his most famous work, the altarpiece of the Harpy Madonna .
- Lorenzo Lotto paints Susanna in the bath .
- around 1517: Raphael completes the painting Christ Carrying the Cross .
- The Theuerdank work commissioned by Emperor Maximilian I is printed in Nuremberg. The print contains 118 colored woodcuts for which leading artists, Hans Schäufelin , Hans Burgkmair and Leonhard Beck , provided the drawings.
- In Milan , Francesco Torniello da Novara published the work Opera del modo de fare le littere maiuscole antique , which for the first time specified a font completely geometrically.
- Ulrich von Hutten receives the poet's crown from Maximilian I as poeta laureatus .
- Erasmus von Rotterdam wrote his main pacifist text The Lament for Peace , which was widely read and praised.
Music and theater
Probably in the period 1450-1460 around Friedberg resulting Hessian Christmas game has its first known performance in Alsfeld . Formally it is the "most scenic and liturgically least bound" game of its kind, as it consists of 870 verses. These are written in both early New High German and Latin, with the passages written in Latin consisting of stage directions and chants.
- The Schrebitz parish register receives its first dated entry.
Catholic church hierarchy
- April 12 : After the death of Heinrich IV. Von Lichtenau , Christoph von Stadion is elected as his successor as Bishop of Augsburg . On July 5th he was consecrated bishop in the parish church of Dillingen by Prince-Bishop Gabriel von Eyb in Eichstätt .
- May 9 : Frederick IV of Baden is forced to resign as Bishop of Utrecht by Emperor Maximilian I after he wanted to make a pact with the King of France to also become Bishop of Metz . He is succeeded by Philip of Burgundy . When he moved into Utrecht, he had not yet received any of the necessary ordinations, but this will be done in the following days.
- May 25 : Guillaume III. de Croÿ , Bishop of Cambrai , becomes cardinal priest of the titular church of Santa Maria in Aquiro . On December 31st, he was appointed Archbishop of Toledo , succeeding Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , who died on November 8th .
- August 20 : After the death of Aymon de Montfalcon , his nephew Sébastien de Montfalcon follows him as Bishop of Lausanne .
- September 26th : Johann III. von Schönberg , Bishop of Naumburg , dies. His successor is his coadjutor Philipp von der Pfalz , who at this point is already Prince-Bishop of Freising .
Catholic reform movement
- March 16 : The fifth Lateran Council, convened by Pope Julius II, ends in Rome . The initiated church reform comes to a halt on some theological issues due to disagreement. The council, chaired by Leo X., only issues a few decrees in which bishops, legates and cardinals are instructed in their duties and certain abuses with regard to the lax execution of assigned tasks are forbidden. It also issues regulations on curial taxation, book censorship and non-profit pawn shops and calls for a crusade against the expanding Ottoman Empire.
- In Rome, some clergy at the papal court founded the Catholic reform movement Oratory of Divine Love . Its members include Kajetan von Thiene , Gian Pietro Carafa and Jacopo Sadoleto .
On behalf of Archbishop Albrecht von Brandenburg , who needs money to repay the loan received for the acquisition of his two dioceses of Mainz and Magdeburg , the Dominican Johann Tetzel has been moving through the dioceses of Magdeburg and Halberstadt as well as other preachers of indulgence since the beginning of the year . Half of the income from the indulgence trade is used to build St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, while the archbishop and the indulgence preachers share the other half. Congregation members from Wittenberg , whose preacher and pastor is Martin Luther , stay away from confession and instead go to neighboring cities to purchase letters of indulgence .
On October 31 sends Martin Luther , provincial vicar of the Augustinian Order , a letter to Albrecht of Brandenburg on the assumption that knew nothing about the sale of indulgences. To this letter he adds his Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum , in which he speaks out against abuses in indulgences and especially against the commercial trade in indulgence letters. Further copies go to other ecclesiastical dignitaries of the empire and one to the indulgence seller Johannes Tetzel himself, who does not, however, respond. The historicity of the posting of these 95 theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg is controversial. A single-sheet print (folio sheet in two columns) of the Latin text was published by Hieronymus Höltzel in Nuremberg in the same year . Probably before Christmas, the Nuremberg-based Kaspar Bastel will translate Luther's 95 theses into German.
- The Complutensic Polyglot's Old Testament is being finalized, but its publication has to be postponed due to the Erasmus exclusive rights of Rotterdam . Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , Archbishop of Toledo, who initiated and financed the work, dies in the same year without ever seeing the publication.
- A second collection of letters from the dark man with 62 letters is published. The second part of the satirical letters with which German humanists the scholastic ridicule is especially Ulrich von Hutten attributed to the lesser extent, Hermann of the bush in Leipzig. However, the authorship is never finally clarified.
- After the conquest of Cairo by the Ottomans, al-Mutawakkil III. , The last caliph of the Abbasid , brought to Constantinople Opel and transfers where supposedly the caliphate Sultan Selim I. According to the official Ottoman historiography is the beginning of the Ottoman Caliphate .
- The Sherif of Mecca gives Sultan Selim I the honorary title of "Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina " .
- The plague is coming to an end in Munich . The shepherd's dance still practiced today goes back to this date.
- The English sweat breaks out epidemically for the third time in England, Calais and Antwerp .
nature and environment
Date of birth saved
- January 13 : Bohuslav Felix von Lobkowitz and Hassenstein , Bohemian politician, governor of Lower Lusatia († 1583 )
- January 17 : Henry Gray, 1st Duke of Suffolk , English nobleman and rebel († 1554 )
- January 17 : Antonio Scandello , Italian composer and conductor († 1580 )
- January 30 : Johann Aurifaber , German Lutheran theologian and reformer († 1568 )
- January: Galeazzo Caracciolo , Neapolitan Protestant († 1586 )
- February 22 : Hieronymus Mencel , German Protestant theologian († 1590 )
- March 22nd : Gioseffo Zarlino , Italian conductor, music theorist and composer († 1590 )
- March 29 : Carlo Carafa , Italian cardinal, nephew and cardinal depository of Pope Paul IV († 1561 )
- April 25 : Giovanni Bernardino Bonifacio , Italian count, humanist, book collector, librarian and founder of the city library of Danzig († 1597 )
- June 18 : Ōgimachi , 106th Tennō of Japan († 1593 )
- June 25 : Georg Aemilius , German theologian and botanist († 1569 )
- June 30 : Gerhard Ellerborn , aldermen and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen († 1571 )
- July 10 : Odet de Coligny , French Huguenot leader († 1571 )
- July 16 : Frances Brandon , English nobleman († 1559 )
- July 25 : Jacques Peletier , French man of letters, humanist, lawyer, physician and mathematician († 1582 )
- August 12 : Peter Ernst I. von Mansfeld , field marshal of the Spanish armies in the Netherlands and governor of the Spanish crown in Luxembourg and the Netherlands († 1604 )
- August 20 : Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle , Spanish cardinal, minister and art collector († 1586 )
- 23 August : Francis I , Duke of Lorraine († 1545 )
- September 6 : Francisco de Holanda , Portuguese painter, architect, antiquarian, historian and art theorist († 1585 )
- September 21 : Matthäus Ludecus , German lawyer, cathedral dean at Havelberg Cathedral († 1606 )
- October 17th : Amalia von Kleve , German princess, younger sister of the English Queen Anna von Kleve († 1586 )
- October 18 : Manuel da Nobrega , Portuguese theologian, priest, missionary and writer († 1570 )
- October 28 : Jobst von Brandt , German nobleman († 1570 )
- November 5 : Johann Streitberger , German Lutheran theologian († 1602 )
- December 15 : Giacomo Gaggini , Sicilian sculptor († 1598 )
- December 31 : Katharina von Tecklenburg , abbess of the Essen monastery († 1560 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Abu Muhammad Abdallah al-Ghalib ibn Muhammad , second sultan of the Saadians in Morocco († 1574 )
- Pierre Belon , French naturalist and botanist († 1564 )
- Bernhard , Margrave of Baden-Pforzheim († 1553 )
- Simon Bing , Landgrave Hessian administrative officer and politician († 1581 )
- Jost Clodt von Jürgensburg , Baltic diplomat, Polish minister and statesman in the Baltic Sea region († 1572 )
- Dietrich IX. von Gemmingen , landlord in Tiefenbronn († 1586 )
- Christoph Entzelt , German Protestant clergyman and historian († 1583 )
- Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre , English peer († 1541 )
- Frans Floris , Flemish painter of the Nordic Renaissance († 1570 )
- John Foxe , English writer († 1587 )
- Gerard van Groesbeeck , Prince-Bishop of Liège and Abbot of Malmedy and Stablo († 1580 )
- Johann Hasentöter , German chronicler († 1586 )
- He Xinyin , Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher and author († 1579 )
- Nicolaes Jonghelinck , Flemish merchant, banker (tax officer) and art collector († 1570 )
- Gotthard von Kettler , last Landmeister of the Teutonic Order in Livonia and first Duke of Courland and Semgallia († 1587 )
- Simon Leupold , Mecklenburg statesman († around 1578 )
- Benedetto Lomellini , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Church († 1579 )
- Paul Hector Mair , Augsburg council servant († 1579 )
- Johann Pennarius , auxiliary bishop in Cologne († 1563 )
- Otto IV. , Count of Schaumburg and Holstein-Pinneberg († 1576 )
- Juan Alfonso de Polanco , secretary of the first superior general of the Society of Jesus († 1576 )
- Matthias Schenck , German schoolboy and librarian († 1571 )
Born around 1517
- June 29, 1516/1517 : Rembert Dodoens , Flemish botanist and doctor († 1585 )
- 1516 /1517: Germain Vaillant de Guelis , French jurist, Catholic priest, Bishop of Orléans and classical scholar († 1587 )
- Francisco Coutinho , Portuguese nobleman, military man and viceroy of the Estado da India († 1564 )
- Christoph von Freyberg-Eisenberg , prince provost of the prince provost of Ellwangen († 1584 )
- Caspar Pfreund , pharmacist and mayor of Wittenberg († 1574 )
- Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of March , Scottish nobleman († 1586 )
First half of the year
- January 5th : Francesco Francia , Italian painter, goldsmith and sculptor, founder of the Bolognese school of painting (* 1447 )
- January 12th : Giovanni Francesco Fortunio , Italian humanist, Romanist and grammarian (* around 1470 )
- January 22nd : Hadım Sinan Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1459 )
- February 12th : Catherine of Navarre , Queen of Navarre, also Countess of Foix and Bigorre, Vice Countess of Béarn and Co-Princess of Andorra (* 1470 )
- February 16 : Elisabeth Jagiellonica , Polish and Lithuanian princess, Silesian Duchess of Liegnitz and Brzeg (* 1482 )
- February 19 : Katharina von Gemmingen , married von Dalberg , German nobleman (* before 1467)
- February 24th : Otto von Gemmingen , German nobleman (* around 1450 )
- February 25 : Johann von Spreckelsen , Hamburg councilor and mayor (* around 1460 )
- March 7th : Mary of Spain , Queen of Portugal (* 1482 )
- March 26 : Heinrich Isaac , Flemish composer (* around 1450 )
- April 2 : Pere Miquel Carbonell , Catalan historian, notary, poet and humanist (* 1434 )
- April 12th : Heinrich IV. Von Lichtenau , Bishop of Augsburg (* 1443 or 1444 )
- April 14th : Tuman Bay , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt
- April 20 : Bogdan III. , Voivode of the Principality of Moldova (* 1479 )
- May 1 : Hermann Langenbeck , lawyer and mayor of Hamburg (* 1452 )
- May 21 : Bernhart Lachaman the Elder , bell founder from Heilbronn
- June 2 : Christoph , regent of the Jever rule (* 1499 )
- June 16 : Franz Wolfgang , Count of Haigerloch (* 1483 / 1484 )
Second half of the year
- July 10 : Johannes Rebmann , Württemberg theologian, provost of the brothers from living together in Herrenberg (* around 1467 )
- July 17th : Johann Badendorp , Council Secretary of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- August 5th : Kaspar von Silenen , first commander of the papal Swiss Guard (* around 1467 )
- August 10 : Aymon de Montfalcon , Bishop of Lausanne
- August 15 : Ottilie von Katzenelnbogen , Margravine of Baden (* around 1451 )
- August 30 : Konrad Seusenhofer , Tyrolean Plattner (* around 1450 / 1460 )
- September 13 : Yunus Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
- September 21 : Dyveke Sigbritsdatter , Amsterdam merchant's daughter, mistress Christian II of Denmark (* around 1490 )
- September 24th : Friedrich IV. Of Baden , Bishop of Utrecht (* 1458 )
- September 26th : Johann III. von Schönberg , Bishop of Naumburg
- September: Elsbeth Tucher , Nuremberg patrician (* 1473 )
- October 2 : Johannes Murmellius , Dutch scholar, philologist, poet and humanist (* around 1480 )
- October 31 : Fra Bartolommeo , painter of the Florentine school (* 1472 )
- November 8th : Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , Archbishop of Toledo, Spanish regent and Grand Inquisitor (* 1436 )
- December 7th : Albert Krantz , German historian (* around 1448 )
- December 23 : Tjede Peckes , Wurtfriesian flag maiden (* around 1500 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Abu Abdallah al-Qa'im , Sheikh of the Saadians in Morocco
- Adam from Vilnius , Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Canon in Vilnius
- Balım Sultan , founder of the Shiite Sufi order of the Bektaschi (* 1457 )
- Heinrich von Bassewitz , Mecklenburg landowner (* 1469 )
- Guidoccio Cozzarelli , painter and illuminator from Siena (* 1450 )
- Jos Gundersheimer , Basel carpenter and picture carver
- Adam von Haren , aldermen and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen (* around 1435 )
- Francisco Hernández de Córdoba , Spanish conquistador and explorer
- Marcus Musurus , Greek-Italian scholar (* around 1470 )
- Paulus Niavis , German humanist, educator, writer and civil servant (* around 1460 )
- Cyriacus Prucker , German Benedictine monastery in Reichenbach am Regen, administrator in Monastery Metten and abbot in Monastery Frauenzell
- Heinrich Strübin , Swiss politician (* before 1450)
- Franz von Taxis , Lombard nobleman, founder of the European postal system (* around 1459 )
- Ludovico de Varthema , Italian explorer and writer (* around 1470 )
- Narcís Vinyoles , Valencian poet, lawyer and minister (* between 1442 and 1447)
- Bridget of York , English princess (* 1480 )
Died around 1517
- Domenico Morone , Italian painter (* around 1442 )
- Johann Wassenberch , Duisburg clergyman (* 1454 )