Calendar overview 1541
|John Calvin enforces the Reformation in Geneva .||Moritz becomes Duke of Saxony .|
|Santiago de Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia .|
|1541 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||989/990 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2084/85 (southern Buddhism); 2083/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||903/904 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3874/75 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||947/948 (turn of the year April 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5301/02 (September 21/22)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1851/52 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1852/53 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1597/98 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 12 : Santiago de Chile is founded under the name Santiago del Nuevo Extremo by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia . Valdivia chooses the place because the Río Mapocho forms a larger island here.
- June 12 : Pedro de Alvarado arrives in New Spain to strengthen the crackdown on the Mixtón uprising against the Spanish colonial rulers that broke out last year . However, he is so badly injured in a battle that he dies on July 4th .
- June 26 : The conqueror and governor of New Castile (Peru), Francisco Pizarro , is murdered in Lima by supporters of his executed rival Diego de Almagro . Almagro 's son of the same name is proclaimed governor.
- September 11th : First destruction of Santiago de Chile during a Mapuche uprising against the Spanish conquistadors . Beginning of a three-year war.
- October 20 : In a letter to the Spanish King Carlos , the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado describes the Llano Estacado for the first time .
Ottoman Empire / Hungary
- May 25th : The Ottoman Sultan hands over the rule of Transylvania “as a son” to Johann Sigismund Zápolya , the one-year-old King of Hungary .
- The Ottoman Empire conquers the Hungarian capital Buda .
- Transylvania becomes an independent principality under Ottoman rule.
Holy Roman Empire
- June 13 : Emperor Charles V and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse sign the Regensburg Treaty , in which Philip undertakes, among other things, not to enter into an alliance with Francis I of France or other foreign powers.
- July 23 : In the Regensburg partition agreement , the Hohenzollern people mutually redefine the boundaries between their principalities of Ansbach , where Albrecht's uncle and previous guardian Georg the Pious , and Kulmbach, on the occasion of Albrecht Alcibiades' takeover of government in the Principality of Kulmbach .
- August 18 : After the death of Heinrich from the House of Wettin , his son Moritz becomes Duke of the Albertine Duchy of Saxony .
- October 11 : Emperor Charles V gives his 14-year-old son Philip II the duchy of Milan as a fief.
- October 20 : Emperor Charles V lands with a fleet near Algiers to put an end to the Algerian corsairs . A storm that disperses the ships and heavy losses among the troops that landed lead the expedition to return home.
Other events in Europe
First documentary mentions
- The Burmese King Tabinshwehti of Taungu conquered the city of Martaban and largely destroyed it, whereupon it never regained its previous political and economic importance.
- The Wendentaler is coined for the first time in Lüneburg .
- The Chinese port of Xiamen is used as a trading port by European seafarers for the first time.
- After five years of work, Michelangelo completes the Last Judgment fresco in the Sistine Chapel .
- At the Diet of Regensburg gets Kaspar Brusch the Emperor Charles V. poet crown .
Society and sport
- February: In a document written in the monastery of Paisley in the county of Renfrewshire , a game with stones on the ice comparable to curling is mentioned in writing for the first time.
Religion and culture
- January 17th : The Worms Religious Discussion ends with the presentation of the Worms Book as the basis for the following religious discussion at the Reichstag in Regensburg .
- April 5 to May 22 : The Regensburg Religious Discussion ends with no tangible result.
- September 13 : The proven reformer Johannes Calvin returns from Strasbourg to Geneva and begins to push through the Reformation together with the council .
- Martin Luther writes the work Wider Hans Worst on ecclesiology in hearty language .
- Martin Luther wrote the hymns Receive us, Lord, by your word and Christ, our Lord, came to the Jordan .
- The dissolution of the English monasteries by King Henry VIII of England has been completed.
- The Cathedral of Santa María la Menor is inaugurated in Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola .
- September 11th : The Volcán de Agua bursts and destroys the Guatemalan capital, today's suburb Ciudad Vieja , with a scree and mud avalanche . Several hundred people die.
- In the event of a fire at Prague Castle , among other things, the Bohemian land tablets are lost.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 12 : Johann Bauhin , Swiss doctor and botanist († 1613 )
- February 21 : Philipp V , Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg († 1599 )
- March 18 : Johann von Wattenwyl , mayor of Bern († 1604 )
- March 25 : Francesco I de 'Medici , Grand Duke of Tuscany († 1587 )
- November 9 : Menso Alting , German preacher and theologian of the Reformation period († 1612 )
- November 9 : Virgil Pingitzer , German-Austrian legal scholar († 1619 )
- December 14 : Sophie von Brandenburg , Countess of Bohemia († 1564 )
- December 21 : Thomas Schweicker , armless art writer († 1602 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Nobukimi Anayama , Japanese samurai († 1582 )
- Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex , English nobleman († 1576 )
- El Greco , Greek-Spanish painter († 1614 )
- Hattori Hanzō , Japanese samurai and ninja († 1596 )
- Renée de Rieux, demoiselle de Châteauneuf , French noblewoman, mistress of the French king Henry III. († 1582 )
- Guðbrandur Þorláksson , Icelandic mathematician, cartographer and bishop († 1627 )
First half of the year
- January 5th : Philipp von der Pfalz , Bishop of Freising and Bishop of Naumburg (* 1480 )
- January 23 : Gottschalk von Ahlefeldt , last Catholic bishop of Schleswig (* 1475 )
- March 17th : Angelo Beolco, called Ruzante , Italian comedy poet (* 1496 )
- March 18 : Henricus Ubbius , learned lawyer, East Frisian chancellor and chronicler (* around 1495 )
- March 25 : Paul Lindenau , German Lutheran theologian (* 1489 )
- April 7th : Gebhard XVII. von Alvensleben , governor, Magdeburg councilor and governor of Wolmirstedt (* before 1471 )
- April 29 : Johannes Gramann , German reformer and poet of hymns (* 1487 )
- May 20 : Johann III. von Henneberg-Schleusingen , prince abbot of Fulda (* 1503 )
- May 23 : Urbanus Rhegius , reformer who was unusually active in both southern and northern Germany (* 1489 )
- May 28 : Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury , English noblewoman and Catholic martyr (* 1473 )
- June 26th : Francisco Pizarro , Spanish conquistador and conqueror of the Inca Empire (* around 1476 or 1478 )
- June 29th : Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre , English peer (* 1517 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Pedro de Alvarado , Spanish conquistador (* around 1486 )
- August 18 : Heinrich the Pious , Duke of Saxony (* 1473 )
- September 1 : Gül Baba , Turkish Bektashi dervish and poet (* late 15th century)
- September 12 : Peter Breuer , Saxon sculptor and carver (* around 1472 )
- September 24th : Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus , federal doctor, alchemist, astrologer, mystic, lay theologian and philosopher (* 1493 )
- October 16 : Johann Baptista von Taxis , Burgundian-Dutch Postmaster General (* around 1470 )
- October 18 : Margaret Tudor , Queen of Scotland, older sister of the English King Henry VIII (* 1489 )
- November 4th : Wolfgang Capito , reformer of Strasbourg (* 1478 )
- November 9th : Caspar Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , German humanist and canon (* 1464 )
- November 15 : Margarete Blarer , German Reformed deaconess (* 1494 )
- November 16 : Elisabeth Silbereisen , German citizen's wife, wife of the reformer Martin Bucer (* around 1495)
- December 10 : Francis Dereham , lover of Catherine Howard, fifth wife of King Henry VIII of England.
- December 15 : Johanna van der Gheynst , Dutch citizen and lover of Emperor Charles V (* around 1500 )
- December 24th : Andreas Bodenstein , German reformer (* 1480 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Francysk Skaryna , Lithuanian humanist, doctor and translator, is considered the "first printer in Belarus" (* 1486 )
- Juan de Valdés , Spanish secretary, humanist, theologian and author (* around 1490 )