Calendar overview 1541
|John Calvin enforces the Reformation in Geneva .||Moritz becomes Duke of Saxony .|
|Santiago de Chile is founded by Pedro de Valdivia .|
|1541 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||989/990 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2084/85 (southern Buddhism); 2083/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||903/904 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3874/75 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||947/948 (turn of the year April 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5301/02 (September 21-22)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1851/52 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1852/53 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1597/98 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 12: Santiago de Chile is founded under the name Santiago del Nuevo Extremo by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia . Valdivia chooses the place because the Río Mapocho forms a larger island here.
- June 12: Pedro de Alvarado arrives in New Spain to strengthen the crackdown on the Mixtón uprising against the Spanish colonial rulers that broke out last year . In a battle, however, he is so badly injured that he dies on July 4th.
- June 26: The conqueror and governor of New Castile (Peru), Francisco Pizarro , is murdered in Lima by the supporters of his executed rival Diego de Almagro . Almagros son of the same name is proclaimed governor.
- September 11th: First destruction of Santiago de Chile during a Mapuche uprising against the Spanish conquistadors . Beginning of a three-year war.
- October 20: In a letter to the Spanish King Carlos , the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado describes the Llano Estacado for the first time .
Ottoman Empire / Hungary
- May 25th: The Ottoman Sultan hands over the rule of Transylvania “as a son” to Johann Sigismund Zápolya , the one-year-old King of Hungary .
- The Ottoman Empire conquers the Hungarian capital Buda .
- Transylvania becomes an independent principality under Ottoman protection.
Holy Roman Empire
- June 13: Emperor Charles V and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse sign the Regensburg Treaty , in which Philip undertakes, among other things, not to enter into an alliance with Francis I of France or other foreign powers.
- July 23: In the Regensburg partition treaty , the Hohenzollern people mutually redefine the boundaries between their principalities of Ansbach , where Albrecht's uncle and previous guardian Georg the Pious , and Kulmbach, on the occasion of Albrecht Alcibiades' takeover of government in the Principality of Kulmbach .
- August 18: After the death of Heinrich from the House of Wettin , his son Moritz becomes Duke of the Albertine Duchy of Saxony .
- October 11: Emperor Charles V gives his 14-year-old son Philip II the duchy of Milan as a fief.
- October 20: Emperor Charles V lands with a fleet near Algiers to put an end to the Algerian corsairs . A storm that disperses the ships and heavy losses among the troops that landed lead the expedition to return home.
Other events in Europe
First documentary mentions
- The Burmese King Tabinshwehti of Taungu conquered the city of Martaban and largely destroyed it, whereupon it never regained its previous political and economic importance.
- The Wendentaler is coined for the first time in Lüneburg .
- The Chinese port of Xiamen is used as a trading port by European seafarers for the first time.
- After five years of work, Michelangelo completes the Last Judgment fresco in the Sistine Chapel .
- At the Diet of Regensburg gets Kaspar Brusch the Emperor Charles V. poet crown .
Society and sport
- February: In a document written in the monastery of Paisley in the county of Renfrewshire , a game with stones on the ice comparable to curling is mentioned in writing for the first time.
Religion and culture
- January 17th: The Worms Religious Discussion ends with the presentation of the Worms Book as the basis for the following religious discussion at the Reichstag in Regensburg .
- April 5 to May 22: The Regensburg Religious Discussion ends with no tangible result.
- September 13: The proven reformer Johannes Calvin returns from Strasbourg to Geneva and begins to push through the Reformation together with the council .
- Martin Luther wrote the work Wider Hans Worst on ecclesiology in hearty language .
- Martin Luther wrote the hymns Receive us, Lord, by your word and Christ, our Lord, came to the Jordan .
- The dissolution of the English monasteries by King Henry VIII of England has been completed.
- The Cathedral of Santa María la Menor is inaugurated in Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola .
- September 11th: The Volcán de Agua bursts and destroys the Guatemalan capital, today's suburb Ciudad Vieja , with a scree and mud avalanche . Several hundred people die.
- In a fire at Prague Castle , among other things, the Bohemian land tablets are lost.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 12: Johann Bauhin , Swiss doctor and botanist († 1613)
- February 21: Philipp V , Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg († 1599)
- March 18: Johann von Wattenwyl , mayor of Bern († 1604)
- March 25: Francesco I de 'Medici , Grand Duke of Tuscany († 1587)
- April 22nd: Philip II , Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels († 1583)
- November 9: Menso Alting , German preacher and theologian of the Reformation period († 1612)
- November 9: Virgil Pingitzer , German-Austrian legal scholar († 1619)
- December 14: Sophie von Brandenburg , Countess of Bohemia († 1564)
- December 21: Thomas Schweicker , armless art writer († 1602)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Nobukimi Anayama , Japanese samurai († 1582)
- Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex , English nobleman († 1576)
- El Greco , Greek-Spanish painter († 1614)
- Hattori Hanzō , Japanese samurai and ninja († 1596)
- Renée de Rieux, demoiselle de Châteauneuf , French noblewoman, mistress of the French King Henry III. († 1582)
- Guðbrandur Þorláksson , Icelandic mathematician, cartographer and bishop († 1627)
First half of the year
- January 5th: Philipp von der Pfalz , Bishop of Freising and Bishop of Naumburg (* 1480)
- January 23: Gottschalk von Ahlefeldt , last Catholic bishop of Schleswig (* 1475)
- March 17th: Angelo Beolco, called Ruzante , Italian comedy poet (* 1496)
- March 18: Henricus Ubbius , learned lawyer, East Frisian chancellor and chronicler (* around 1495)
- March 25: Paul Lindenau , German Lutheran theologian (* 1489)
- April 4: Daniel von Büren the Elder , councilor and mayor of Bremen (* 15th century)
- April 7th: Gebhard XVII. von Alvensleben , governor, Magdeburg councilor and governor of Wolmirstedt (* before 1471)
- April 29: Johann Gramann , German reformer and poet of hymns (* 1487)
- May 20: Johann III. von Henneberg-Schleusingen , prince abbot of Fulda (* 1503)
- May 23: Urbanus Rhegius , reformer who was unusually active in both southern and northern Germany (* 1489)
- May 28: Margaret Pole, 8th Countess of Salisbury , English noblewoman and Catholic martyr (* 1473)
- June 26th: Francisco Pizarro , Spanish conquistador and conqueror of the Inca Empire (* around 1476 or 1478)
- June 29th: Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre , English peer (* 1517)
Second half of the year
- July 4th: Pedro de Alvarado , Spanish conquistador (* around 1486)
- August 1: Simon Grynaeus , Reformed theologian, reformer and humanist (* 1493)
- August 18: Heinrich the Pious , Duke of Saxony (* 1473)
- September 1: Gül Baba , Turkish Bektashi dervish and poet (* late 15th century)
- September 12: Peter Breuer , Saxon sculptor and carver (* around 1472)
- September 24th: Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus , federal doctor, alchemist, astrologer, mystic, lay theologian and philosopher (* 1493)
- October 16: Johann Baptista von Taxis , Burgundian-Dutch Postmaster General (* around 1470)
- October 18: Margaret Tudor , Queen of Scotland, older sister of the English King Henry VIII (* 1489)
- November 4th: Wolfgang Capito , reformer of Strasbourg (* 1478)
- November 9th: Caspar Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden , German humanist and canon (* 1464)
- November 11: Federigo Fregoso , Italian clergyman, writer and military leader (* around 1480)
- November 15: Margarete Blarer , German Reformed deaconess (* 1494)
- November 16: Elisabeth Silbereisen , German citizen's wife, wife of the reformer Martin Bucer (* around 1495)
- December 10: Francis Dereham , lover of Catherine Howard, fifth wife of King Henry VIII of England.
- December 15: Johanna van der Gheynst , Dutch citizen and lover of Emperor Charles V (* around 1500)
- December 24th: Andreas Bodenstein , German reformer (* 1486)
Exact date of death unknown
- Francysk Skaryna , Lithuanian humanist, doctor and translator, is considered the "first printer in Belarus" (* 1486)
- Juan de Valdés , Spanish secretary, humanist, theologian and author (* around 1490)