Andreas Bodenstein

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Andreas Bodenstein, called Karlstadt, copper engraving (1534/41)
Andreas Bodenstein, called Karlstadt Woodcut 1st half of the 16th century
Memorial plaque on the house at Kirchplatz 11, in Lutherstadt Wittenberg

Andreas Rudolff Bodenstein , called Karlstadt , in Latin Carolstadius (* 1486 in Karlstadt ; † December 24, 1541 in Basel ) was a German Roman Catholic theologian and priest, university teacher and reformer of the 16th century . In his person and his unsteady and dynamic life, Bodenstein was a decisive link between the Wittenberg Reformation ( Martin Luther ) and the Saxon ( Thomas Müntzer ) and Swiss-Upper German representatives of theRadical Reformation ( Kaspar Schwenckfeld ) and Anabaptism ( Felix Manz , Konrad Grebel ).


Andreas Bodenstein probably came from the early bourgeois ruling class in his hometown. When his father is the episcopal würzburgische winemaker Peter (Rudolff) Bodenstein believed occupied for 1481 as mayor. The father lived with his family around 1480 in Karlstadt am Markt in a house belonging to the Würzburg cathedral chapter . At least one sister from his family is occupied. The Nuremberg councilor and lawyer Leonhard Bodenstein († 1549) is seen as a brother . Another brother is said to have been Michael Bodenstein, who from 1517 pursued the craft of the baker in Wittenberg .

Early school education (around 1486), Universities of Erfurt (around 1502) and Cologne (1503)

The young Andreas probably first attended the local Latin school before he enrolled at the University of Erfurt in 1499, after graduating from school, at the age of only 13 . In 1502 he passed the 1st exam. As a Baccalaureus he left Erfurt in 1503 and moved to the University of Cologne , where he was made familiar with the teachings of Thomas Aquinas .

University of Wittenberg (1505)

In 1505 he went from Cologne to the Alma Mater Leucorea zu Wittenberg . Here at the University of Wittenberg he was promoted to a master's degree on August 12th that same year . Two years later, in 1507/08, he was appointed dean of the artist faculty there . His ecclesiastical career led him through minor ordinations in 1508 and finally to priestly ordination in 1510 . In the same year, on November 13th, Bodenstein also received his doctorate in theology.

Afterwards he went from Wittenberg back to his hometown in Karlstadt am Main to hold his primary school there. On the way there he visited his married sister in Eußenheim in Lower Franconia . Set out from Eußenheim to go to Carlstadt, but he was in 1511 in the so-called "Höul", a ravine , of robbers attacked and seriously injured. After this event he took the vow for his later trip to Rome (1515-1516). He recovered from his injuries in Karlstadt and celebrated his first holy mass there as the main celebrant .

Work before the Reformation, lecturer in Wittenberg (1511), trip to Rome (1515)

Then Bodenstein went back to Wittenberg, where he continued his academic and theological career. He completed his habilitation and named himself in humanistic tradition after his hometown “Dr. Karlstadt ". It was then that his deep friendship with Georg Spalatin began .

1511 Bodenstein accepted a position as a lecturer at the theological faculty, with which the archdeaconate at the collegiate church of All Saints (castle church) was connected. In addition, he has held managerial positions at the university several times. During his time as a lecturer at the artist faculty , he mainly held lectures on Thomas Aquinas . However, he dealt with the writings of Johannes Duns Scotus and Wilhelm von Ockham , among other things . As dean, he received his doctorate in theology for Martin Luther in 1512 and continued his university education in the legal field.

In 1515 the trip to Rome or Italy took place, with which he redeemed his vows from Eußenheim. Although his position as archdeacon provided him with a good income, he had to spend a lot of time reading masses and church services, time that clashed with his interests from academic teaching duties. So he pursued the goal of becoming provost ; but for this he needed a doctorate in both rights. For this purpose, he let himself be from Elector Friedrich III for four months . leave of absence to complete the requirements in Italy. On the way to Rome Bodenstein was in Siena for Doctor of Laws (Doctor iuris utriusque) PhD . During his stay in Italy between 1515 and 1516, he was also employed as a clerk at the Curia in Rome. In doing so, Bodenstein came into conflict with his sovereign: he extended his stay in Italy, contrary to what had been agreed, without naming a deputy for the archdeaconate at the All Saints' Castle Church. Karlstadt did not return from Italy until the incumbent provost threatened him with imprisonment.

On January 13, 1517, Karlstadt traveled to Leipzig in the middle of winter to purchase a copy of the church teacher Augustinus von Hippo ; he wanted to refute the criticisms of Luther, which Luther had formulated in his preparatory work on scholastic theology and which were later found in the 95 theses . But the Lutheran arguments convinced him and in the further discussion a personal friendship developed. On April 26, 1517 Karlstadt wrote a thesis paper in which he vehemently attacked scholastic theology, above all he criticized the recourse to Aristotelian metaphysics . "One hundred and fifty-one conclusions on nature, law and grace" contained 151 theses that dealt critically with Thomism and Thomas Aquinas .

In 1517, however, the Würzburg chapter also tried to win Karlstadt as cathedral preacher .

Karlstadt as a Wittenberg reformer (around 1517)

Initially opponent of Luther's turn to the theology of Augustine of Hippo , Bodenstein later developed into a follower of this reformer. He was also influenced by the writings of Johann von Staupitz and the mysticism of Johannes Taulers . On April 26, 1517, Bodenstein went public with 152 theses excerpted from Augustine on "Nature, Law and Grace". He formulated his theology with clarity and rigor. Central to this was the new understanding of grace and human will. His strict biblicism was also already evident.

In 1518 Karlstadt opened the dispute with Johannes Eck with the Apologeticae conclusions , in which, among other things, he took a stand on the relationship between human will and divine grace in the Augustinian sense . In the conflict between Luther and his Wittenberg confidants with the official church, a debate was held in Leipzig in the summer of 1519, the Leipzig disputation . This began on June 27, 1519 with a mass in the Thomaskirche . Luther and his companions, the scholar Philipp Melanchthon and the theologian Andreas Karlstadt, prepared for a day-long speech duel with their opponent, the theology professor Johannes Eck , who was loyal to the Pope . In the Pleißenburg , however, it was not only about indulgences , but also about the position of the Pope and the relationship between free will and divine grace. In his lecture paper De impii iustificatione , Bodenstein had represented the inability of man to do good without a grace which was due to him alone from God and justified . He limited himself to this topic in 1519 in the Leipzig disputation as well as in his first German writing, Interpretation and Explanation . On the other hand, he held back on the question of papal primacy. Eck then thought an understanding with Karlstadt was still possible, but not with Luther.

Only after the papal bull threatening to ban Exsurge Domine on June 15, 1520 by Pope Leo X against Luther and his followers, including Karlstadt personally, did he also break openly with the papal church and tradition. The Pope threatened excommunication , which he put into effect on January 3, 1521 with the Bull Decet Romanum Pontificem .

In 1521 Justus Jonas became the new provost at the All Saints monastery. Andreas Bodenstein's hopes for this position were dashed. After an invitation by Christian II , he worked for a short time in the Danish capital Copenhagen in 1521 , but returned to Wittenberg in June of the same year.

Luther was after the Diet of Worms in 1521 with the outlawed been occupied. On May 26, 1521, the Reichstag imposed the Edict of Worms on him , backdated to May 8 and drawn by Emperor Charles V. With the imperial ban an outlaw (declaration of peace and lawlessness) was issued, which extended to the entire area of ​​the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and which went hand in hand with the prohibition of his works and the distribution of his writings. He was now “ outlawed ”. According to the promise made to his elector, Friedrich III. , he received safe conduct . Charles V later regretted this promise because the ensuing Reformation destroyed the unity of his empire. The outlaw was secretly kidnapped by Frederick's soldiers on the evening of May 4, 1521 on the way home near Altenstein Castle in Bad Liebenstein and detained at the Eisenach Wartburg to keep him out of danger. From Saturday, May 4, 1521 until Saturday, March 1, 1522 , Luther stayed incognito as "Junker Jörg" at the Wartburg .

During Luther's stay at the Wartburg, Karlstadt became the most important protagonist of the Wittenberg movement . Neither the city council nor Philipp Melanchthon put up any noteworthy resistance to this great movement. Nevertheless, Karlstadt was the one who urged Melanchthon to be careful until the end of 1521; so he initially warned against simply abolishing private fairs , missa privata . In November of the same year he published “Von anbettung und Ererbgabe der Tzeychen des Newen Testaments” (1521), which he dedicated to Albrecht Dürer . His point of view was in agreement with Luther regarding the Lord's Supper insofar as the true body of Christ was actually present in bread and wine, that is, in both forms. With this he contradicted the position of Gabriel Zwilling , who spoke out against the veneration of the host through its elevation .

Karlstadt preached and consistently implemented the renewal of worship (abolition of the mass ), the abolition of images of saints , church music (which prevented his opinion from devotional ) and private confession as well as celibacy . A central question for him became the celebration of the Lord's Supper in both forms , i. H. distributing bread and wine to the community. On Christmas 1521, Karlstadt celebrated the first Protestant liturgy in German . He wore secular clothing and celebrated the Lord's Supper in both forms , with the laity taking the chalice in their own hands. Thus the mediation of salvation by priests was practically abolished. In February 1522, there were tumults and riots over the removal of the pictures from the churches.

Marriage (1522) and family

His marriage to Anna von Mochau (* approx. 1507) from Seegrehna on January 19, 1522 testified to his break with celibacy .

The Bodenstein family probably had seven children, the eldest son Johannes (* 1523), then the second oldest son Andreas (* 1525), then Adam (1528–1577), followed by Daniel (* 1539) and son Küngold (* 1537?) and two other children named Gertrud and Jakob, whose dates of birth are unknown. Adam Bodenstein later became a student of Paracelsus and practiced the medical profession.

Georg Major was a brother- in -law to Bodenstein, a brother-in-law was Gerhard Westerburg . Georg Major married Anna von Mochau's sister, Magarethe von Mochau († October 10, 1577 in Wittenberg) in 1528.

The differences with Luther (1521–1522)

Reformatory changes that Karlstadt planned in Wittenberg at the end of 1521 and then carried out in January 1522 were, for example, the issue of removing pictures from the churches. Karlstadt said that the Old Testament law ( Ex 20.1–6  EU ) must also apply to Christians.

When Luther stayed secretly in Wittenberg from the Wartburg in December 1521, he was at first impressed by the changes. In order to end the February riots of 1522, the city council called on Luther, who left the Wartburg against the advice of Elector Friedrich and gave his invocavit sermons in March 1522 . In these he criticized Karlstadt's implementation of the Reformation ideas, as Karlstadt had shown no consideration for the weak. At the same time, Luther restored the old forms of worship and enforced a preaching ban for Karlstadt as well as censorship and confiscation of his writings by the university.

Disappointed with Luther, Karlstadt withdrew from the university and from Wittenberg to an acquired property near Wörlitz and ran agriculture there, especially since he was no longer allowed to publish in Wittenberg since 1522. But at the end of 1523, in late autumn, the Erfurt printer Michel Buchführer went to Jena until the spring of 1524. Karlstadt was able to bring out his printed matter there. In Orlamünde , Karlstadt continued to put his theological views into practice. He gave his sermons in German, translated psalms from Hebrew and increasingly incorporated the Old Testament. He tried to involve women more in church work.

Luther tried to prevent Karlstadt from publishing by writing to the Saxon Chancellor Gregor Brück , requesting censorship or the closure of the printing workshop. In April 1524, Karlstadt was summoned by the University of Wittenberg to either remain a member of the teaching company or to continue his archdeaconate . He decided to continue his sermons in Orlamünde. Ultimately, on August 27, 1524, Kaspar Glatz took over the parish in Orlamünde, which was connected to the archdeacon of the Wittenberg Castle Church , as the successor to Bodenstein . Glatz subsequently reported to Martin Luther about the events in Orlamünde from the time of Bodenstein, whom he portrayed very negatively.

Pastor in Orlamünde (1523–1524)

In the summer of 1523 Karlstadt was elected pastor of Orlamünde after the parish had fallen out with his predecessor because of the tithe benefits; this pastor's office was incorporated into the All Saints' Monastery in Wittenberg . Here he carried out the Reformation with the support of the community in his favor, reformed the liturgy , abolished infant baptism and removed the organ and the images of saints . He influenced the Reformation movement throughout the Saale Valley . He cultivated intensive contacts particularly to Jena , where at that time Martin Reinhart (* approx. 1500) was the first Protestant pastor (1522 to 1524) and Gerhard Westerburg . Several of his writings were also printed there.

On many points, such as the question of images and the Lord's Supper, his positions were similar to those of Zwingli and Calvin . For a short time he was in contact with Thomas Müntzer , but did not join the Allstedter Bund because he rejected violence as a means of enforcing the Reformation. The community in Orlamünde later behaved passively during the German Peasants' War . In the rejection of violence and in the conception of a community standing apart from the world, his positions were also similar to those of the Swiss Anabaptists who appeared from 1525 onwards . Nevertheless, Luther saw in him a supporter of Müntzer and pushed for his removal and expulsion. In August 1524, during Luther's visitation trip through Thuringia, there were two disputations in Jena and Orlamünde. After Luther expelled Karlstadt from the church in Orlamünde, there was a clash with the local community: The self-confident peasants insisted “on their parish suffrage, the removal of images and the justification of inner mystical knowledge of God's truth”. Luther parted in irreconcilable enmity from the “ ghosts ” who, for their part, saw in him a traitor to the gospel and renounced him. Thereupon Karlstadt was expelled from Kursachsen on September 18, 1524, although he had refused a request from the Allstedter community , which was shaped by Thomas Müntzer , to join the (defense) federation planned there.

Further stations

The most important whereabouts and life stations of Andreas Bodenstein are outlined in a political map of the Holy Roman Empire around 1547
The spread of the Anabaptist movement between 1525 and 1550

Old Confederation, Southern Germany (1524–1526)

His path led him to Zurich and Basel , where he made contact with the Anabaptists . Then it went to Heidelberg ; from there via Schweinfurt , Kitzingen and Nördlingen he reached Rothenburg ob der Tauber at the end of 1524 , where friends received him and his family hospitably. In Rothenburg he first saw his children Johannes and their son Andreas, who was born in Kemberg near Wittenberg in 1525 , but at the beginning of 1525 the city council soon expelled them. Karlstadt first went into hiding in Rothenburg; because of the uncertain situation, also due to the effects of the peasant war , the family left the city again. Karlstadt got caught between the fronts of the warring parties and almost was slain by a peasant leader at the gates of Rothenburg because he had spoken out against the violent uprising. Again he went to his hometown Karlstadt and from there to the Free and Imperial City of Frankfurt am Main . At Pentecost 1525 Bodenstein traveled to Karlstadt to give the first evangelical sermon in the church of St. Andreas ; on June 12, 1525 he stayed again in Frankfurt am Main. From there, his wife, Anna von Mochau, contacted Martin Luther in Wittenberg; one attempted to obtain an entry and residence permit for the Electorate of Saxony for the Bodenstein family with Luther's help . - In 1526 Bodenstein and his family were living in great material need.

Return to Electoral Saxony (1526–1529)

The Elector Johann the Steadfast finally agreed to his return to Electoral Saxony, but set the condition that Bodenstein had to distance himself from all allegations of rebellion. Bodenstein and his family settled in Seegrehna , the birthplace of his wife. Her second son, Andreas, was baptized in Seegrehna in March 1526. The situation in Electoral Saxony worsened when an exchange of letters he had with Caspar von Schwenckfeld became public. In order to anticipate punitive measures, Bodenstein secretly escaped from Saxony at the beginning of 1529 and finally turned his back on Electoral Saxony.

Northern Germany, East Frisia (1529–1530)

Leaving those around him in the presumption that he was going to Zurich, he initially turned in the direction of northern Germany. The following period was marked by an unsteady wandering that led him through various Upper German cities. However, he was deported everywhere after a short time. On the mediation of Luther, he was able to return to Wittenberg in 1525 after he had revoked his doctrine of the Lord's Supper, but was excluded from the sermon and the university.

But Melchior Hofmann had initially invited him to support him against the positions of the Lutherans in Holstein . Hofmann tried to get Karlstadt to participate in the Flensburg disputation . An effort that culminated for both in the fact that Karlstadt and Hofmann were expelled from the county as sacramenters . He reached East Frisia via Kiel . During an eight-month stay in East Frisia, he worked temporarily with the Baptist Melchior Hofmann. Both had initially turned to Emden (including Pilsum ), where they arrived at the end of April or beginning of May 1529. While Hofmann moved on to Strasbourg a little later , Karlstadt stayed in East Frisia and developed a lasting effect there. At the Reichstag in Speyer, Enno II was urged by the Saxon elector to align himself with Lutheran convictions. Karlstadt enjoyed a great deal of respect in large circles of the landed nobility, the clergy and also the population, but was expelled as a critic of Luther in early February 1530 under threat of violence by Enno II.

Alsace, Old Confederation (1530–1534)

Bodenstein traveled from East Frisia to Strasbourg; in the Alsatian metropolis he met his wife and children again. But Strasbourg offered them no place to stay; after a short stay, they were also expelled from the city there. In 1530 Karlstadt went to Zurich with the stopover in Basel , and at the end of July they reached this capital of the canton of Zurich .

Zurich (1531), death from the plague (1541)

In Zurich Bodenstein first worked as a deacon of the hospital and in 1531 accepted the pastor's post in Altstätten , now the canton of St. Gallen, which he had to give up again due to the victory of the old believing cantons in the Second Kappel War . He then worked in Zurich at the School of the Great Minster . On the intercession of Heinrich Bullinger he became lecturer and pastor of the Peterskirche in Basel in 1534 ; In 1537 he was rector of the University of Basel . After an eventful life, he died of the plague there on Christmas Eve 1541 .

While Luther commented on Karlstadt's death in 1542: "If you judge the tree by its fruits, this person danced straight to hell, yes he fell headlong into it," wrote Heinrich Pantaleon , Bodenstein's student and friend from Basel's times, on this in honor of a mourning poem with the following words:

"En CAROLSTADIUS, quem olim Franconia misit,
Occidit, Helvetium Gloria, fama, decus"

("Oh, Karlstadt, whom Franken once sent is dead, Swiss fame, honor and adornment").


Title page: On the abolition of pictures. 1522

Initially a sponsor and companion of Luther, Karlstadt soon developed his own reformatory concept. In 1519 he stood as a disputant at Luther's side in Leipzig . During Luther's stay at the Wartburg from 1521 to 1522, Karlstadt pushed for the ideas of the Reformation in Wittenberg; from Luther's point of view, however, his endeavors were too energetic. Karlstadt went further than many other reformers, especially in his ideas of lay competence .

Sacrament question

Like the spiritualist Karlstadt, the Basel humanist and reformer Johannes Oekolampad and Zwingli wanted "the eradication of all magical-sacred elements that they saw in contradiction to God's spiritual activity."

At Christmas 1521, Bodenstein celebrated the first public Protestant service in which he questioned the real presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper in bread and wine ( transubstantiation ). He wore a lay robe, spoke the words of institution in German , furthermore the host was not elevated and he gave it together with the chalice to the communicants themselves. In 1524 Karlstadt opened the Last Supper dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli with a treatise on the Lord's Supper , which contributed to the split between the Wittenberger and Upper German Reformation.

After his flight to southern Germany in June 1525, Karlstadt's wife made contact with Luther from Frankfurt am Main. Karlstadt was forced to publicly approve of Luther's view of the real presence of Christ on the question of the Lord's Supper . So a claused declaration was made: "Declaration how Carlstat his lere of the honorable Sacrament and others respects and wants to have respected" (Wittenberg 1525). It came to the support of Luther, who initially secretly welcomed Karlstadt into his house. In 1526 Karlstadt and his family were allowed to return to the Electorate of Saxony.

The debate about the change reached its climax in March 1536 after the first edition of the Institutio Christianae Religionis by Johannes Calvin was published by the Basel printer Thomas Platter . In May of the same year, Reformation theologians signed the Wittenberg Agreement . It was about the interpretation of the Lord's Supper , which was disputed between the Wittenberg reformers on the one hand and representatives of the Swiss and Upper German Reformations on the other. Melanchthon defined the Lord's Supper Convention and on May 26th, the “Formula Concordiae Lutheri et Buceri” was presented to all those involved and accepted by them. With the exception of the Konstanz preacher Zwick, who pretended not to be authorized to do so, the Upper German cities accepted the Agreement, but not the Swiss cities.

Author's question

Whether Carlstadt, the author of the anonymous, 1525 published Peasant War - pamphlet At the meeting common peasantry is, is controversial so far not been proven in historical research and. However, he has spoken out against violent rebellion several times, as early as 1524 in the writing of the Orlamünder to the Allstedter, how one should fight in a Christian way : "Let's not run to knives and spears". Also on May 14, 1525 in Rothenburg ob der Tauber and on June 1, 1525 in Schweinfurt, he urged the peasants to lay down their arms and to negotiate.

Picture question

Andreas Bodenstein and the Iconoclasm, copper engraving (around 1522)

“But (I got a complaint) my hertz was raised and raised more from his youth on the submission and the observation of the image. And a scheduled research has been entered for me / which I would like to end / and cannot. So I am afraid that I will burn keynen olgotzen village. I have to worry, the Teuffels fool will beleyd me. How well I have the schrifft (on a teyll) and know. dz pictures are not able / neither have life / blood / according to geyst. But I do research on the other teyll / vnd / that I research in front of a painted teuffskin / in front of a shatwen / in front of a regret of a leychten bletlin / and flee that / that I should look for men. "

- Andreas Bodenstein : From abtuhung the Bylder . Wittenberg 1522

When Bodenstein called for the active destruction of religious sculptures in the years that followed after 1520, this was also based on an interpretation by Martin Luther, because "the goal of Christianity is to abolish poverty and begging, [and] this can only happen if that." Fortune, instead of flowing into pious foundations, goes directly to the poor. ”Martin Luther, although critical of the Catholic cult of images, saw the main evil not in the images themselves, but in the imagination of the believers who donated images to Salvation would come or through the worship of relics could achieve their redemption in the hereafter.

Karlstadt argued with the Second Commandment of Moses , which forbids idolatry . Images endangered the individual position towards God, so the iconoclasts, portraits distracted, disturbed the concentration on the essentials in the turn to God. Pictorial works have only material value, not communicative, and cannot “teach” in Pope Gregory's sense. According to which pictures are useful for teaching those unfamiliar with reading ( picture catechism ). Images stimulated people to devotion ( mysticism ) and supported the memory (memoria). "Living" images of God are fellow human beings.

Karlstadt's pamphlet Von abtuhung der Bylder (1522) spread throughout the German-speaking area in two editions. The begging argument was completely ignored in the reception, only the iconoclastic appeal was enthusiastically received.

Andreas Bodenstein's radical request to remove the images seems like an attempt to break free from one's fear of images in an act of violence. The iconoclasm became a symbolic break with its earlier “idolatry”.


In the 500th year of the Reformation, the “City History Museum” in Karlstadt paid tribute to the reformer with a special exhibition “Andreas Bodenstein, known as Dr. Carlstadt and the Reformation in Germany ”.

Works (selection)



  • Thomas Kaufmann (ed.): Critical complete edition of the writings and letters of Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt , Gütersloh 2017–.
    • Volume I: Writings 1507-1518 .
      • Volume 1: Writings 1507–1517 , Gütersloh 2017.
      • Volume 2: Schriften 1518 , Gütersloh 2017.
    • Volume II: Letters and Writings 1519 , Gütersloh 2019.
    • Volume III: Letters and Writings 1520 , Gütersloh 2020.
  • Alfred Otto Schwede : The Adversary (A Karlstadt novel). Union Verlag, Berlin 1975.
  • Barbara Wolf: Carlstadt versus Luther - they only wanted the Reformation . Edition Winterwork, Borsdorf 2016, ISBN 978-396-0141-97-6 .

Web links

Commons : Andreas Bodenstein  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Andreas Bodenstein. 100 years St. Johanniskirche 1904 - 2004. No. 7, February 2007 p. 2.
  2. Alejandro Zorzin: Karlstadt, Andreas Rudolff Bodenstein from. In: Mennonite Lexicon . Volume 5 (MennLex 5).
  3. ^ Hans Ulrich Bächtold: Karlstadt. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  4. However, there are also different information: 1477 : Ulrich Bubenheimer: Consonantia Theologiae et Iurisprudentiae. Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt as a theologian and lawyer between scholasticism and the Reformation . Tübingen 1977. p. 1; Ernst Kähler: Article Bodenstein, Andreas Rudolf . In NDB , Volume 2. 1955. S. 356. or 1480 : Alfred Otto Schwede: Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein called Karlstadt . In: Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt 1480-1541. Festschrift of the city of Karlstadt for the anniversary year 1980 . Karlstadt 1980
  5. Some other learned contemporaries of Bodenstein come from Karlstadt, such as Johann Draconites (1494–1566), Johann Schöner (1477–1547), Michael Beuther (1522–1587).
  6. Armin Kohnle, Beate Kusche (ed.): Professors' book of the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg 1502 to 1815/17 (= Leucorea studies on the history of the Reformation and Lutheran Orthodoxy [LStRLO] Volume 27). Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-374-04302-6 , pp. 32–34 ( PDF file ).
  7. ^ Philipp Melanchthon (edited by Heinz Scheible, with the assistance of Corinna Schneider): Melanchthon's correspondence . Volume 12 of the Regesta . Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt 2005 (Fromann-Holzboog). ISBN 3-7728-2258-4 . P. 399
  8. ^ Karlstadt humanists. St. Johannis Karlstadt.
  9. This "house on the market" was probably the "Gasthaus zum Ochsen" operated at a later date, but it was demolished.
  10. It was a massive stone building, which was unusual for residential houses at the time and therefore a lordly owner, as the cathedral chapter indicates (according to Ulrich Bubenheimer: Andreas Rudolff Bodenstein von Karlstadt, in: Festschrift der Stadt Karlstadt for the anniversary year 1980 , Karlstadt 1980, p . 5.)
  11. A council counselor was a legally knowledgeable advisor to the city council of a city
  12. Martin Keßler: The Karlstadt image in research. Vol. 174 contributions to historical theology, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2014, ISBN 3-1615-3175-2 , p. 462
  13. Andreas Bodenstein. 100 years St. Johanniskirche 1904 - 2004. No. 7, February 2007 p. 2.
  14. ^ Karlstadt, Andreas Rudolff Bodenstein von, MennLex V, [1]
  15. ^ Ulrich Bubenheimer: Karlstadt reads Tauler. His reformatory path in the mirror of his Taulerband in the library of the Evangelical Preacher Seminary in Wittenberg. Transcript of the lecture of June 6, 1987, p. 2 [2]
  16. Andreas Bodenstein. 100 years St. Johanniskirche 1904 - 2004. No. 7, February 2007 p. 3.
  17. [3]
  21. ^ Renate Meincke: Editionsdesiderate zur Early Modern Age: Contributions to the meeting of the commission for the edition of texts from the early modern period. Volumes 24-25 by Chloe (Amsterdam), Volume 1, Rodopi, Amsterdam 1997, ISBN 9-0420-0332-4 , pp. 553 f.
  22. Lyndal Roper: The man Martin Luther - The biography. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2016, ISBN 978-3-10-066088-6 , p. 284
  23. possibly via the Via Imperii
  24. [4]
  25. ^ Stefan Gradl: Deus beatitudo hominis. Vol. 10 Publications of the Thomas Instituut te Utrecht, Thomas Instituut, Peeters Publishers, Löwen 2004, ISBN 978-9-0429-1430-8 , p. 51 f.
  27. [5]
  30. [6]
  31. ^ Volkmar Joestel: Martin Luther. Rebel and reformer. (= Biographies on the Reformation ). 8th edition. Drei-Kastanien-Verlag, Wittenberg 2005, ISBN 3-9803358-5-2 , p. 31.
  32. Lyndal Roper : The man Martin Luther - The biography. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2016, ISBN 978-3-10-066088-6 , p. 281 f.
  34. Portrait of a man and a woman, reproduced with high probability by Andreas Bodenstein and Anna von Mochau, Lucas Cranach the Elder (1522), National Gallery of Art (Washington DC), in mixed media on red beech wood, each 58.7 x 40.5 cm, inv. No. 1959.9.2 (1372), Samuel H. Kress Collection. [7]
  35. ^ Ferdinand Brüggemann: Biography of the doctors. Vol. 1, F. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1829, p. 478
  36. ^ Johannes Hund, Jan Martin Lies, Hans-Otto Schneider: Controversia et confessio: the interim dispute (1548-1549). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 3-5255-6008-7 , pp. 48-49
  37. Bernhard Lohse : Luther's theology in its historical development and in its systematic context. Research on systematic and ecumenical theology, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995, ISBN 978-3-52552-196-0 , p. 163
  38. WA Br 2 No. 443.18 (Luther in the letter to Spalatin about December 5, 1521)
  39. ^ Johannes Wallmann: Church history in Germany since the Reformation . Tübingen 2005, p. 44 .
  40. Martin von Hase: "Buchfürer, Michael" in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 2 (1955), p. 701 [online version], accessed February 11, 2018 [8]
  41. Lyndal Roper : The man Martin Luther - The biography. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2016, ISBN 978-3-10-066088-6 , pp. 318-320
  42. See TRE 17, 652, 12-21
  43. Gottfried Seebass: History of Christianity. Volume 2, W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-1701-8780-5 , p. 150 f.
  44. Martin Reinhart.
  45. Schilling, Heinz : Martin Luther. Rebel in a time of upheaval. Beck, Munich 2012. p. 288.
  47. Exhibition for the Reformation Year 2017 in the City History Museum Karlstadt Andreas Bodenstein called Dr. Carlstadt and the Reformation in Germany.
  48. Alejandro Zorzin: Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486-1541). Pp. 1-12
  49. Ulrich Bubenheimer, Stefan Oehmig (ed.): Unconventional thinkers of the Reformation - Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt and its effect. Religion-und-Kultur-Verlag, Zell am Main 2001, ISBN 3-9338-9107-8 , pp. 277 f.
  50. ^ Thomas Stäcker: East Frisian Landscape: Karlstadt (Andreas von Bodenstein) East Frisian Landscapes, pp. 1–5
  51. Andreas Bodenstein. 100 years St. Johanniskirche 1904 - 2004. No. 7, February 2007
  52. Luther Martin: Works. Critical Complete Edition / Weimar Edition. 4th Department: Correspondence , Weimar 1883, WB10, No. 3714.
  53. Schilling, Heinz : Martin Luther. Rebel in a time of upheaval. Beck, Munich 2012. p. 288.
  54. ^ H. Heinecke: The understanding of the Lord's Supper among Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists. February 11, 2011 Network of Ecumenism: Couples and families connecting denominational groups [9]
  55. Natalie Krentz: Ritual change and interpretative sovereignty: The early Reformation in the royal seat of Wittenberg (1500-1533). Vol. 74 of Late Middle Ages, Humanism, Reformation, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2014, ISBN 3-1615-2-6791 , p. 154
  56. Alejandro Zorzin: Karlstadt, Andreas Rudolff Bodenstein from MennLex V, November 30, 2017 [10]
  57. Exhibition for the Reformation Year 2017 in the City History Museum Karlstadt Andreas Bodenstein called Dr. Carlstadt and the Reformation in Germany.
  58. ^ Transcription on Wikisource
  59. ^ Letter from Gregory the Great to Bishop Serenus of Marseille, PL 77, left. XI, indict. IV, epist. XIII, sp. 1128C; ep. 9; ep. 11; ep. 105 MPL 77, 1027f.
  60. Schnitzler 1996, p. 32
  61. Anonymous copper engraving 1522. Andreas Bodenstein in the foreground, left, the scene on the right refers to the iconoclasm in Wittenberg, which was blamed on Karlstadt; see also Hubert Stadler: Martin Luther and the Reformation. Hermes Hand Lexicon. Econ, Düsseldorf 1983, ISBN 3-612-10014-9 , p. 67 with reference also to the Archive for Art and History, Berlin [11]
  62. Main-Echo, Aschaffenburg v. April 8, 2017, p. 24. [12]