Church music

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Church music (also sacred music or Latin musica sacra ) as a musical functional term is vocal and instrumental music intended for performance in church services . Typical church music forms are mass settings , cantatas and motets as well as chorales and unison church chants. Choral preludes for organ and other instrumental music in different settings, with which the cultic acts in the service are accompanied, also count as church music.

A distinction must be made between church music and general sacred music that is not intended for performance in worship. Examples of such sacred musical works are the oratorios of Handel , the psalm symphonies by Liszt and Stravinsky or the Requiem by Brahms . The Bach Passions, on the other hand, are considered church music because they were created for use in the Passion liturgy.

In a more general way, all music practice in the church area is sometimes referred to as church music . In this sense, the choir rehearsal, singing with children in a tent camp as an introduction to biblical topics and the organ concert with spiritual meaning also fall under the term church music. The term church music understood in this way also includes the community educational components of music education in connection with religious education , i.e. the introduction to music and the introduction to religious content through music. Church music practice differs greatly according to denomination and cultural environment.

The central practitioner of church music is the church musician , often in his role as a choir director or organist . He leads the church's own music groups such as church choir , schola or trombone choir and studies musical works with them for the organization of church services.

History of Church Music

Relevant requirements of the New Testament

The canonical writings of the New Testament contain very little information on the subject of music. An exception is Ephesians 5:19: “Speak to one another in psalms , hymns, and spiritual hymns ; sing and cheer the Lord in your hearts. "

In 1 Corinthians 14 Paul refers to some musical instruments in the context of a spiritual instruction, but does not comment on them. In the 34th verse of the chapter, however, it becomes all the more clear: "The women in the meetings should be silent, because they are not allowed to speak." Of course, this also implies singing.

The church father John Chrysostom made a similarly momentous assessment when commenting on Paul's letters in the 4th century . He recommends that the Christian family sing “holy songs” after meals, but declares the use of instruments superfluous.

The music of the Christians up to the 6th century

Following Paul's missionary trips, Christian communities were formed surprisingly quickly , which were widely scattered in the Roman sphere of influence and did not belong to a uniform cultural area . It can be assumed that the congregations initially continued their usual singing traditions in the Christian celebration . The musical activity of the early Christians was therefore extraordinarily divergent.

The possibility of developing one's own tradition opened up when Christianity was recognized in the Roman Empire. In the 4th century, leading church fathers gave singing a high priority: in the east, the liturgy was reorganized under Basil of Caesarea . In the west, liturgical and musical reforms and the introduction of Ambrosian chant took place under Bishop Ambrose of Milan . Ambrosius introduced antiphons and newly composed hymns .

Christianity spread rapidly, and so the individual archbishoprics and monasteries gained relative independence. In addition to the Ambrosian liturgies , various others developed such as the Roman rite , the Mozarabic rite and the Gallican rite . Many of these liturgies developed their own singing traditions. By the 6th century there was already a set of melodies in the monasteries of St. Benedict that was sufficient for the singing of all psalms .

The Western Church from the Early Middle Ages : The Gregorian Chant

Gregor I dictating Gregorian chant ( Hartker antiphonary around 995)

At the end of the 6th century, Pope Gregory the Great reformed the liturgy of the Latin Church . Presumably within the framework of these reforms, an order, collection and standardization of the melodies and texts used in the liturgy began, which continued for several hundred years . The songs that were put together became binding for the Roman Church as Gregorian chant and largely replaced local singing styles. The Gregorian chant was performed unanimously and was based on Latin ( prayer ) texts. Both the Ordinarium and the Proprium were sung in the masses .

The melodies of the Gregorian chant were only passed on orally until the 9th century. The later in the missals recorded Neumen and notations have been studied meticulously by the modern music research.

Church music in the west from the 9th century to the high Middle Ages

Development of polyphony and the Notre Dame school

Representation of an organum in Dasia notation. Musica enchiriadis , late 9th century

Even in the High Middle Ages , the Catholic Church cultivated Gregorian chant as a regular church music-making practice. More like a marginal musical phenomenon in a few centers, western polyphony developed on the basis of the existing Gregorian chant.

The first evidence of European polyphony comes from the 9th century. The widespread music traktat Musica enchiriadis describes Organum -sentences, in which segments of the Gregorian template in parallel tone spacing one fifth were sung or fourth ( Quintorganum , Quartorganum , Parallelorganum ). Musica enchiriadis also expressly provides for the participation of instruments . As part of this practice, (relative) pitches were clearly noted for the first time by showing the sung text on different lines.

The rigid interval binding, which seems to represent a theoretical starting point in the early sources, continued to loosen in the following centuries. In the Saint Martial manuscripts (around 1100) and in the Liber Sancti Jacobi (around 1140) numerous freer two-part organas have survived.

First, a note of the second voice was always added to a note of the main voice ( note against note ). One perceived the combination of prime , fourth , fifth and octave as consonant (melodious). In addition, the holding tone factor was created . It combines a long sustained note from the Gregorian original with a sequence of notes ( melisma ) in the opposing voice.

The climax of this development are the works of the Notre-Dame School , which were probably created in Paris around the same time as the construction of the Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral (1163 to around 1250). Léonin and Pérotin created large-scale two- and three-part organa as solemn music for high church festivals - the outstanding Organa quadrupla Viderunt omnes and Sederunt principes are even four-part.

This Organa are made up of two alternating with each other record types: the "orgasmic dimensional games" in Haltetonfaktur were Discantuspartien faced, where longer melismatic sections of the Gregorian cantus firmus taut rhythm worked were: The relevant section of the chorale melody has a respective set pattern ( mode ) of long and short notes, which were repeated regularly (modal rhythm) - if necessary, the chorale excerpt was also repeated a few times. The rhythmized cantus was combined with one or more newly composed voices, with one note of the cantus usually adding one or two notes from the newly composed voices. The exact written fixation of the rhythm became possible for the first time with the modal notation .

From the early 13th century discant parts with upper voices with syllable ( syllabic ) text are also known tone for tone .

Ars Antiqua

The Ars Antiqua (1230–1320) followed the Notre Dame school .

The first mention of the word "church music"

Around the year 1300 the word “church music” ( musica ecclesiastica ) was first used by the music theorist Johannes de Grocheo for Gregorian chant as opposed to the polyphonic genres.

From the Council of Vienne and its effects

The 14th century is the time of the Ars Nova .

At the Council of Vienne , which took place in 1311 and 1312, the Dominicans called for the motet to be banned . Then Pope John XXII tried . solving the problem that arose by prohibiting certain typesetting techniques also addressed "certain innovators". What is important now are the effects of this decree . The decree had no influence on the musical development, but had the effect that this development of the motet was completed in many places. As a result, an organ was used in worship as early as the 14th century . However, the liturgical chants were not suppressed, rather the liturgical music was often characterized by an alternation between organ and chants, the so-called "alternatim practice". Half of the songs are sung by the choir, the other half is performed by the organ in a polyphonic arrangement, the versett . However, other musical instruments were rarely used.

The church music of the Renaissance

In the course of the 15th century the mostly local musical practices came to the so-called common European music culture, which was decisively promoted by the Council of Constance . This meant that court bands were given the "function of musical institutions"; there was a wave of foundations of chapels at cathedrals , collegiate churches and city churches. Incidentally, it is also worth mentioning that the most important composers north of the Alps were mostly Dutch until the 16th century. Only then did German composers emerge.

In the 16th century, the Reformation split the church into Catholicism and Protestantism . Hence, from here on, Catholic and Protestant church music must be viewed separately from one another. The worship music of the Church of England also developed independently .

Catholic church music of the modern age

The reform of church music at the Council of Trent

Council of Trent

At the Council of Trent in 1545 there were two different views on the reform of church music: some were looking for the tradition of mass and motet, others a new, word-based church music, which the madrigal (= polyphonic, solo vocal composition) should have as a model. However, the council only ended with a ban on "objectionable melodies". In addition, the question of text comprehensibility will be taken up by the Milanese Cardinal Borromeo . The real importance of the council for church music lies in the fact that from now on church music was regarded as an "embellishment" of the liturgy.

Church music in the 17th and 18th centuries

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the church sonata (Italian: Sonata da chiesa ) was used for one or two solo instruments and figured bass . Composers like Corelli , Vivaldi , Albinoni , Mozart etc. v. a. left behind a rich fund of such works. It was later also called the epistle sonata and played for reading ( graduals ).

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote 17 masses alone (e.g. the so-called Coronation Mass KV 317).

In the context of the Catholic reform, the term church music reappears with a new meaning: it was now understood to mean the music of masses and motets. However, the term fell out of use again in the first half of the 17th century. During the Baroque era , church music was part of the musical representation of secular and spiritual princes, and the styles of church music now became stages in the ceremonial worship of the royal courts. But also Jesuits and Franciscans deliberately used church music as a means to encourage people to attend church services.

In general, church music was composed for everyday needs during these two centuries. These songs have been handed down to us to this day and make it easy for us to recognize their origins. It was not until the second half of the 18th century that a bourgeois church music culture grew.

In summary for these two centuries, it can be said that church music was only understood as a local custom, but not as a general repertoire.

Church music in the 19th and 20th centuries

Saint Cecilia on a 1929 flag

In the 19th century the term church music reappeared and this time with a different meaning: This term was now understood to mean the ideal of sacred music that stands out from secular music. But music is not sacred because it relates to worship, but "lifts the heart directly to God". In 1868 the "General Cecilia Association" was founded, which has set itself the task of finding "true Catholic church music" (according to the association) and promoting church choirs ( Cäcilianism ).

In addition, at the end of the 19th century, the composition of church music became a specialty of church musicians. Many well-known composers of the 19th century such as Liszt or Bruckner have composed a lot of music for church services. The development of church music in France is also interesting . In contrast to the other European countries, church music in France was based on secular music.

On November 22, 1903, Pope Pius X published a motu proprio under the title Tra le sollecitudini , in which he dealt with church music. In it, he named Gregorian chant as the ideal of Catholic church music and emphasized its role model for new church music works.

The first half of the 20th century is essentially characterized by the fact that Catholic church music did not keep up with the rapid development of secular music. In Germany, after the First World War, Catholic church music emerged, which can now have a different relationship to the liturgy than church music after the Council of Trent. A transparent, song-like text is characteristic of the resulting musical style.

Church music after the Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council describes the “traditional church music” as “a valuable treasure that needs to be cared for and increased” (liturgy constitution of December 4, 1963). Thus, among other things, church choirs were sponsored. This liturgical constitution places the entire church music on a new basis: church music itself and no longer the priestly speaking of the hymn texts is liturgical practice. That means nothing else than that church music is now an expression of the congregation in worship and that the choir and musicians are part of this congregation. Likewise, after the Second Vatican Council, the respective national language was included in the liturgy, which should then also have an impact on church music: Church music has now been opened up for the various genres of folk song as well as for Protestant church music and contemporary music. As a result, a new hymn book with the name Gotteslob was finally published in 1975 , which was in use until its successor of the same name in 2013.

Church music outside the West

The Second Vatican Council saw the need to take into account the peculiarities of different musical cultures. Independent church music developed from this in many places. In the following some examples of non-European Catholic church music:

Church music on the American continent, for example the American hymn , is in many ways connected to that of the West. In Australia, on the other hand, many different styles emerged, which were promoted in many ways. As on the American continent, Japanese church music is largely turned towards European musical life. Recently attempts have been made to create their own Catholic church music by reflecting on a rich musical past.

Protestant church music

The beginnings

Martin Luther
John Calvin

Protestant church music was founded by Martin Luther , Thomas Müntzer and the Protestant cantor Johann Walter . However, they did not use the word "church music". It was about music as a creative gift, especially for use in worship. The focus was on the German-speaking chorale and community singing.

A number of new hymns were also created within the Reformation Anabaptist movement , which were later printed in the Ausund .

Because of the danger that the aesthetic enjoyment could suppress the content of the message, Ulrich Zwingli banned church music completely from the church service of the Reformed Church at times .

Johannes Calvin allowed unanimous congregational singing again under strict conditions. But it was only after his death that simple four-part choral movements ( Geneva Psalter ) found their place in Reformed worship.

The further development up to the 19th century

The independence of Protestant church music unfolds in the Lutheran hymn, which is initially linked to medieval forms. The typical reading music was often gospel verses set to music .

In the middle of the 17th century, the evening music at the Marienkirche in Lübeck under the Marien organists Franz Tunder and Dietrich Buxtehude was the first series of church concerts outside of the church service for which they composed specially.

See also: North German Organ School

From the middle of the 18th century the term “church music” was finally introduced. It should only describe the function of the music, not the style.

During the Enlightenment, the old forms of worship fell into disrepair, the old hymns were modernized and there was a general emancipation of the spiritual life. The Enlightenment was thus an epoch of decline in church music.

Due to the romantic restoration in the 19th century, there was a return to tradition. However, one only tried to restore the past. The result was that Protestant church music had now put itself on the sidelines of general musical development. This was also expressed in the composing behavior of great composers of the time, such as Mendelssohn Bartholdy or Brahms, who hardly composed any hymns.

Church music in the 20th century

In connection with the liturgical renewal, there was also a church music renewal movement in the 1920s and 1930s with the aim of a new sanctification of the music of worship, based on the Reformation and the music of the German high baroque , to the exclusion of subjective romanticisms .

Since the end of the Second World War in 1945 there has been a great development in church music. The prerequisite for this was the restoration of a full-time cantor .

From the second half of the last century onwards, the complexity of the compositional process led to a new drifting apart between modern church music and service music for worship.

In the course of the general development of music, elements from popular music found their way into church music. In the 1960s in particular, there were numerous new hymns, some of which - such as the well-known " Thank You Song " - immediately became immensely popular. Titles like “ Jazzmesse ” tried to suggest inspiration from jazz , but in fact a large part of the music that was created under such a rubrum at that time is not actually influenced by jazz, beat or rock . Insofar as this music is performed during and associated with a church service, it can be described as church music (see New Spiritual Song ). This also includes gospel music , which has also become immensely popular outside the USA , the sacred archetype of soul that emerged from the Negro Spiritual .

Church music in the Eastern Churches

Church music in the Eastern Churches is purely vocal and based on the Byzantine mass rite. Recently, German-speaking Orthodox Christians have also tried to develop a German chorale based on Byzantine chant. In the Orthodox Trinity Monastery of Buchhagen , this chorale belongs to the specific German-Orthodox spirituality .

Church music in the Anglican Church

Also in the churches of the Anglican tradition there are hymn books as well as a rich tradition of hymns and other church music according to the Book of Common Prayer with the main forms Anthem and Service .

Church music in other Christian denominations

In by far most other Christian denominations there are also hymn books, hymns from continental European , English or American traditions or other church music:

Forms of church music

Church music has produced many different styles over the course of two millennia. In order to arrange them a little, one can distinguish between monophonic and polyphonic styles, among other things.

Gregorian chant

The Gregorian chant is a unanimous liturgical chant of the Roman Church in Latin. It is named after Pope Gregory I, who reformed the liturgy around 600.

The hymn

Hymns are usually sung in the respective national language and are usually strophic. They are sung in church services but also often for processions and pilgrimages . The hymn comes from the Lutheran tradition.


The Lutheran chorale goes to Martin Luther back of the commonly sung in German chorale as a central means of evangelical worship used. Luther and his successors also used popular folk songs and popular melodies, often in the style of dances that were popular at the time ( Allemanden etc.).

The cantata

The cantata is a multi-movement vocal composition for voices and instrumental accompaniment, in which recitatives , arias , ariosi , choral movements, chorales and instrumental preludes and interludes alternate in any number. It was created at the beginning of the 17th century. In addition to church cantatas, there are also secular works of this genre.

Depending on the instrumentation, one can differentiate between solo cantatas, choir cantatas and mixed forms. The textual basis of the sacred cantata is usually Bible text alternating with free poetry to consider or explain, but there is also the choral cantata, which is based on a hymn. The close connection between a service and the performance of a cantata is called a cantata service ; in addition, interesting forms have developed in modern times.

The oratorio

Main article: oratorio

An oratorio is the term used to describe large opera-like forms in which Bible texts and related commentaries are virtually “staged” with solo roles, choir and orchestra . Almost all scriptural texts from the Bible have already been set to music, but the best known are Passion Oratorios .

It is about the sung story of the passion of Jesus from his capture to the crucifixion . The Passion is read and sung on four days during Holy Week according to the reports of the evangelists . There is also the so-called Passion Play , which is detached from the liturgy and spoken.

The chorale movement O head full of blood and wounds from the St. Matthew Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach


Special forms of church music

  • Choral - Originally the unanimous church music in the liturgy of the Western Church.
  • Motet - polyphonic singing in which the sung word is in the foreground and in which instruments reinforce or replace the voices
  • Mass - The setting of the Ordinarium - usually Kyrie , Gloria , Credo , Sanctus (with Osanna and Benedictus) and Agnus Dei . Also possible with parts of the proprium.
  • Requiem - The funeral mass of the Catholic liturgy.
  • Te Deum - The Ambrosian hymn of praise , the great thanksgiving prayer of the Christian churches.
  • Litany - The supplication of the Catholic Church in the form of an alternating song between cantor or Schola and congregation, but also as a through-composed form e.g. B. with Mozart.
  • Vespers - The setting of the psalms and hymns of the evening prayer of the Catholic Church as a multi-part large form (Monteverdi, Mozart and others).
  • Passion - The setting of the biblical Passion text as it is handed down in one of the Gospels .


In a broader sense, church bells also belong to church music. Like the organ , bells are instruments that are mainly used in the church sector. The corresponding experts (here: bell experts ) are usually assigned to the offices for church music or comparable institutions of the individual dioceses or regional churches.

Church music in practice

Church music in worship

The music in the service consists of elements of liturgy, artistic and / or liturgical music. For example: prelude , interlude , intonations , chorale prelude , choral music, chamber music , music " sub communione " (music for communion / the Lord's Supper), postlude and the congregation chant (the hymn or chant).

Historically and measured against the liturgy of the mass (see also Lutheran mass or German mass or evangelical mass ), historical liturgy elements are essentially prayers in musical form, such as the parts belonging to the proprium missae (texts that change with the church season): introitus (entry psalm ), gradual or Alleluia (-vers), but especially the Psalms , the one already on biblical basis sung prayer is. These also belong to the oldest parts of the liturgy. The Lutheran understanding of the mass includes the whole congregation in the service of the proclamation or the (sung) prayer to a large extent through the singing .

Part of the traditional vocal accompaniment of the congregation in the church service is the song accompaniment by the organ (liturgical organ playing), but there are also other forms of vocal accompaniment with all other instruments and styles (up to the band ; with electric organ , drums , bass and possibly Guitar compulsory in gospel services) is conceivable today.

The church service chant can be accompanied or unaccompanied, unanimous or polyphonic. In some cases, for liturgical or historicizing reasons, value is still placed on unaccompanied unanimity even today. The historicizing unanimous form of chant, occasionally still in use, for example in the alternation of the Kyrie eleison between cantor and congregation, goes back to the old practice of Gregorian chant as the basis of Catholic church music. However, it was precisely from this that polyphony arose, namely around 900 with the organum , the root of the polyphonic medieval motet art with its peak in the 12th and 13th centuries. With the exception of certain historically documented efforts, for example to ban organ music in churches entirely and to subject church music to various sanctions , the history of church music in worship has always enjoyed the most brilliant variety of forms and it has evidenced great freedom in the forms of music and the type of vocal accompaniment .

Special attention from the Lutheran choir practice deserves the alternatim music-making, in which various forms of song processing and accompaniment alternate from (song) verse to verse and in which, in the wake of the Reformation, adult laypeople , young people and children played a valuable part in music and community education .

In the last few decades there has been a strong exchange of songs between the German-speaking countries. At the same time, today's hymn books such as God's praise or Evangelical hymn book also have a variety of ecumenical songs and songs from all over the world.

More and more so-called “popular” Christian music can be found in church services, and there has been a Christian pop music scene in Germany for over 40 years .

Empirical research has focused on music and singing in worship. Worship services are one of the few places in our culture where people still sing. The songs are a combination of artful poetry and sonorous melodies. Singing in worship promotes community and brings joy to the individual. It is also an expression of faith of the singers. Jochen Kaiser examined this in detail.


"A church that only makes music for use falls into the unusable and becomes unusable itself."

- Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger in Theological on Church Music

Job profile church musician

See: church musician , cantor , district choirmaster , choir director , organist , list of organists , church music director , regional church music director , organ expert , bell expert .

See also


Introductions, general presentations, manuals

  • Basic knowledge of church music. An ecumenical text and learning book in four volumes with DVD and register volume for basic training and professional support for Protestant and Catholic church musicians . Edited by Hans-Jürgen Kaiser and Barbara Lange. Carus-Verlag, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-89948-111-2 (complete works).
    • Volume 1: Theology - Liturgy Chant . Edited by Richard Mailänder and Britta Martini, ISBN 978-3-89948-122-8 .
    • Volume 2: Choir and ensemble direction . Edited by Christfried Brödel and Reiner Schuhenn, ISBN 978-3-89948-123-5 .
    • Volume 3: Music Theory - Liturgical Organ Play . Edited by Thomas Albus and Franz Josef Stoiber, ISBN 978-3-89948-124-2 .
    • Volume 4: Organ literature - organ building . Edited by Winfried Bönig and Ingo Bredenbach, ISBN 978-3-89948-125-9 .
    • Register volume with chronological tables and tables on church music . Edited by Hans-Jürgen Kaiser and Barbara Lange, ISBN 978-3-89948-126-6 .
    • DVD: Conducting workshop for volume 2, EAN: 4 009350 24119 0.
  • Encyclopedia of Church Music in 6 volumes. The series. Edited by Matthias Schneider, Günther Massenkeil and Wolfgang Bretschneider, Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 2010, ISBN 978-3-89007-690-4 [complete works].
  • 1. Wolfgang Hochstein, Christoph Krummacher (Ed.): History of Church Music in 4 Volumes , ISBN 978-3-89007-691-1 .
→ For individual volumes see below in this bibliography under History of Church Music .
  • 2. Matthias Schneider, Beate Bugenhagen (ed.): Centers for church music. ISBN 978-3-89007-692-8 .
  • 3. Franz Körndle, Joachim Kremer (ed.): The church musician. Professions - Institutions - Fields of Activity. ISBN 978-3-89007-694-2 .
  • 4. Albert Gerhards, Matthias Schneider (Ed.): The service and its music in 2 volumes.
Volume 1: Foundation and Hymnology.
Volume 2: Liturgy. ISBN 978-3-89007-696-6 .
  • Stefan Klöckner: Music in the Church . In: Deutscher Musikrat (Ed.): Musik-Almanach 2007/08. Data and facts about musical life in Germany . ConBrio, Regensburg 2006; Pp. 94-102.
  • Michael Wersin: Reclam's Guide to Latin Church Music . Reclam, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-15-010569-6 .
  • Monumenta musicae sacrae , France book series

History of Church Music

  • Johann Hinrich Claussen : God's Sounds. A history of church music. In collaboration with Christof Jaeger. CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66684-1 ( review ).
  • Wolfgang Hochstein, Christoph Krummacher (ed.): History of church music in 4 volumes , ISBN 978-3-89007-691-1 .
    • 1. From the beginnings to the Reformation century , 2011.
    • 2. The 17th and 18th centuries , 2012.
    • 3. The 19th and early 20th centuries , 2013.
    • 4. The second half of the 20th century and the challenges of the present , 2014.
  • Eckhard Jaschinski: A short history of church music . Herder, Freiburg 2004, ISBN 3-451-28323-9 .

Church music and liturgy / theology

  • Jochen Arnold , Jochen Kaiser a. a. (Ed.): God's Sounds. Music as a source and expression of the Christian faith. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2014, ISBN 978-3-374-03290-7 .
  • Peter Bubmann: Music - Religion - Church. Studies of music from a theological perspective. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-374-02617-3 .
  • Jochen Kaiser: Religious experience through music in worship. An empirical-reconstructive study, Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-525-62418-0 .
  • Hans Musch (ed.): Music in worship . ConBrio, Regensburg 1994.
  1. Historical foundations, liturgy, liturgical chant . ISBN 3-930079-21-6 .
  2. Music teaching, church hymns, new sacred songs, organ studies, voice training, choir director, children's choir, lexicon . ISBN 3-930079-22-4 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Church music  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. see also: Early English Church Music
  2. Ulrich Michels: dtv atlas on music . Volume 1. 13th edition. Munich 1991, p. 257.
  3. Wolfgang Seifen : Catholic sound. The special thing about an improvisation "sub Communione". In: Musik und Kirche 1/2001, pp. 12–15.
  4. Jochen Kaiser: Religious experience through music in worship. An empirical-reconstructive study. Göttingen 2012, ISBN 978-3-525-62418-0 .