The Allemande (French, of danse allemande "German Dance", for "the German"; also Almande , Italian Allemanda , English also Almain and Alman ) has since the 16th century and especially the Baroque era one in France , Spain the Netherlands and England well-known, two-part straight-bar step dance in straight beat. The first part (pre-dance; formerly also simply called "Dantz") is usually in slow 4/4 time, the second part (night dance or dance-night dance; formerly also "Hupfauf", "Gassenhauer" or "Proportz", proportional or "Proportio" and later also, for example in Pierre Phalèse , replaced by the Gagliarde ) in fast three-beat.
It can be assumed that the allemande arose from German folk dances . The pre- dance probably originated from the dance of the Middle Ages . As the picture shows, arm figures were danced in the night dance (in the 18th century), which are also used in the country dance .
Later, like the Courante , Sarabande and Gigue , the Allemande developed as a dance couple ( Allemande – Tripla ) into an integral part of the classical suite of baroque music , where it often forms the first suite movement , and appears in this form in many cases in Johann Sebastian Bach ( French and English suites ), Georg Friedrich Handel and in the Pièces de clavecin by Jean Philippe Rameau .
In its late baroque version, it likes to move in sixteenth-note steps, is straight-cycle and usually has a short prelude . A distinction must be made between the rapid Allemande (notated in the Alla Breve meter) and the slow Allemande (notated in 4/4 time). In the 17th century, the tombeau was composed in the form of the stylized allemande , of serious character and measured movement. A lively (brisk walking) allemande in the 17th century was also known as ballet .
From the night dance in three beats arose around the middle of the 18th century in southern Germany and Austria, the German dance , also known as German , as a fast rotating dance , one of the forerunners of the Viennese waltz . (The Austrian composer Joseph Lanner called his dances first German dances or Länders , later waltzes ).
The instrumental allemande, as it was written for the guitar by Anthony Holborne in the 16th century in England (as Almain ), in the 17th century by Daniel Bacheler , Robert Johnson and in the 17th century as Alemanda also in Spain , developed unlike the danced allemande. Johann Mattheson wrote an allemande for dancing and one for playing, like heaven and earth, are different ... ( Johann Mattheson in: Das beschierter Orchester , Hamburg 1717, p. 138). Such allemandes are more ornamented and richer in harmony, have an extended number of bars (instead of 4 + 4 in instrumental movements 8 + 8 or 8 + 10 or 8 + 8 + 8), a voice change to another vocal level, stronger syncopation and even pauses within the work .
- Barbara Boisits: Allemande. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 1, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-7001-3043-0 .
- Andreas Falk: Dance movements in lute music. Part 1: The Allemande. In: Guitar + Lute. Volume 19, Issue 1, 1997, ISSN 0172-9683 , pp. 15-21.
- Rainer Gstrein: Allemande . In: Concise dictionary of musical terminology . Vol. 1, ed. by Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht and Albrecht Riethmüller , editor-in-chief Markus Bandur, Steiner, Stuttgart 1972 ( online ).
- Richard Hudson: The Allemande, the Balletto, and the Tanz. 2 volumes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 1986.
- Konrad Ragossnig : Manual of the guitar and lute. Schott, Mainz 1978, ISBN 3-7957-2329-9 , p. 104.
- ↑ Franz Zagiba: Riemann Music Encyclopedia - tangible part . In: Willibald Gurlitt; Hans H. Eggebrecht (Ed.): Riemann Music Lexicon . Material part. B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1967.
- ↑ For example in the lute work by Hans Neusidler . See Keiji Makuta: 51 selections for Lute in renaissance era. Arranged for guitar. Zen-On, Tokyo 1969, ISBN 4-11-238540-4 , pp. 8-20 ("Hupff Auff" as night dance of various dances). - Cf. also Hubert Zanoskar (ed.): Gitarrenspiel old masters. Original music from the 16th and 17th centuries. Volume 1. B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1955 (= Edition Schott. Volume 4620), p. 16 ( The stifl dance followed by The Hupauf with the Miströre from Stephan Craus' lute book, 1st half of the 16th century).
- ^ Adalbert Quadt : Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1-4. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970 ff .; 2nd edition ibid 1975–1984, Volume 4, pp. 38–54 (“Proportz” there as a night dance of the Passacaglia near Santiago de Murcia ).
- ^ Adalbert Quadt: Lute music from the Renaissance. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1 ff. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1967 ff .; 4th edition, ibid. 1968, Volume 2, p. 61 ( Proportio from 1619).
- ^ Adalbert Quadt: Lute music from the Renaissance. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1 ff. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1967 ff .; 4th edition, ibid. 1968, volume 2, p. 9.
- ^ Konrad Ragossnig: Handbook of the guitar and lute. 1978, p. 104.
- ↑ See also Adalbert Quadt (Hrsg.): Guitar music of the 16. – 18. Century. 4 volumes. Edited from tablature. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970–1984, pp. 17–20 (Giovanni Battista Granata: the dance couples Allemande and Gigue and Allemande and Courante from Novi Capricci armonici Musicali pour la Chitarra Spagnola from 1674).
- ^ Adalbert Quadt : Lute music from the Renaissance. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1 ff. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1967 ff .; 4th edition, ibid. 1968, Volume 2, Introduction and pp. 15-19.
- ↑ Jürgen Libbert (Ed.): Wenzel Matiegka, 12 easy pieces op. 3 for guitar. Adapted from the original text [from the chemical printing works in Vienna from around 1814]. Edition Preißler, 1979 (= studio series guitar. Volume 3), p. 16: Allemande (German) .
- ↑ Keiji Makuta: 51 selections for Lute in renaissance era. Arranged for guitar. Zen-On, Tokyo 1969, ISBN 4-11-238540-4 , pp. 37 and 40-46.
- ↑ Jerry Willard (Ed.): The complete works of Gaspar Sanz. 2 volumes, Amsco Publications, New York 2006 (translation of the original manuscript by Marko Miletich), ISBN 978-082561-695-2 , volume 1, pp. 68 f. and 76 f.