The Sarabande is since about 1650 a common especially in the instrumental music encountered courtly dance form of Baroque music . This slow, elegant dance in three-part time signature inspired several composers to create expressive compositions and later became a fixed standard movement of the baroque suite , in which it was usually positioned third between courante and gigue . The rhythm of the folia is borrowed from the sarabande.
The etymology of the name Sarabande is uncertain and controversial. In 1636 Marin Mersenne wrote in his Harmonie Universelle that the name should be derived from the words sarao "dance" and banda "group". The German song researcher Franz Magnus Böhme , however, suspected a Moorish origin in 1886. Ottorino Pianigiani assumed a derivation from Persian (sar = head, band = band) with Arabic mediation.
The name appears for the first time in 1569 in the Mexican city of Michoacán , where a sarabande was sung to a text by Pedro de Trejo on Corpus Christi . He had to answer for the offensive text before the Inquisition . In 1579 a Spanish missionary reported on an Indian dance that was very similar to the Sarabande. A poem from Panama by Fernando Guzmán Mexía from 1539 mentions a dance called Zarabanda (Spanish for Sarabande; original spelling : çarauanda ).
In Spain in 1583 the sarabande was temporarily banned by King Philip II because the form at that time was an exotic, wild and lascivious couple dance to which improper texts were sung. In French, the musical name Sarabande was first mentioned in 1607 in César Oudin's Tresoro de las dos lenguas francesca y espagnola . Via France (in Spain around 1674 - for example by Gaspar Sanz - Zarabanda , especially called Zarabanda Francesa ) it quickly spread across Europe. The Amsterdam lutenist Giovanni Marino Belloni composed sarabands around 1650 (a “Sarrabande de Bellony” for baroque guitar was published in 1652).
In the second half of the 17th century, the tempo designations ranged from Grave to Prestissimo . After 1700, a pendulum was used to determine a range of 64 to 86 beats per minute for a sarabande in 3/4 time. Tomaso Albinoni added 1701 in his Balletti a tre , Op. 3, the sarabands add the addition Allegro .
The sarabande reached its peak under JS Bach . Bach composed around 40 sarabands, among other things as part of his suites for keyboard instruments such as B. the French Suites .
After that, the sarabande was initially forgotten until, like other baroque dance forms, it regained popularity in the 19th and 20th centuries; for example by Erik Satie (3 Sarabanden, 1887) and Claude Debussy (in Pour le piano , 1901 and Images , 1905).
Characteristics of the sarabande
- Up to the middle of the 17th century a fast to very fast 3/2 time without a start, afterwards a significantly slower 3/4 time was used by the French court of Louis XIV , which made the character of the sarabande elegant and serious and a slow one Minuet resembled.
- Recurring accentuation of the second beat with dots, decorations and changes in harmony .
- The division is often in two parts of eight bars each, often divided into subgroups of two bars. Occasionally a "petite reprise" is added.
- Ingmar Bergman's last film Saraband (2003) uses a Sarabande from Johann Sebastian Bach's fifth cello suite as theme music; the same sentence had previously been used in Schreie und Whisper (1972). The title music for his film Wie in einer Spiegel (1960/61) is also a sarabande, here from Bach's second cello suite .
- The cellist Yo-Yo Ma and the Canadian-Armenian director Atom Egoyan named a television contribution to Bach's fourth cello suite (as part of the six-part series Inspired by Bach ) Sarabande in 1997 .
- The Sarabande from the Harpsichord Suite No. 4 in D minor by Georg Friedrich Händel ( HWV 437) from 1733 has been used several times as film music, including in Barry Lyndon by Stanley Kubrick .
- Dagmar Glüxam: Sarabande. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 4, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3046-5 .
- Konrad Ragossnig : Manual of the guitar and lute. Schott, Mainz 1978, ISBN 3-7957-2329-9 , p. 116.
- ↑ Ottorino Pianigiani: Vocabolario Etimologico (2nd edition), I Dioscuri, Genua 1988, ISBN 88-403-6058-1
- ^ Richard Hudson: Sarabande. In: New Grove Online (subscription access), http://www.grovemusic.com/
- ^ Frank Koonce: The Baroque Guitar in Spain and the New World. Mel Bay Publications, Pacific, Mon. 2006, ISBN 978-078-667-525-8 , p. 28.
- ↑ James Tyler: A Guide to Playing the Baroque Guitar. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis 2011, ISBN 978-0-253-22289-3 , p. 45.
- ↑ Jerry Willard (Ed.): The complete works of Gaspar Sanz. 2 volumes, Amsco Publications, New York 2006 (translation of the original manuscript by Marko Miletich), ISBN 978-082561-695-2 , volume 1, pp. 48 f., 67, 75, 98 and 117.
- ↑ Josef Zuth: Handbook of the lute and guitar. Verlag der Zeitschrift für die Guitar, Vienna 1926–1928, p. 34.
- ↑ See also Adalbert Quadt (Ed.): Guitar music of the 16th – 18th centuries Century. 4 volumes. Edited from tablature. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970–1984, volume 1, p. 16 (Giovanni Marino Bellony: 2 sarabands from the Dörremberg manuscript from 1652).
- ^ Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht: Riemann Music Lexicon . Ed .: Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht. Material part. Mainz 1967.
- ^ A b Karl Kaiser: Basic knowledge of baroque music. (Didactic series of publications by the Institute for Historical Performance Practice at the HfM Frankfurt), ISBN 978-3-940768-12-4 , p. 78f.
- ↑ Claudia Zenck: From the beat . Böhlau-Verlag, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-205-99287-3 , p. 152.
- ^ Karl Wörner: History of Music. 18th edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-525-27812-3 , p. 255.
- ^ Ingmar Bergman Saraband - Sources of inspiration .
- ^ Description of the film Barry Lyndon in the IMDB database , accessed January 18, 2010.