ˌiŋːmaɾ ˈbæɾːʝman ] (bornJuly 14, 1918inUppsala,Sweden; †July 30, 2007onFårö, Sweden) was a Swedishscreenwriter,filmandtheater director. Since he often worked on theater and film almost simultaneously in his development, both the stage and the film were reciprocally stimulating factors for the other medium. In 1997 Bergman wasnamed "Best Film Director of All Time"at theCannes Film Festival.[
A clear autobiographical influence can be seen in his work, especially the films. The majority of his films can be assigned to the genre of film drama , but he also shot comedies and documentaries . In his film dramas, he often addressed existential topics such as death, the search for God, human loneliness and interpersonal relationships. His film language was characterized, among other things, by long close-ups and special lighting that he developed together with his long-time cameraman Sven Nykvist . The sometimes direct portrayal of sexuality repeatedly led to problems with censorship in the 1950s and 1960s and, among other things, helped the film Das Schweigen to a scandalous success. Other well-known works are The Seventh Seal , Wild Strawberries , Persona , Scenes from a Marriage and Fanny and Alexander .
Ingmar Bergman was the middle of three children of the Lutheran pastor Erik Bergman and his wife Karin, geb. Åkerblom, born in Uppsala and raised in a strictly religious manner. His relationship with his parents was very conflictual. If he disobeyed, he was punished with a cane or locked up in the cloakroom. Years later, Bergman processed these experiences in films such as Die Hörige (1944), The Hour of the Wolf (1968) or Face to Face (1976). Bergman came into contact with the medium of film at a young age: his father used a magic lantern to illustrate his religion class . When he was ten years old, his brother was given a cinematograph . Bergman bought the machine in exchange for a hundred tin soldiers and used his pocket money to buy films for the machine. His grandmother also regularly took him to the movies. Bergman later developed an enthusiasm for the silent film directors of his homeland, especially for Victor Sjöström .
At the age of about 16 Bergman began to occupy himself intensively with dramatic literature ; especially the works of August Strindberg had a strong influence on him. Bergman rehearsed his first pieces in the basement of Storgatan No. 7 in Stockholm . In 1938 Bergman began studying literary history at Stockholm University, which he did not finish. In the same year he became a member of the ensemble of the amateur theater in Mäster Olofsgården, in 1940 he joined the Stockholm Student Theater ("Student Theater"), in which his future leading actors Birger Malmsten and Erland Josephson also took part. He wrote his own plays, the first of which was publicly performed in 1942, and began unpaid work as an assistant director at the Royal Opera . In 1941 he was in charge of the “Medborgarhuset” in Stockholm's community center as well as a children's theater, where he staged August Strindberg's ghost sonata. One of the actors was Gunnar Björnstrand , who would be one of his regular actors until the 1970s. In 1943 he staged several plays at the Stockholm “Dramatists' Study”, where he first worked with Anders Ek .
Early works and first successes: 1944–1955
In the early 1940s Bergman got a job as a screenwriter for the production company Svensk Filmindustri , which had become aware of him through his plays. Bergman's first screenplay to be filmed was Die Hörige (1944), directed by Alf Sjöberg . In the same year he took the position of theater director at the city theater in Helsingborg , making him the youngest of his guild nationwide. A year later, Bergman was given the opportunity to direct a film himself. The template for his debut film Kris did not come from him, but was based on a popular theatrical template . Kris started in 1946, but found neither audience nor critical acclaim.
In the following years Bergman shuttled between orders for Svensk Filmindustri and the independent producer Lorens Marmstedt . Among other things, It rains on our love (1946), Music in the Dark (1948) and Prison (1949) were created. The film historians Ulrich Gregor and Enno Patalas saw the common theme of these early works as young couples who defend themselves against the “hostile grasp of the environment” and whose love is “crushed between external resistance and the inability of the lovers themselves”. Bergman, who at that time had not yet found his own style, leaned formally on poetic realism , neorealism and even film noir in addition to the Swedish silent film he valued .
While Musik in the Dark was commercially successful, Prison failed and ended Bergman's collaboration with Marmstedt. Nevertheless, prison was important insofar as Bergman filmed his own original here for the first time and asked questions "about the position of man in the world, about the meaning of his existence, about God" (Rune Waldecrantz). During this time, Bergman was also employed as a director at the City Theater in Gothenburg , where, in addition to his own pieces, he staged classics such as Macbeth or, with great success, Albert Camus ' Caligula . During this time he learned to use the possibilities of a theater properly, to draw the audience's attention to essential things with full force, or with extreme thrift.
Beginning with the married drama Durst (1949), according to Gregor / Patalas, Bergman placed older couples at the center of his stories. In Durst , An die Freude (1950) and One Summer Long (1951), among other things, he dealt with his failed second marriage to Ellen Lundström. Bergman was one of his most important films for a summer because it was the first time he found his own style: "I suddenly knew that I was putting the camera in the right place, that I was getting the right results, that things were right." Regular cameraman Bergmans from the late 1940s to 1960 was Gunnar Fischer (1910–2011), who was famous for his portrait photography and his nuanced and high-contrast black and white pictures.
The crisis in Swedish film 1951–1952, accompanied by production stops and strikes, also interrupted Bergman's work. For financial reasons, he accepted the offer to shoot advertising films for the soap "Bris". In one of these, his later regular lead actress and temporary partner Bibi Andersson had her first film role. From 1952, Bergman worked parallel to his film work at the Malmö City Theater , where the collaboration with Max von Sydow and Gunnel Lindblom began. Guided by him, a "Bergman Ensemble" was built up, which was also extremely beneficial for the later films. In Malmö he staged plays by Strindberg, Ibsen , Molière and Goethe's Urfaust, among others .
For Bergman biographer Hauke Lange-Fuchs , One Summer marked the start of a series of so-called summer films that were set against the backdrop of the Swedish summer and sometimes took on an unusually cheerful tone for Bergman. These included Lange-Fuchs, along with One Summer Long , The Time with Monika (1953), Lesson in Love (1954) and The Smile of a Summer Night (1955). The films of this creative period, often starring Harriet Andersson , were largely received positively by the audience and made the director famous in his home country. The "light" tone of some of these films was Bergman's concession to the producers after his circus drama Evening of Jugglers (1953) failed at the box office and was in some cases sharply attacked by the critics. In other European countries, however, the evening of the juggler found early recognition, especially in France. In retrospect, the film was seen as an artistic milestone in Bergman's career.
International successes: 1956–1975
After the success of A Midsummer Night's Smile , which won an award at the Cannes International Film Festival in 1956 , Bergman was awarded funding for his next project, The Seventh Seal . For the first time since prison , Bergman openly addressed the question of the existence of God and the meaning of human existence. This film takes on a special role within the religiously colored themes, Bergman lets the existential struggle of people and the doubt of faith live through fully in the person of the knight. The smile of a summer night and the subsequent Wild Strawberries (1957) made the director internationally known, in 1958 Wild Strawberries was awarded the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival . Ingrid Thulin made her Bergman debut in this film in a role that he had written especially for her. From the second half of the 1950s, Bergman also shot for Swedish television.
In 1960 Bergman received the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film for the medieval revenge drama The Virgin Spring , and in the same year Bergman began his work as a director (and later director) at the Royal Dramatic Theater in Stockholm . Bergman made some of his most important films with the three films of the "Faith Trilogy" As in a Mirror (1961), Licht im Winter (1962) and Das Schweigen (1963). In all three films, the main characters grapple with their inability to believe in God and relate to other people. From here on, it also seems that Bergman has "found his style". The silence caused a scandal because of its revealing erotic representations, was banned or heavily censored in some countries and, thanks to a large press coverage, one of Bergman's films with the greatest audience approval. The explicit question of the existence of God in Bergman's films ended with The Silence ; the loneliness of people, their search for understanding and the pursuit of happiness were in the foreground from then on.
All films in this creative period were photographed by Sven Nykvist (1922–2006), who remained Bergman's regular cameraman until 1983. A hallmark of Nykvist and Bergman's joint work was the creation of images with a strong emotional effect with as few artificial light sources as possible. Bergman limited himself (with the exception of Oh, these women , 1964) to the black and white format until the late 1960s.
With the experimental Persona (1966), the Norwegian Liv Ullmann appeared for the first time in one of his films, who took on the female lead in numerous Bergman works of the late 1960s and 1970s. From the mid to late 1960s she was Bergman's partner, and the connection resulted in their daughter Linn Ullmann (* 1966). Persona and the following films in the “Fårö Trilogy”, beginning with The Hour of the Wolf (1968), were just as unable to find an audience as the international co-production The Touch (1971), and critics were often divided. In contrast, Schreie und Whisper (1972) received recognition from critics and audiences . Bergman celebrated one of his greatest successes with the television series Scenes of a Marriage (1973), which was also used as a movie and subjected the institution of marriage to a critical analysis. With Die Zauberflöte (1975) he presented a highly acclaimed film adaptation of Mozart 's opera of the same name , which he had already quoted in Die Hour des Wolfs , among others .
Stay in Germany, return and final years: 1976–2007
In January 1976 Bergman was charged with tax evasion in Sweden. The charges were soon dropped, but Bergman temporarily moved to Munich to protest the treatment of his person . His next films, of which only Herbstsonate (1978) met with audiences and critics, were made in the Federal Republic of Germany and Norway. Bergman worked at the Munich Residenztheater until 1985 , but in September 1981 he was filming again in Sweden: Fanny and Alexander were supposed to be his "official" farewell to the cinema, after which he only wanted to concentrate on theater work and occasional television productions. The family saga, which was three hours long in the cinema and almost twice as long on television and once again combined many of Bergman's motifs, was almost universally praised by the reviewers, received four Academy Awards (including again for Best Foreign Language Film) and was a commercial success.
In 1985 Bergman returned to the Royal Dramatic Theater. In 1991 he staged the opera Bacchanterna based on Euripides ' drama Die Bakchen at the Royal Opera (music by Daniel Börtz). In 1996, after an enthusiastically acclaimed theatrical production of the Bakchen , Bergman finally said goodbye to the theater. The year before his long-time wife Ingrid von Rosen died, and his production of Molière's Misanthrope it was the conflict with the head of the Royal Dramatic Theater, Lars Löfgren come.
At the 50th International Film Festival in Cannes in 1997 , his daughter Linn received the “Palm of Palms” for him in the presence of 28 Palme d'Or winners. Bergman had already been honored for his life's work in Venice in 1983, and in 1988 he received the first European Film Prize "Felix".
In 1999 Bergman reported that in his youth, influenced not least by his right-wing, anti-communist parents, he was an admirer of Adolf Hitler and National Socialism .
Bergman directed his last television film in 2003 with Sarabande , a continuation of his series success Scenes from a Marriage , in which his longtime actors Liv Ullmann and Erland Josephson could be seen again. In Sweden around 990,000 viewers saw the broadcast.
Ingmar Bergman died on July 30, 2007 at the age of 89 in his house on the Baltic island of Fårö , where he had been his main residence since 1965. His burial also took place there in the island cemetery.
Bergman was married five times and had nine children:
- His first wife from 1943 to 1945 was Else Fisher. They had their daughter Lena (* 1943), who later had a small role in Wilde Erdbeeren .
- From 1945 to 1950 Bergman was married to Ellen Lundström. They had four children, Eva (* 1945), Jan (* 1946) and the twins Anna and Mats (* 1948).
- In the third marriage Bergman was married to Gun Grut from 1951 to 1952. They had their son Ingmar (* 1951).
- From 1959 to 1965 Bergman's wife was the concert pianist Käbi Laretei (1922–2014). With her he has the son Daniel (* 1962), who also works as a director; Bergman dedicated his short documentary film of the same name to him (1967).
- From 1965 to 1969 Bergman lived unmarried with Liv Ullmann (* 1938). They have the daughter Linn Ullmann (* 1966).
- From 1971 until her death in 1995 Bergman was married to his fifth wife, Countess Ingrid von Rosen. Their daughter Maria, however, was born in 1959.
Part of his artistic legacy is looked after by the Ingmar Bergman Foundation in Stockholm, established in 2002 . The Foundation's archive has been included in the UNESCO World Document Heritage list since 2007 . The Bergman Buildings Foundation on Fårö also manages Bergmans Immobilien, which among other things awards grants to international artists who can use the premises.
The 2011 Berlin International Film Festival retrospective was dedicated to Bergman.
Some actors owe their international breakthrough to Bergman, including Max von Sydow , Erland Josephson , Ingrid Thulin , Bibi Andersson and Liv Ullmann . Directors such as Woody Allen , Ang Lee , Lars von Trier and Margarethe von Trotta count him among their role models.
Bergman was also the main character of a radio musical by the group Sparks , The Seduction of Ingmar Bergman (2009), and a novel by Alexander Ahndoril , Directors (2006), from which Bergman distanced himself emphatically.
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Unless otherwise stated, Bergman also wrote the script. Of his television productions, only those in feature length are included.
- 1946: Kris
- 1946: It rains on our love (Det regnar på vår kärlek)
- 1947: Ship to Indialand (Skepp till India land)
- 1948: Music in the Dark (Musik i mörker)
- 1948: port city (Hamnstad)
- 1949: prison (Fängelse)
- 1949: Thirst ( Törst)
- 1950: Manhunt (Sånt händer inte här)
- 1950: To Joy (Till glädje)
- 1951: All summer long (Sommarlek)
- 1952: Longing of women (Kvinnors väntan)
- 1953: The time with Monika (Sommaren med Monika)
- 1953: Evening of the jugglers (Gycklarnas afton)
- 1954: Lesson in love (En lektion i kärlek)
- 1955: Women's dreams (Kvinnodröm)
- 1955: The smile of a summer night (Sommarnattens leende)
- 1957: The seventh seal (Det sjunde inseglet)
- 1957: Wild strawberries (Smultronstället)
- 1958: Near Life (Nära livet)
- 1958: Rabies (TV)
- 1958: The Face (Ansiktet)
- 1959: The Jungfrauenquelle (Jungfrukällan)
- 1960: Oväder (TV)
- 1960: The Devil's Eye (Djävulens öga)
- 1961: As in a mirror (Såsom i en spegel)
- 1962: Light in winter (Nattvardsgästerna)
- 1963: Ett drömspel (TV)
- 1963: The Silence (Tystnaden)
- 1964: Oh, these women (För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor)
- 1966: Persona
- 1967: Episode "Daniel" in Stimulantia
- 1968: The hour of the wolf (Vargtimmen)
- 1968: Shame (Skammen)
- 1969: The Rite (Rites) (TV)
- 1969: Passion (En Passion)
- 1970: Documentation about Fårö (Fårödokument) (TV)
- 1971: The Touch
- 1972: Screams and Whispers (Viskningar och rop)
- 1973: Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap)
- 1975: The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten)
- 1976: Face to Face (Ansikte mot ansikte)
- 1976: De fördömda kvinnornas dans (co-director: Donya Feuer ) (TV)
- 1977: The Serpent (The Serpent's Egg)
- 1978: Autumn sonata (high sonatas)
- 1979: Fårö document 1979
- 1980: From the life of the puppets
- 1982: Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander)
- 1984: After the rehearsal (Efter repetitions) (TV)
- 1984: The Fanny and Alexander Document (Document Fanny och Alexander)
- 1988: The Blessed (De två saliga) (TV)
- 1997: With : A clown (Larmar och gör sig till) (TV)
- 2000: Bildmakarna (TV)
- 2003: Sarabande (Saraband) (TV)
- 1944: Die Hörige ( Hets , directed by Alf Sjöberg )
- 1947: Woman without a face ( Kvinna utan ansigte , directed by Gustaf Molander )
- 1956: Young hearts in the storm ( Sista paret ut , directed by Alf Sjöberg)
- 1970: Reserved (Director: Jan Molander )
- 1970: The Lie (Director: Alan Bridges )
- 1991: The best of intentions ( Den goda viljan , directed by Bille August )
- 1992: Sonntagskinder ( Söndagsbarn , director: Daniel Bergman )
- 1995: One-to-one talks ( Enskilda samtal , director: Liv Ullmann )
- 2000: The Faithless ( Trolösa , directed by Liv Ullmann)
- Photos. Stockholm 1990. German: Pictures. Cologne 1991.
- The goda viljan. Stockholm 1992. Ger .: The best of intentions. Cologne 1993.
- Söndagsbarn. Stockholm 1993. German: Sunday children. Cologne 1996.
- Enskilda all together. Stockholm 1996. Ger .: individual discussions. Munich 1996.
- Magic lantern. My life. From the Swedish by Hans-Joachim Maass. Alexander Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89581-093-2 .
- Tre dagböcker. together with Ingrid Bergman and Maria von Rosen. Stockholm 2004. German: The white pain. Three diaries. Hanser, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-446-20754-7 .
- Magic lantern. My life. From the Swedish by Hans-Joachim Maass. Extended new edition with filmography and register. Alexander Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-89581-247-7 .
- Magic lantern. My life. From the Swedish by Hans-Joachim Maass. New edition with a foreword by Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio and an afterword by Jean-Claude Carrière, Alexander Verlag Berlin, 2018, ISBN 978-3-89581-471-6
- Ingmar Bergman. Essays, dates, documents. With a foreword and five introductory essays by Marion Löhndorf. Bertz + Fischer Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86505-208-7 .
Ingmar Bergman has received a total of 58 film awards. The most important of these honors are:
- Prix International Cannes International Film Festival 1956
- Special Jury Prize for the 1957 Cannes Film Festival
- Golden Bear of the Berlin International Film Festival 1958
- Best Director Award for Cannes International Film Festival 1958
- Special Jury Prize for the Venice Film Festival 1959
- 1961: Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 1965: Erasmus Prize
- 1970: Oscars / Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award from the American Film Academy
- 1976: Goethe Prize of the City of Frankfurt am Main
- 1977: Bambi
- 1983: Golden Lion of Venice for the complete works
- 1988: Felix European Film Award for Lifetime Achievement
- 1984: César in the Best Foreign Film category for Fanny and Alexander
- 1984: Three David di Donatello awards (best foreign film, directing a foreign film and script for a foreign film) for Fanny and Alexander
- 1988: Academy Fellowship of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA)
- 1989: Sonning Prize from the University of Copenhagen
- 1990: Lifetime Achievement Award from Directors Guild of America
- 1991: Praemium Imperiale of the Japan Art Association
- 1997: The Palm of the Palms at the Cannes International Film Festival as Best Director of All Time
- 1998: Prize of the Ecumenical Jury of the Cannes Film Festival for his life's work
In the Best Foreign Language Film category , the following films directed by Bergman received an Oscar :
- 1961: The virgin spring
- 1962: Like in a mirror
- 1984: Fanny and Alexander
- Thomas Koebner : Ingmar Bergman. In: film directors. Biographies, work descriptions, film biographies. (Ed.): Thomas Koebner. With 109 illustrations. Stuttgart: Reclam 2008 [3. updated and expanded 1st edition, 1999], ISBN 978-3-15-010662-4 , p. 52f.
- Roger W. Oliver (Ed.): Ingmar Bergman. The film. The theater. The books. Schüren , Marburg; Gremese, Rome 2001, 2nd edition, rev. und korr., ISBN 978-3-89472-372-9 , table of contents.
- Birgitta Steene: Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide . Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2005, ISBN 90-5356-406-3 , 1150 pp.
-- Alphabetical --
- Lars Åhlander: jugglers in the borderland. Ingmar Bergman. Edited by Svenska Filminstitutet Stockholm. Henschel, Berlin 1993.
- Olivier Assayas and Stig Björkman: Conversations with Ingmar Bergman. From the Franz. By Silvia Berutti-Ronelt, Alexander Verlag , Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89581-071-1 .
- Renate Bleibtreu (Ed.): Ingmar Bergman. In pencil tone. A work portrait. Hamburg 2002.
- Peter Cowie: Ingmar Bergman: A Critical Biography. Scribner, New York 1982.
- Paul Duncan; Bengt Wanselius (Ed.): The Ingmar Bergman Archives. Taschen Verlag , Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-8365-0834-6 .
- Frank Gado: The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. Duke University Press, Durham 1986.
- Marc Gervais: Ingmar Bergman. Magician and Prophet. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, etc. 1999.
- Marianne Höök: Ingmar Bergman. Wahlström & Widstrand, Stockholm 1962.
- Laura Hubner: The films of Ingmar Bergman. Illusions of light and darkness. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, et al. a. 2008, ISBN 978-0-230-00724-6 .
- Gabriele Jatho (Red.): Ingmar Bergman. Essays, dates, documents . Edited by the Deutsche Kinemathek . Bertz + Fischer Verlag , Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86505-208-7 .
- Kristina Jaspers, Nils Warnecke, Rüdiger Zill (eds.): True lies. Bergman directs Bergman. Bertz + Fischer, Berlin 2012, ISBN 3-86505-219-3 .
- Jesse Kalin: The Films of Ingmar Bergman. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003.
- Thomas Koebner : Ingmar Bergman. A walk through his work. edition text + kritik , (Film Concepts Special Volume 2009), Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-88377-920-1 .
- John Lahr: The Demon Lover. In: The New Yorker , May 31, 1999, pp. 66-79.
- Geoffrey Macnab: Ingmar Bergman. The life and films of the last great European director , London [u. a.]: IB Tauris, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84885-046-0 .
- Lloyd Michaels (Ed.): Ingmar Bergman's Persona. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge 2000, ISBN 0-521-65175-1 .
- Mikael Timm: Lusten och demonerna. Boken om Bergman . Norstedts, Stockholm 2008, ISBN 978-91-1-301529-3 .
- Egil Törnqvist: Between Stage and Screen: Ingmar Bergman Directs . Amsterdam 1995.
- Egil Törnqvist: I Bergmans regi. (= Amsterdam Contributions to Scandinavian Studies , Volume 5). Scandinavian institute. Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam 2008.
- Linn Ullmann : The restless . Luchterhand, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-630-87421-0 .
- Nils Warnecke, Kristina Jaspers (eds.): Ingmar Bergman. Of lies and truth. Bertz + Fischer Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86505-207-0 .
- Eckhard Weise : Ingmar Bergman . Rowohlt (series rororo monograph, vol. 50366), Reinbek near Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-499-50366-2 .
- Eckhard Weise: Travel in Bergmanland. An approach to Ingmar Bergman and Sweden in text and pictures . Wiesenburg Verlag, Schweinfurt 2018, ISBN 978-3-95632-627-1
- Vernon Young: Cinema Borealis: Ingmar Bergman and the Swedish Ethos. New York 1971.
- Leif Zern : Se Bergman. Nordstedt, Stockholm 1993.
- Ingmar Bergman: The Magic Lantern. Documentary, Great Britain, 1988, 60 min., Director: Michael Winterbottom , production: Thames Television, film data from BFI . About Bergman's childhood and life.
- The women in Ingmar Bergman's life. Documentary, Germany, 1992/93, 85 min., Script and director: Katja Raganelli , camera and production: Konrad Wickler , production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , synopsis and film data from filmdienst.de . With Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Eva Dahlbeck, Gunnel Lindblom, Ingrid Thulin, Liv Ullmann.
- Ingmar Bergman - about life and work. Documentary, Sweden, Germany, France, 1998, 91 min., Director: Jörn Donner , camera: Arne Carlsson, production: Kaj Holuber for Top Story Filmproduction, arte, STV drama, synopsis and film data by Arthaus .
- 3 × Ingmar Bergman (Bergman and the cinema; Bergman and the theater; Bergman and Fårö). Documentaries, Sweden 2004, 180 min., Script and director: Marie Nyreröd, camera: Arne Carlsson, editor: Kurt Bergmark, music: Franz Schubert , Robert Schumann and others, production: Marie Nyreröd for SVT Sveriges Television AB, Beta SP, review :.
- Liv & Ingmar. Documentary, Norway, 2012, 119 min., Book: Dheeraj Akolkar and Ragnhild Lund, director: Dheeraj Akolkar, production: NordicStories, Svensk Filmindustri (SF), Sveriges Television (SVT), Ingmar Bergman in the Internet Movie Database . Friends, colleagues and Liv Ullmann talk about the 42-year relationship between Bergman and Ullmann.
Trespassing Bergman. Documentary, Sweden, 2013, 107 min., Written and directed by Jane Magnusson and Hynek Pallas, production: Gadda Five, film premiere: August 28, 2013 at the Venice International Film Festival , Trespassing Bergman in the Internet Movie Database .
The directors Michael Haneke , Claire Denis and Alejandro González Iñárritu visit Bergman's island Fårö, talk about his films in his house and visit previous locations of his filming. Further discussions u. a. with Martin Scorsese , Wes Anderson , Lars von Trier , Ang Lee , Zhang Yimou , Woody Allen , Francis Ford Coppola , Takeshi Kitano .
- Persona : The film that saved Ingmar Bergman. (OT: "Persona", le film qui a sauvé Ingmar Bergman. ) Documentary, France, 2017, 53:02 min., Book: Maria Sjöberg, director: Manuelle Blanc, production: Camera lucida productions, arte France, series: Ein Evening with Ingmar Bergman , first broadcast: February 7, 2018 on arte, synopsis by ARD .
- Bergman - A Year in a Life. (OT: Bergman - ett år, ett liv. ) Documentary, Sweden, 2018, 117 min., Script and director: Jane Magnusson, production: B-Reel Films, film premiere: May 12, 2018 at the Festival de Cannes , release date: May 13 , 2018 July 2018 in Sweden, Ingmar Bergman in the Internet Movie Database .
- In search of Ingmar Bergman - legacy of a genius of the century. (Alternative title: Searching for Ingmar Bergman (1918–2007) .) Documentary film, Germany, France, 2018, 99 min., Book: Margarethe von Trotta and Felix Moeller, director: Margarethe von Trotta, production: C-Films, Mondex & Cie , Theatrical release: July 13, 2018, Searching for Ingmar Bergman in the Internet Movie Database . With Liv Ullmann, Ruben Östlund , Olivier Assayas , Stig Björkman; Meetings:.
- Ingmar Bergman - Lord of the Demons. Documentary, Germany, Sweden, 2018, 59:57 min., Script and director: Henrike Sandner, speaker: Corinna Harfouch , production: Broadview.tv , 3sat , ZDF , first broadcast: July 14, 2018 on 3sat, summary by 3sat, review :.
- ingmarbergman.se - Ingmar Bergman Foundation with extensive material on life and work (English and Swedish)
- Essay, filmography, bibliography, link collection at Senses of Cinema (English)
- Literature by and about Ingmar Bergman in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Ingmar Bergman in the German Digital Library
- Ingmar Bergman in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Ingmar Bergman at filmportal.de
- Scientific literature (Open Access) on Ingmar Bergman on mediarep.org
- I felt like I was in the tunnel. In: Der Spiegel, No. 20, 1976, May 17, 1976
André Müller : Interview with Ingmar Bergman 1976. ( Memento from July 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), unabridged reproduction of an abridged impression in the Münchner Abendzeitung , 1976.
as an annotated interview: An artist has to eat his animals. In: Weltwoche , 2007, No. 32
- The audience comes to the rehearsal. In: Der Spiegel No. 12, 1969, March 17, 1969
- More like a scene. In: Der Spiegel, No. 41, 1976, October 4, 1976
- Eckhard Weise : Close-up of farewell. The Swedish portrait series 3 × Ingmar Bergman. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , July 30, 2004
- Eckhard Weise: "Zirkus Bergman" - a family business. The master director knew how to artistically bind almost each of his nine children to himself. In: Die Rheinpfalz , December 29, 2004, first publication
- Fritz Joachim Sauer: Like in a mirror. Visiting “Face to Face”, Ingmar Bergman's archive on the Internet. In: NZZ , January 5, 2007
- Joachim Kaiser : Ingmar Bergman's time in Munich. A joyful shock. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , 11./12. August 2007
- Hanns-Georg Rodek : Ingmar Bergman - the white clown is dead. In: Die Welt , July 30, 2007, with picture gallery
- Andreas Kilb : He looked into the soul of the kite. In: FAZ , July 30, 2007, with picture gallery
- Christiane Peitz: The bare soul. Europe's fears and the universe of women: Ingmar Bergman's moving imagery. In: Tagesspiegel , July 30, 2007, with picture gallery
- Mervyn Rothstein: Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89. In: New York Times , July 30, 2007, with picture gallery
- Inspections of the soul and grief for movie legend Bergman. In: Spiegel Online, July 30, 2007
- Ingmar Bergman (1918–2007): an appreciation and a regret. In: World Socialist Web Site, August 28, 2007
- ↑ Production notes on light in winter (Winter Light / Nattvardsgästerna). In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Stephen Holden : Sven Nykvist, 83, a Master of Light in Films, Dies. In: The New York Times , September 21, 2006, accessed February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, Jonas Sima: Bergman on Bergman , Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1987, ISBN 3-596-24478-1 , pp. 88-91.
- ↑ Bergman. Magus from the north. In: Der Spiegel , No. 44, 1960 of October 26, 1960, pp. 70-71.
- ↑ Gert H. Theunissen: The silence and its audience , DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1964.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 19-23.
- ↑ Birgitta Steene: Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide , Amsterdam University Press 2005, ISBN 90-5356-406-3 , p. 32.
- ^ Jean Béranger: Meeting with Ingmar Bergman. ( Memento from January 5, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ). In: Cahiers du Cinéma , Vol. 15, No. 88, October 1958, (English).
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 23-25.
- ↑ Christopher Schmidt : Bergman's first steps as a director. Productions in the basement. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , August 22, 2007.
- ↑ Bergman's directorial debut at Mäster Olofsgården: Theater, 1938 Outward Bound. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Birger Malmsten's biography. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Erland Josephson's biography. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Bergman's debut playwright: Kaspers död / Theater, 1942. Death of Punch. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ^ A b Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , p. 27.
- ↑ Birgitta Steene: Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide , Amsterdam University Press 2005, ISBN 90-5356-406-3 , pp. 495-96.
- ↑ Bergman's 1941 production of the “Ghost Sonata”. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Anders Ek. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 27-29 u. 48.
- ↑ Jerry Vermilye: Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films , McFarland & Company, Jefferson (North Carolina) 2006, ISBN 978-0-7864-2959-2 , p. 52.
- ↑ a b Quoted from Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , p. 32.
- ↑ Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, Jonas Sima: Bergman on Bergman , Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-596-24478-1 , pp. 39, 44-46 u. 49.
- ↑ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 32, 57 u. 65.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , p. 29.
- ↑ Birgitta Steene: Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide , Amsterdam University Press 2005, ISBN 90-5356-406-3 , p. 528 ff.
- ^ Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, Jonas Sima: Bergman on Bergman , Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-596-24478-1 , p. 61 and Pp. 64-67.
- ↑ Torsten Jungstedt in Myggans nöjeslexikon: ett uppslagsverk om underhållning , Bra böcker 1989–1993.
- ↑ Peter Cowie, quoted in the Washington Post obituary of June 12, 2011, accessed February 11, 2018.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 87-90.
- ↑ Birgitta Steene: Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide , Amsterdam University Press 2005, ISBN 90-5356-406-3 , p. 462 ff.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 122-123.
- ^ Biography of Gunnel Lindblom. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 82-85.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 105-107 u. P. 110.
- ↑ Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, Jonas Sima: Bergman over Bergman , Fischer, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-596-24478-1 , pp. 136-141.
- ^ Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, Jonas Sima: Bergman on Bergman , Fischer, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-596-24478-1 , p. 165.
- ^ A b Richard A. Blake: Ingmar Bergman, Theologian? In: The National Catholic Weekly, August 27, 2007, accessed July 8, 2012.
- ↑ Sven Nykvist. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ^ Daniel Kothenschulte : On the death of Sven Nykvist. Light in winter. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , September 22, 2006, beginning of the article.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , p. 183 u. 207.
- ^ Frank Gado: The Passion of Ingmar Bergman , Duke University Press 1986, ISBN 978-0-8223-0586-6 , p. 395; 397-398.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 229-236.
- ^ Frank Gado: The Passion of Ingmar Bergman , Duke University Press 1986, ISBN 978-0-8223-0586-6 , p. 481.
- ^ Lew Grade: Still Dancing: My Story , HarperCollins 1992, ISBN 978-0-00-217780-1 , p. 264.
- ^ Hauke Lange-Fuchs: Ingmar Bergman: His films - his life , Heyne, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-453-02622-5 , pp. 253-254 u. 262-265.
- ↑ Hans-Christoph Blumenberg : In the evening of the jugglers. ( Memento from July 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Die Zeit , September 16, 1983, No. 38.
- ^ Frank Gado: The Passion of Ingmar Bergman , Duke University Press 1986, ISBN 978-0-8223-0586-6 , p. 496.
- ↑ Birgitta Steene: Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide , Amsterdam University Press 2005, ISBN 90-5356-406-3 , p. 745.
- ^ "Bergman, maker of some of the world's most acclaimed films, has admitted that he was a Nazi sympathizer on previous occasions", in: Bergman admits Nazi past , in: BBC Online , September 7, 1999. Bergman made a similar statement - Actor Stellan Skarsgård in an interview on January 23, 2015 in Cicero with the comment: "Bergman [...] was a Nazi and, to my knowledge, wept over Hitler's death."
- ↑ According to Dagens Nyheter , quoted in Saraband. In: Ingmar Bergman Foundation , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Photos with dates of life: Grave of Ingmar Bergman. In: knerger.de , accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ Review of: Ingmar Bergman, Ingrid Bergman, Maria von Rosen, The white pain. Three diaries : shocking testimony to human feelings. In: Deutschlandradio Kultur , February 2, 2007, accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ^ APA / dapd : Berlinale retrospective: Ingmar Bergman. In: Der Standard , October 8, 2010.
- ↑ Mervyn Rothstein: Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89. In: New York Times , July 30, 2007, scroll down .
- ^ Dpa : Mourning for Ingmar Bergman worldwide. ( Memento of December 4, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: kino-news.de , July 31, 2007.
↑ a b Verena Lueken : Documentary about Ingmar Bergmann: Nachklänge. In: FAZ , July 15, 2018, with a film preview.
Jochen Kürten: Margarethe von Trotta about Ingmar Bergman: “He was my master”. In: Deutsche Welle , July 11, 2018.
- ↑ Review by Georg Seeßlen (“Platte of the Month”) in: Konet (Journal) , No. 3, 2010, p. 63.
- ^ Fritz Joachim Sauer (fjs): «The director». In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , September 29, 2006, accessed on February 11, 2018.
- ↑ The Top 250 of the IMDb (user rating). ( Memento from July 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). In: IMDb , as of July 19, 2015.
- ↑ The Top 250 of the IMDb (user rating). ( Memento from July 15, 2018 in the Internet Archive ). In: IMDb , as of April 26, 2020.
- ↑ Review: Paul Duncan, Bengt Wanselius (eds.), The Ingmar Bergman Archives by Andreas Kilb : illustrated book about the Swedish director. The wonderful world of Ingmar Bergman. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , November 27, 2008.
- ↑ Eckhard Weise : Close-up of farewell. The Swedish portrait series 3 × Ingmar Bergman. In: NZZ , July 30, 2004.
- ↑ Daland Segler: On dealing with demons. Schwarzer Vogel Jugend: A documentary on 3sat for Ingmar Bergman's 100th birthday. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , July 14, 2018.
- ↑ Interview also in: André Müller , Entblößungen. Interviews , Goldmann, Munich 1982, ISBN 978-3-442-03887-9 , pp. 40–53, table of contents.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bergman, Ernst Ingmar (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Swedish director|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 14, 1918|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Uppsala , Sweden|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 30, 2007|
|Place of death||Fårö , Sweden|