from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
English:  guitar , Italian:  chitarra , Greek:  κιθάρα , ( Kithara ) , French:  guitare
Guitars of the sort played by Lennon.jpg
Electric guitar and western guitar.
classification Chordophone
plucked instrument
range Range guitar.svg
Sound sample Scale on a classical guitar
Related instruments

Hawaiian guitar , ukulele , viola da terra (guitar of the Azores), resonator guitar ( dobro ), cister , lute , banjo , mandolin

List of guitarists
Category: Guitarist

The guitar , also guitar (from ancient Greek κιθάρα , kithara , an ancient lyre , through Maghrebian - Arabic قيثارة, DMG qīṯāra , Spanish guitarra and French guitare ), is a musical instrument from the box- neck lute family , a stringed instrument for sound generation , or a plucked instrument in terms of playing technique .

When it comes to sound amplification, a distinction is made between acoustic and electric guitars ( electric guitars ). This article puts emphasis on the acoustic guitar and what it has in common with its electric cousin.


A guitar is divided into three different parts:

Classical guitar


A guitar has a neck over which strings are stretched between the saddle (on the head) and the bridge (on the body). The string thickness varies depending on the tuning and length .

In today's guitars, the neck usually does not consist of one piece, but rather of several pieces of wood glued crosswise and an attached fingerboard over which the strings run. This construction offers advantages for the dimensional stability of the neck (if it dries out) and, through the choice of different woods for the neck and fingerboard, the possibility of targeted influence on the sound and playability of the guitar.

In classic guitars with gut or plastic strings, a simple solid wooden neck has sufficient stability to withstand the pull of the strings without disturbing deformation. Many instruments with steel strings, especially Western -, or steel guitars and electric guitars , and particularly basses , however, still have a recessed into the neck adjustable Truss Rod (also truss rod or truss rod ). This lies approximately in the middle of the neck in a curved channel and causes the neck to be pretensioned against the tension of the strings.

Typical guitars have frets on the fingerboard . These help to shorten the string precisely when fingering in order to produce a certain tone when struck. Each fret generally corresponds to a semitone step. Originally the frets were made of gut, later they were also made of ivory or silver . Modern guitar frets are mostly made of nickel silver . Frets made of solid materials are immovably embedded in the fingerboard. This construction actually does not allow the creation of nuances. This is also possible with suitable playing techniques such as pulling (bending) , bottleneck (or slide ).

The neck varies depending on the type of guitar. Classic guitars tend to have a wide and flat arched neck, steel string guitars tend to have narrow and almost semicircular necks and arched fingerboards.

At the beginning of the fingerboard is the saddle . The most common are plastic and bone saddles . They are either set into a groove milled in the fingerboard or glued to the end of the fingerboard. Plastic saddles are manufactured industrially and are therefore cheaper. In the case of bone saddles, a distinction is made between two different materials: between boiled and almost white, bleached bone saddles and so-called fat saddles, which consist of unboiled, unbleached bovine bones. Due to the fat remaining in the bone, the latter ensure lubrication in the saddle notches, which makes it difficult to clamp the strings. Due to their naturalness, fat saddles have a slightly yellowish color. Due to the good processability and lubricating properties, various plastic-graphite mixtures are also used for the production of guitar saddles. The fingerboard ends on the ceiling, usually it ends with the sound hole. Some instruments have "floating" fingerboards that either do not or only partially rest on the ceiling. Such instruments are usually made with a fingerboard wedge, which allows a better playing angle for the player.


At the end of the neck is the head / headstock, to which one end of the strings is attached to the vertebrae. The strings are tensioned by means of the tuning mechanism (translated pegs ) and tuned by regulating the tension. The necessary pressure of the strings on the saddle is created by the angling of the head plate in relation to the neck or by suitable auxiliary measures such as string retainer or "staged" mechanisms (vertebrae that become lower at the end of the head plate).

The most common types of headstock include the window headstock (which is standard on concert guitars) and the solid headstock, which is mostly used on steel-string instruments or historical instruments, as well as occasionally on flamenco guitars.

Many electric guitars have clamp saddles in which the strings are locked on the saddle in order to achieve better tuning stability in connection with vibrato systems. There are also completely headless guitars ( headless design, made popular in the early 1980s by Ned Steinberger ). In both cases the pegs are supplemented or replaced by tuning mechanisms on the bridge. This means that the actual tuning function moves to the other end of the string on the body.


The body is very different depending on the design of the guitar. With acoustic instruments (as opposed to electric) it usually consists of a light, waisted wooden sound box , consisting of a back, sides and top . The ceiling has a mostly circular sound hole. However, there are numerous other designs, especially in the field of electric guitars, such as semi-resonance guitars and solid body guitars (without hollow bodies).

The bridge is located on the body . The other end of the strings is attached to this, or - mostly in the case of electric guitars - below it to a tailpiece. There are also numerous different designs for the bridge with different setting options for the string position, the exact length of individual strings or with special functions (for example tremolo lever - actually vibrato ).

Mood and range

The six different thick strings of today's guitar are mostly tuned to E - A - d - g - h - e '(standard tuning), usually the standard pitch is a 1 = 440 Hz. The open strings are therefore on E2 = 82.4 Hz to E4 = 329.6 Hz. On the 19th fret (classical guitar) the highest fundamental is at B5 (German h) with 987.8 Hz, on the electric guitar typical 22nd fret with D6 = 1174.7 Hz. The guitar (“in C” “”) is notated in the treble clef, a small eight under the clef indicates that it sounds an octave lower than notated in the pure treble clef and thus is a tranposing instrument .

Each string sounds a fourth , i.e. five semitones , higher than the string above. An exception is the b-string, which sounds a major third and thus four semitones higher than the g-string above. There are various mottos for the standard tuning , the best known being:

  • E in A nfänger D he G itarre H abe E IFER (alternatively " H at" or " B smokes") - especially for beginners
  • (s) E etting A uf D he G itarre H Rated Most E - the Merkspruch fits the theme
  • E ine A lte D ame G eht H eringe E SEN (alternatively " B rötchen") - is often used
  • E ine A lte D umme G ans H olt E ier (alternatively " B esitzt")
  • E ine A lte D ame G ing H oday E inkaufen (alternatively " G eht")

This tuning and the relation with six (single-choir) strings has only been in use since the second half of the 18th century. Occasionally one or more strings of the guitar are tuned to different notes. Such a changed mood is called scordatura (= "change of mood "). The most common scordature in classical guitar music is D - A - d - g - h - e '. Less common is: D - G - d - g - h - e '. To play renaissance lute music on the modern guitar, the scordature E - A - d - fis - h - e 'is often used, as the intervals between the strings are the same as between the first six choruses of the renaissance lute. The original lute fingering can be used.

In addition, in modern folk and fingerstyle directions, scordatures are used in which the open strings result in a simple chord. Such scordatures are called open tunings . A well-known example of this is the piece Das Loch in der Banana by Klaus Weiland . The resonance of the open strings gives the guitar a fuller sound. Important open moods are:

The tuning D - A - d - g - h - e 'is sometimes also counted among the open tunings as a dropped D tuning , although the open strings do not result in a simple chord.

In Irish music, the so-called modal tuning D - A - d - g - a - d 'is often used, and you play harmonies whose sound gender ( major / minor ) is not determined because the third is missing.

Guitars with seven , eight or ten strings are far rarer than six-string guitars . The fairly common twelve-string guitar has six pairs of strings in addition to the conventional EADGHE string set. The four lower strings (E, A, d and g) are supplemented by higher pitched octave strings and the two high strings (h and e ') by equally pitched strings. The resulting pairs of strings, each lying close to one another, are gripped or struck together. In this way, a fuller sound is achieved than with the six-string guitar, through minimal detuning of the double strings against each other and the resulting phase oscillations, a spherical sounding chorus effect results.

Fingering chart
e ' f ' f sharp '/ ges' G' gis '/ as' a ' ais '/ b' H' c '' cis '' / des '' d '' dis '' / es '' e ''
H c ' cis '/ des' d ' dis '/ es' e ' f ' f sharp '/ ges' G' gis '/ as' a ' ais '/ b' H'
G g sharp / as a ais / b H c ' cis '/ des' d ' dis '/ es' e ' f ' f sharp '/ ges' G'
d dis / it e f f sharp / total G g sharp / as a ais / b H c ' cis '/ des' d '
A. Ais / B H c cis / des d dis / it e f f sharp / total G g sharp / as a
E. F. F sharp / Ges G G sharp / a flat A. Ais / B H c cis / des d dis / it e

Fingering chart for simple chords: See guitar fingering

Special designs

Guitars come in different sizes and lengths . There are, among other things, children's guitars and also instruments specially made for smaller people, which were played by artists such as Prince , as well as guitars with different voices within the guitar family such as the third guitar, the quint bass guitar and the double bass guitar.

When building the guitar, wood is traditionally used for the body and neck. However, other materials such as metal , composite materials or carbon are also used here occasionally . Small parts such as the saddle also consist of different materials depending on the price range, e.g. B. plastic, horn or bone. Depending on the make, the mechanism can (partly) consist of wood, plastic or refined metal parts.

When building guitars, special tonewoods are usually used - depending on the type and properties in different combinations. The top and bottom of simple instruments are made of plywood. This construction method is inexpensive and also less prone to cracks, but the sound quality is usually lower than that of guitars made of solid wood. The next level has a solid wood top, and top instruments are mostly made entirely of solid wood.

Children's guitar

A children's guitar is a normal acoustic guitar that is made smaller for different body sizes. For guitars with a length of 65 cm, children's sizes are ⅛, ¼, ½, ¾ and ⅞. The neck with the fingerboard is narrower and thinner so that a child's hand can grasp it and grip the strings without difficulty. The strings are in standard tuning . A deep action and low tension on the strings is beneficial for little fingers. Steel strings cut a lot and are therefore rather unsuitable for children's hands.

Flamenco guitars

In general, flamenco guitars have thinner tops, backs and sides, are overall lighter and often built flatter. Bottoms and frames are usually made of very light wood. The flamenca negra , whose back and sides are made of rosewood, occupies a middle position between the traditional flamenco guitar with back and sides made of cypress ( flamenca blanca ) and the classical guitar because of the wood used . Originally for reasons of cost, but now more for reasons of tradition and weight, some flamenco guitar makers do without a threaded mechanism and instead use wooden pegs, as are common on violins.

The flamenco guitar sounds stronger in the upper registers, responds quickly and fades away quickly. This supports the hard and brilliant character of the flamenco game, which must be able to assert itself against the other percussive elements of this music and the dancers. The action of the strings is traditionally rather low, which creates desirable percussive background noises. Since flamenco guitarists nowadays often have a concertante style, a higher string position is sometimes required. Don Antonio de Torres (1817–1892) is considered to be the first to build special flamenco guitars (around 1867).

Flamenco guitars in particular are often equipped with a golpeador , a thin, now mostly transparent, previously often white or black glued-on plastic layer. It surrounds the sound hole from three sides up to the bridge and is intended to protect the guitar top from damage; especially when using the Golpe percussive technique . A golpeador can also be retrofitted to a guitar.

Pick guitar or strike guitar

Left-handed guitars

Fender Telecaster for left-handers

It is usually not enough to pull the strings “the wrong way” on a normal guitar. Subsequent modifications are often unsatisfactory. A few manufacturers build mirror-inverted models, where even the pickguards and cutaways (which should make playing in the highest registers easier) are correct.

Good guitars are not built symmetrically today. The saddle is arranged at an angle to keep the tone on the high frets in octave. The lower strings have a greater oscillation length than the higher, thinner strings due to their larger amplitude and the higher bridge insert. If you were to simply turn the string position on a guitar, the octave impurity would be amplified by the inclined bridge. The notches in the saddle are made differently according to the string thickness. The ceiling performance inside is usually constructed asymmetrically according to the static and acoustic requirements.

Nowadays, most of the major manufacturers of electric guitars and steel string guitars also offer specialty left-handed guitars. Due to the lower demand and the increased production costs, however, they are 10 to 30 percent more expensive than right-handed guitars of the same model. In addition, only a few models from the model range are also offered as a left-hand version. The fact that there are left-handed guitars at all is a peculiarity of this type of instrument. It is rare to find string players who hold their bow with their left hand and play corresponding instruments.

Some left-handers (e.g. Mark Knopfler , Gary Moore or Noel Gallagher ) play normal right-hand guitars like right-handers (the attack hand is the right, the gripping hand the left). After all, there are a few left-handers (such as Doyle Bramhall II ) who hold and play a normal right-handed guitar upside down and left-handed or a right-handed guitar that is left-handed, e.g. B. Jimi Hendrix .

Twelve-string (six-course) guitars

12-string guitar by Roland Oetter from 1977

The twelve- string guitar is tuned similarly to the six-string guitar; In addition to the strings E , A , D and G , however, there is an octave string each . The H- string and the high E -string are doubled by matching strings (scheme: Ee Aa Dd Gg hh ee ). The six pairs of strings created in this way are called (string) choirs , which result in a fuller sound than a six-string guitar ( chorus effect ).

Twelve-string guitars, with the exception of six-course vihuelas and baroque guitars, are strung exclusively with steel strings, since nylon and gut strings would swing too far for tight positioning . The octave strings are thinner than the associated "normal" strings.

Well-known performers who mainly use twelve-string guitars are z. B. Leo Kottke , Melissa Etheridge , Roger McGuinn, and John Denver .

Guitars with an extended range

Pat Metheny with a picasso guitar

To expand the tonal range (with the achievement of a sound richer in overtones ), guitars are built with seven, eight, ten or more strings.

Even historical plucked instruments (e.g. Pandora or Orpheréon ) sometimes had more than six strings, usually double-choir strings. Single-choir instruments with more than six strings have been used specifically since the 19th century. Well-known examples are the seven-string heptachorde and the ten-string décachorde by the French guitar maker René François Lacôte , for which the contemporary guitarists Ferdinando Carulli and Napoléon Coste wrote their own textbooks.

In Russia, the seven-string guitar was made popular in the first half of the 19th century by the guitarists Ignatz Held and Andreas Sichra (1773–1850) and in the 20th century by musicians such as Vladimir Maškewič (1888–1971), Wasil Juriew (1881– 1962) and Mikhail Ivanov (1889–1953).

Well-known interpreters on guitars with an extended range are:

Double neck guitar

Stephen Stills with double neck guitar

A special shape is equipped with a second fingerboard and the corresponding sound hole in the top of the body. This means that either different stringings (e.g. gut and steel strings) or different open tunings can be played without having to change the instrument. It is also possible to design one of the necks for a twelve-string string. Instruments with a third neck are rare, but have also been built.

The double-sided guitar also has two necks, but only one is equipped with a fingerboard, while the second has free-swinging bass strings.

The artist Günther Beckers developed a double neck guitar with normal and fifth bass strings, each extended by a seventh string. The guitar maker Konstantin Hirsch designed and built the instrument. In addition to the normal tunings, the guitar is specially built for The Book of Moods and is unique . He gave her the name g # b . It can be seen in the Beckers ° Böll artist museum in Aachen.

Other well-known musicians who play or played a double neck guitar are Jimmy Page from Led Zeppelin and Don Felder from the Eagles (1974-2001).


Also called Guitarlele, Guitalele or Guitarlele; see Gitalele .


Ancient Egyptian long-necked lute (between 1700 and 1200 BC)

Lute instruments were already in use 5000 years ago. The first instruments of this kind can be found in the Orient. An instrument similar to the European lute can already be found on a relief from the temple of Hammurabi in Babylon (1792–1750 BC). Egyptian drawings show women playing lute instruments from the time of the Pharaohs . The first predecessors of the guitar, like the Arabic lute, reached Spain as early as the 8th century and from there to the rest of Europe. The Spanish vihuela of the Renaissance is the pre-form of today's guitar. It has a narrow body and a swivel plate . The guitar, which was used in the 16th century, especially in France, initially mostly had four strings or choirs.


The name guitar was borrowed from Spanish , with Spanish guitarra via Maghrebian - Arabic قيثارة, DMG qīṯāra ultimately goes back to the ancient Greek word κιθάρα ( kithara ). However, like the lyre , this instrument belongs to the lyres of ancient Greece and is therefore a forerunner of the psaltery and the zither .


African mouth arch

It is believed that the origins of the guitar go back to a further development of instruments that function similarly to a monochord (picture below left). Such instruments may have arisen from a simple bow and arrow. There are cave drawings in the Three Brothers Cave in southern France (approx. 14,000 BC), which presumably show a musician using his mouth for a mouth arch as a resonance body (similar to a jaw harp ). However, this assumption is only based on the fact that similar instruments like the berimbau (picture below center) are still in use today and that there is an almost seamless transition between such rudimentary string instruments and guitar-like lute instruments.

Such instruments are e.g. B. the Turkish saz (picture below right) or the Indian sitar , a north Indian variant of the vina . The Indian sitar is named after the Persian setar ( Persian ستار, DMG Sitār , 'the three-stringed [lute]' in Indo-Persian pronunciation). When and where the lute was first played on a real predecessor, however, is uncertain. Images from Mesopotamia and Egypt of stringed instruments with a neck and a sound box indicate an origin in the early advanced civilizations.

The ancient Greeks played on lyres (yoke sounds). It was not until the Hellenistic era that they also used lutes whose strings, unlike the lyres, could be shortened with the fingers on a fingerboard. The lyres consisted of a sounding body that ended up in two lateral arms, which were connected with a cross piece of wood. The strings were stretched in the frame formed in this way.

The lyre instrument, imported from there after the conquest of Greece, enjoyed great popularity in the Roman Empire. String instruments with a resonance box and neck were also in use and even took an important step in their development. The neck, which originally ran lengthways across the entire sound box, was instead attached to the body, as is still the case with today's guitars. These instruments were mainly played by the lower class, including the soldiers who brought the instrument to Spain during the Punic Wars (264–146 BC). Here, however, the term kithara is differentiated from its Greek meaning and from now on no longer refers to the original yoke sounds.

middle Ages

Due to the influence of Christianity , the demands on the instruments also changed. Especially the emergence of polyphony called for a further development of the design. The sound box was now mainly glued together from boards and the side parts were bent outwards in order to be able to withstand the pressure exerted by the attached neck. Some instruments did not have a pronounced bulbous body, but an increasingly flat one, as we know it from today's guitars.

Although these instruments were known in the rest of Europe, they were mainly used in Spain. The Moors have ruled there since 711 and brought with them an already fully developed instrument from their homeland, the Oud (Arabic al-oud "the wood"), an Arabic lute that is played today without frets (picture left). The renaissance lute developed from the oud in a similar construction (middle picture) with frets: strings made of gut were “tied” around the neck at the correct distance. The Spaniards developed the vihuela from it , which has the same stringing but a flat body (picture on the right). In Spain in the 16th century the vihuela and the smaller four-choir guitar ( guitarra de quarto órdenes ) used for another repertoire, possibly derived from the guitarra latina , existed side by side. This four-course Spanish guitar had three double strings and one single string and thus a more limited range and a less demanding repertoire in the tablature literature than the lute and the vihuela, also known as the “Spanish lute”. The Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist Johannes Tinctoris , who worked at the Aragonese court in Naples, suspects in his work De inventione et usu musicae from 1484 that the four-stringed Renaissance guitar originated in Catalonia. The instruments he describes, however, are more like a lute or the so-called "Guitarra morisca", the Moorish guitar.


Four-course guitar of the 16th century

The Renaissance guitar had - according to a 1555 book by the Spanish music theorist Juan Bermudo - usually four choirs ( guitarra de quarto Órdenes ), rare five ( guitarra de cinco Órdenes ) or even six. Most of the music of the 16th and 17th centuries has been handed down in the form of tablature . Compositions for the four-course guitar can be found between 1551 and 1570 in French and Italian tablature editions by Robert Ballard and Adrian Le Roy , Melchior (de) Barberis (1549) and Pierre Phalèse .


However, when guitar music became more chord-stressed with the use of different rhythmic touch types ( batteries ) in the baroque period , the necessary structural adaptations were only made with the guitarra ; the vihuela died out. This development also took place on Spanish soil, influenced by Gaspar Sanz and his guitar school ( Instrucción de música sobre la guitarra española ), and so over time the guitar became known as the "Spanish guitar" (Spanish guitarra española , Italian chitarra [alla] spagnola ) - now (according to Sanz supplemented with strings by Vicente Espinel in Madrid) five-choir (four-choir in France) and in contrast to the vihuela with only one string in the first choir.

Five-course baroque guitar, Matthäus Sellas (around 1650)
Baroque guitar player, Antoine Watteau

From the second half of the 16th century (also replacing the vihuela in Spain), the preferred five-course (sometimes six-course) baroque guitar , which was tuned adghe 'with two octave and two unison choirs, came via Italy through Francesco in the 17th century Corbetta to France, where it became a popular musical instrument at the court of Louis XIV . The German instrument maker Joachim Tielke made such guitars in Hamburg around 1684, which (as can be seen from a description by Michael Praetorius and a tablature from 1653) were already known in German-speaking countries. In Italy in the 17th century a distinction was made between the chitarra and a smaller chitarriglia .

With the advancement of the Baroque, the style of playing tended again from the batteries and the (baroque) rasgueado (Italian battuto or battente , English "strumming"), the striking of chords, to the contrapuntal and melody playing, the punteado , until a final break in the Early Classics ended. During this time the stringing of the guitar changed constantly, as the melody, as the main element, came to the fore and there was a lot of experimentation.

A well in the flamenco guitar employed technique was the use of (the first time by Gaspar Sanz sound effect so-called) campanelas ( "little bells") as a sound effect in which open strings with handle combinations on lower strings, but are combined in higher grip sheets.

Shortly before 1800 there was a kind of ring exchange between mandora and guitar. The guitar, which as a baroque guitar was usually not tuned linearly, but rather retrograde ( reentrant tuning ) (for example e '- h - g - d' - a) and thus (similar to the ukulele ) for playing the melody on the bass strings (with Thumb) gave the opportunity, took over the sixth string and the tuning of the mandora (e '- h - g - d - A - G, later also e' - h - g - d - A - E). The mandora, on the other hand, took over from the guitar the stringing with individual strings instead of choirs, which has now been introduced. A later legacy of this development on the part of the mandora was the so-called guitar lute , which, due to the lack of double choirs, does not have the option of playing the double strings of a baroque guitar , which are tuned in octaves.

In the 17th and 18th centuries the guitar, like the lute, was also used as a figured bass instrument . Taught for example by Gaspar Sanz in 1674, by Nicola Matteis in 1680 and by Santiago de Murcia in 1714 .

Other composers who made the guitar popular in the Baroque era included Giovanni Paolo Foscarini (1630), Girolamo Montesardo ( Nuova inventione d'intavolatura […] , Florence 1606) and Robert de Visée, and around 1674 Giovanni Battista Granata (around 1622 - 1687), a pupil of Francesco Corbetta, around 1694 Francisco Guerau (teacher of Santiago de Murcia), the Flemish composer François Le Cocq, around 1677 Lucas Ruiz de Ribayaz (1630–1672), an imitator of Gaspar Sanz, around 1646 the composer and editor Carlo Calvi (around 1610 - after 1646), around 1655 the Bologna-born Angelo Michele Bartolotti (around 1615 –1681) and around 1692 Ludovico Roncalli . François Campion (1705 and 1731) is one of the French composers for the guitar of the Baroque period . The Bohemian Johann Anton Losy von Losinthal was (around 1700) a representative of guitar music of this time.

In Spain, the music professor Fernando (de) Ferandiere (around 1740-1816) published a textbook for a six-course baroque guitar in 1799, for which he had also composed numerous works.

Classic and Romantic

In this way, at the end of the 18th century, the (four- to) five-course baroque guitar or Spanish guitar, as it was built by Antonio Stradivari , changed to the six-string (and single-course) guitar of the 19th century, with a more robust and in comparison the ornaments of the baroque guitar more functional design and can also be read in the guitar literature from about 1750, options to a differentiated tone production and at the same time a low sounds stronger than before highlighting as well as by a linear tuning chord inversions (see. also voicings ) while strumming only really audible and sonorous sound corresponding to the music of Romanticism and Impressionism. The installation of resonance bars, which transmitted the vibrations to the entire body, which made the tones louder and even made it possible to use the guitar in smaller orchestras, was also significant for the sound. The first textbooks for the classical guitar (with six strings) included those by Federico Moretti and that published in 1825 by Dionisio Aguado .

The guitar lived its classical era mainly in Vienna and Paris. In Vienna, Johann Georg Stauffer coined the Viennese guitar model. Later than in these two cities, another center of the European class guitar developed in London. The violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini was one of the internationally active guitar composers .

The main composers for the guitar in its heyday were among others in Paris Fernando Sor , Ferdinando Carulli , Dionisio Aguado, Pierre-Jean Porro and Napoléon Coste (1805-1883) and in Vienna Mauro Giuliani , Johann Kaspar Mertz and Johann Dubez . Numerous guitarists, also from Germany, lived in London. The best-known among them were Leonhard Schulz , Wilhelm Neuland , Luigi Sagrini (* 1809), Felix Horetzky (1796–1870), Ferdinand Pelzer (1801–1861) and his daughter Catharina Josepha Pratten (1821–1895). Giulio Regondi (1822–1872) was one of the most important guitar virtuosos after Giuliani's lifetime ; he also lived in London for most of his life. However, some developments led back to Spain as early as the Romantic era. The guitarist Francisco Tárrega (1852–1909) broke new ground with his fingering and touching techniques that are still common today. At the same time, the guitar maker Antonio de Torres (1817-1892) perfected the guitar in terms of shape and dimensions, the arrangement of the (fan-shaped) top performance and mechanical details.

Although there were many innovations in the 20th century - also due to electronics - such as the Bottoni Greci guitar from 1987, their effects will only be conclusively assessed at a later date. The Torres guitar has remained the basis of every classical concert guitar to this day.

Apart from Russian publications on the guitar between 1904 and 1915, the term classical guitar was only introduced after 1946 by the magazine Guitar Review .

Playing techniques

Basically, a distinction is made between playing techniques that are performed with the grasping hand and the striking hand. Some techniques are used in practice with both hands, e.g. B. Tapping . See also: technique of the classical guitar .


Carlo Domeniconi in a classic pose

In the classic position, the guitar is supported on the thigh on the side of the hand. The lower indentation in the body comes to rest on the thigh on the side of the gripping hand. The neck then points to the side of the gripping hand. It is possible to use a footstool to raise the leg on the side of the gripping hand by a few centimeters so that a better sitting posture can be achieved. The neck points upwards at an angle of approximately 45 °. Alternatively, the foot of the gripping hand side can remain on the floor if a guitar support or cushion is attached between the support point of the guitar body and the leg of the gripping hand side, which also increases the position of the neck and an optimal posture can be achieved. Ergonomic disadvantages of the footstool position, such as the inclined position of the pelvis, the twisting or inclination of the upper body in the direction of the gripping hand and the narrowing of the diaphragm due to the raised leg, can be avoided with a guitar support or a specially shaped cushion.

The elbow on the side of the gripping hand should be relaxed and angled about 90 degrees. The forearm of the striking hand should be on the edge of the frame near the elbow. The grasping hand should be positioned so that there is still some space between the neck and the wrist. The thumb should be placed on the back of the fingerboard about the middle. When grasping the strings, it is to be avoided that the finger joints of the grasping hand are pushed through, that is, stretched against their natural bending direction; this hand position, which may be strenuous for the beginner, can easily be maintained with a little practice; it is indispensable for precise play and many techniques of the grasping hand. When grasping a “barre handle”, ie when grasping several strings with only one finger, the extended finger should be placed close to the fret.

Strike hand techniques

The attack hand, for right-handers it is the right, is the "leading" hand. It often sets the rhythm and speed and produces the tones by striking the strings.

The fingers of the touch hand are (based on the Spanish model) with p ( pulgar , thumb ), i ( index , index finger ), m ( medio , middle finger ), a ( anular , ring finger ) and M ( meñique , also q, ch, l, k and e, in Dionisio Aguado c, little finger).

In general, the playing techniques can be used for the attack hand

which can be divided into different techniques:

When plucking, individual strings are struck with the fingers (fingertips and / or fingernails) or an opening pick . In this way, not only single-part tone sequences, but also polyphonic movements can be played. In order to achieve higher speeds and make the game sound more fluid, a form of alternating strike is usually used: two or more fingers strike the strings alternately. A special form of alternating strike is the tremolo , in which three or more fingers strike the same string in quick succession. This technique is particularly known from the mandolin and is often heard in Spanish and Latin American guitar music as well as in harder forms of heavy metal. A distinction is also made between the types of touch tirando ( Spanish for “shooting, pulling”) and apoyando (Spanish for “propping up”), which change the sound properties of the tone produced. With the tirando only the string that is being struck is touched, with the apoyando the finger comes to rest on the next string below after the attack. Another form of sound generation is the one-handed flageolet attack, in which after plucking the string it is immediately muted with another finger (usually p). This can also be played with the string pulled, so that a whistling sound is produced - the exact function of the flageolet and the pulling of the string is explained in more detail below.

  • Plucking : individual strings are plucked with the fingers or struck with the plectrum. This can also be done in combination with a pick and fingers. In this way it is also possible to play a polyphonic melody. A distinction is made in particular between the following plucking techniques:
    • Apoyando , Spanish for " supportive , leaning": applied stop or support strike , in which the finger is stopped at the next lower (or next lower) after striking a string, that is, it is applied. This technique creates a powerful, voluminous tone. The opposite of Tirando .
    • Tirando , Spanish for throwing, shooting, pulling : free attack where the finger does not touch the next after striking one string. The opposite of Apoyando .
  • Beat (also Strumming ): several strings are struck simultaneously. This can be done with a single or multiple fingers and / or with an opening pick. Chords can also be played this way. The following striking technique is particularly important:
    • Rasgueado : a technique mainly used in Spanish flamenco music, in which three or four fingers (except the thumb) usually hit the strings in quick succession in such a way that the strikes follow one another at high speed and a typical rattling effect to produce. An early or simple form of ragueado is the crossing out of a chord from the lowest to the highest note with the thumb and then crossing out from the highest to the lowest note with the index finger.
  • Alternating strike : Name for different techniques with which melodies and runs can be brought up to speed:
    • Usually the alternating serve and hitting (see hitting above ).
    • In the classic playing technique, the alternating use of different fingers - mostly the index and middle fingers - when playing melodies.
    • When playing individual strings with the pick, alternately striking the string up and down with the pick (this technique is also called alternate picking ).
  • Two-hand tapping Also called right hand tapping : an extended normal tapping in which the right hand is also used.
  • Pizzicato / Palm-Muted : you mute the strings directly next to the bridge with the ball of your hand in order to produce a muffled sound when struck. Pizzicato / palm muting is often used in metal and rock songs , but is also a popular effect on classical guitar.
  • Alzapúa , Spanish in plectrum style (from púa: plectrum + alzar: move a little upwards) : Striking several strings by striking and striking the thumb, often in groups of three: single bass string apoyando, then one to four treble strings down, one to four treble strings with the nail side of the thumb up.
  • Golpe , Spanish strike (percussive effect): Strike with your fingers on the top of the guitar or the Golpeador .
  • Sweep Picking (also known as "sweeping"): several strings are played with a controlled "gliding" pick. In contrast to the chord, the strings all sound individually, which is achieved by dampening with the grasping hand. With the help of sweep picking you can play faster and achieve smoother transitions between the individual notes.
  • Tremolo : very fast repetition of a tone (often: pami attack), which gives the impression of a continuous tone. The technique is particularly known from the mandolin and is often seen in Spanish and Latin American guitar literature.

Grasping hand techniques

Vibrato : the gripping finger is gently moved back and forth along the axis of the neck in a more or less rapid “trembling movement”. This causes the pitch to change slightly upwards. A distinction is made between classic vibrato (the vibrato movement is carried out parallel to the string, creating a more subtle effect) and vibrato, which is mostly used by electric guitarists, in which, as with bending (pulling), the string is periodically stretched and relaxed along the fret .

Flageolet : a technique used to create overtones of a string or a fingered note. By lightly touching the string at certain points, a higher tone sounds instead of the tone actually struck. With this technique, a finger only touches certain points on the string lightly and leaves the string again shortly after it is struck. This technique is only useful for the flageolet at certain points on the string. If the strings are not fingered, these points are:

  • Twelfth fret = 1 / 2 string length = octave
  • Seventh fret = 1 / 3 the string length = fifth (also collar 19 = 2 / 3 string length)
  • Fifth fret = 1 / 4 of the string length = double octave
  • just before the fourth fret = 1 / 5 string length = Doppelterz

Flageolets are also possible in other places, but are more or less easy to display depending on the type of guitar. They then no longer form such clear individual tones, but multi-sounds .

One differentiates:

  • Natural harmonics (also known as “natural harmonics”): These use open strings and the above-mentioned points are muted / fingered.
  • Artificial harmonics (also known as “artificial harmonics”): With these, the notes are grasped. The stop points move by twelve frets (octave flageolet). If the gripping hand is used to grip the 3rd fret, the attachment point is therefore at the 15th fret (12 + 3). The striking hand has to do a double job: the index finger mutes the string and another finger (usually the thumb or the ring finger) strikes the string. What is done by two hands in natural harmonics (dampening + striking) has to be done by one because the left hand is occupied with grasping. Since both hands are involved, there is no pure gripping hand technique. Another method of creating artificial harmonics is to tap the fingered notes twelve frets higher.

" Hammer-On ": a finger of the gripping hand hits the string with force. The sound is generated "knocking" by the gripping hand.

Pull-Off ”: A finger that has previously picked up a note lets go of the string or plucks it. As a result, the sound played on a lower fret on this string, or the sound of the open string (= plucking with the left hand).


Pulling (also "bending"): You grasp a string and pull or push it with your gripping finger along the fret axis, whereby the currently sounding tone gradually approaches the target tone until it finally sounds.

Glissando (also "slide": glide ): the finger slides from one fret to another, keeping the string pressed down. This technique is often played in the blues with a tube, the bottleneck . This is on a finger of the gripping hand.

Rake : the first few strings are muted before the actual note, but still struck. This creates a percussive effect.

Dead Note also called ghost notes : the finger is only lightly placed on the string (s) so that only a percussive sound is generated when the strings that are dampened by the finger touch are struck. An example of thiscan be heardin Nirvana's Smells Like Teen Spirit , or in the intro of AC / DC's Back in Black .


Pieces for Guitar, both in tablature , often in special guitar tablature , and (since 1750) also notes recorded in writing. A special notation for guitar that facilitates voice guidance (as it is later also found in Mauro Giuliani ) was first used between 1779 and 1802 by the French guitarist Jean-Baptiste Phillis (* around 1751; † 1823). The notes for guitar are notated in the octave treble clef, so they sound an octave lower. The tablature notation that mimics the strings of the guitar goes back to Renaissance lute music. While classical guitar pieces are preferably offered in sheet music, modern guitar tablature is popular for music from the fields of rock, pop and folk. The guitar player is often offered both variants (as shown in the picture).

Guitar Tabulature.png

As in the rest of music literature were for new sound effects New Music (z. B. in compositions of the 20th century Xavier Benguerel , Alberto Ginastera , Roman dome-Ramati , Leo Brouwer , Hans Werner Henze and Hans-Martin Linde ) for the Guitar developed new forms of notation.

Electric guitars

Electric guitar

In contrast to the acoustic guitar, the string vibrations of an electric guitar (electric guitar, electric guitar) are picked up by electric ferromagnetic pickups or by piezo crystals and amplified electronically , usually with guitar amplifiers . The body is mostly massive. There are also electro-acoustic guitars. These are acoustic guitars with built-in pickups. As a result, the sound can be output via an amplifier just like the electric guitar.

Jazz guitar

The L-5 model manufactured in 1923 by the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Company in Kalamazoo / USA is considered to be the original form of the jazz guitar (also known as the plectrum guitar or percussion guitar ) . For the conditions at the time, the guitar had special features that should determine the standard for all instruments of this genre made according to it. This was a body made according to the model of violin making with a curved back and top ( archtop ). Instead of the otherwise round or sometimes oval sound holes, two f-holes were incorporated into the ceiling. The steel strings were anchored in a trapezoid metal tailpiece at the lower end of the body, which led over a two-part and thus height-adjustable bridge. The neck - until then connected to the body at the height of the 12th fret - released a full 14 frets in the L-5. In order to counteract the string tension of the now longer neck, Gibson inserted a steel rod into a groove along the neck, which was additionally adjustable via a threaded nut at its exit, under the saddle on the headstock. The company had a patent on this construction for a long time.

In terms of musical development, the jazz guitar replaced the banjo that had been widespread up until then . It was still used in traditional jazz , but with the dawn of the swing era it had to leave the field to the "noble" sounding guitar, which from then on could not be missing in any big band or dance orchestra. The problem for the guitarist of those days, however, was the situation of setting his instrument audibly against the prevailing volume levels in medium and large orchestras. Instrument construction responded by increasing the size of the jazz guitar's resonance bodies. Of the 16 "(lower body width) of the first L-5 at that time, the dimensions in the late 1930s were 18" for Gibson's Super 400 and even 19 " for some models from Epiphone and Stromberg. Real remedies were also provided in the 1930s Attempts started to record the vibrations of the steel strings by electromagnetic pickups and to have them transmitted by amplifiers from early radio technology. These first pickups were either placed freely between the ceiling and the strings using appropriate brackets or mounted directly on the ceiling. This made it possible for jazz guitarists The first industrially mass-produced jazz guitar with a permanently mounted pickup was the Gibson ES-150, introduced in 1936. With this model, the US jazz guitarist Charlie Christian became a pioneer of the "brass-like “Game (runs, melody lines and solos) on the electrically amplified rkte guitar. He can be heard especially in recordings from 1939 to 1941 with Benny Goodman's combo line-ups.

After the end of the Second World War, there were further changes in the construction of the jazz guitar. To play in the upper layers, i.e. upwards of the 14th fret, the adjacent body flank always had to be overcome. As an innovation, instruments have been equipped with a " cutaway ", a shape at the point described in the body, so that the left shoulder of the guitar is lower than on the right. The space gained in this way allows the gripping hand to play comfortably even above the 14th fret. The vaults of the back and the top, borrowed from violin making, had to be carved out of correspondingly solid wooden planks, which required high craftsmanship and was therefore very time-consuming. So they started to manufacture floors, ceilings and frames from plywood, which were then shaped in special pressing machines. The woods otherwise used for this (mostly maple and spruce ) only formed the outer layer of veneer, so that the visual impression after the finish shows no difference to the other construction. This allowed guitars to be manufactured faster and more cheaply. This production method was not used for top models, although solidly manufactured tops were also combined with frames and bottoms made of plywood. When used purely acoustically, the plywood guitars do not sound equivalent to the instruments made from solid wood. But this comparison faded into the background, as the jazz guitars were increasingly played only electrically. In addition, the well-known manufacturers had their own pickups in their range, such as Gibson's "P 90" or the "New Yorker" pickups from Epiphone. Others were supplied by companies like DeArmond (e.g. Gretsch ) to equip the electronics of their guitars with these products.

However, in 1950 the decade began in which Gibson caused a sensation with the Les Paul and the ES 335 and the radically redesigned guitars by Leo Fender from California gave the market a huge boost. These instruments revolutionized guitar making and set standards in sustainability that continue to this day. The hunt for sustain, effects and overdrive that followed was never the terrain of the jazz guitar. The fact that it continued to be manufactured by the leading manufacturers despite this development was not only due to traditional reasons. No other type of guitar brings more percussive attacks in the acoustic playing style and transmits filigree rhythm work more cleanly. Electrically amplified, with good pickups, it delivers clear, round tones with substance due to its resonance structure. With these advantages, the jazz guitar has been able to inspire new generations of musicians since its inception.

Semi-resonant guitar

Semi-resonant guitar from Epiphone

The semi-resonance guitar (also called semi-acoustic guitar or semi-acoustic guitar) is a variant of the electrically amplified full-resonance guitar and differs from it by the regularly lower body depth. Occasionally the other body dimensions are also designed to be smaller than those of the full resonance guitar.

The pure semi-acoustic construction is known as the hollow body . In addition, the processing of a massive middle bar ( center block  / sustain block ) can be found, which extends in the extension of the neck to the lower end of the body and divides it into two chambers. These instruments are often referred to as semi-solids because the sound behavior of the solidly built electric guitar ( solid body ) is closer than the purely acoustic version. The term semi-solids is also used for solidly built electric guitars that are equipped with larger resonance chambers inside the body.

The typical semi-resonance guitar is an F-hole guitar with a single cutaway (see picture) or a double cutaway. Models without F-holes are also available to minimize the unwanted feedback effect in amplifier operation. The electrical control equipment includes two pickups, which are mounted on the ceiling with volume and tone controls .

Baritone guitar

A baritone guitar is larger and tuned a fifth lower than a standard tuning guitar.

Electric bass

The electric bass was born out of an effort to replace the double bass with an electrically amplifiable instrument with the same tuning and pitch range, but the size of a guitar. It usually has four strings (but there are also models with five or more strings) that are continuously tuned in fourths. This is why the E, A, D and G strings are tuned an octave lower than the corresponding strings on a guitar. Like the guitar, the electric bass is an octave instrument, so its tone sounds an octave lower than notated.

Silent / Traveler Guitar

Mattias Eklundh on a silent guitar
Travel guitar by CF Martin

Silent Guitar and Traveler Guitar are the brand names of body-less guitars that play like a concert, folk or western guitar. Due to the lack of a resonance body, they are much quieter, but also lighter than other guitars. The sound can also be picked up and amplified electrically.

Another type of traveler guitar is the Foldaxe invented by Roger Field in Germany in 1975 (manufactured for a short time by Hoyer in 1977, then further developed by Field), a foldable electric guitar designed for Chet Atkins (in Atkins ' Me and My Guitars book ).

See also


  • Tony Bacon, Paul Day: The Ultimate Guitar Book. Edited by Nigel Osborne. Dorling Kindersley, London / New York / Stuttgart 1991. (Reprint 1993, ISBN 0-86318-640-8 )
  • Tony Bacon, Dave Hunter: totally guitar: The Definitive Guide. Thunder Bay Press, 2004, ISBN 1-59223-199-3 . (English)
  • Ruggero Chiesa: History of Lute and Guitar Literature. nova giulianiad, Volume 3, No. 9, 86 ff. (German version with commentary by Rainer Luckhardt)
  • Paul Day, André Waldenmeier: E-Guitars: Everything about construction and history . Carstensen Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-910098-20-6 .
  • Hannes Fricke: The guitar myth: history, performers, great moments. Reclam, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-15-020279-1 .
  • Franz Jahnel: The guitar and its construction . Erwin Bochinsky publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1963; 8th edition 2008, ISBN 978-3-923639-09-0 .
  • Johannes Klier, Ingrid Hacker-Klier. The guitar. An instrument and its history. Edited and introduced by Santiago Navascués, music publisher Biblioteca de la Guitarra M. Bruckbauer, Bad Schussenried 1980.
  • Martin Koch: Guitar making . Martin Koch Verlag, 1999, ISBN 3-901314-06-7 .
  • Michael Leonardl: The great illustrated manual guitar . Nikol Verlagsges., 2008, ISBN 978-3-86820-007-2 .
  • Andreas Lonardoni: Pocket Dictionary Acoustic Guitar. Presse-Projekt-Verlag, Bergkirchen 2001, ISBN 3-932275-17-9 .
  • Carlo May: Vintage guitars and their stories. MM-Musik-Media-Verlag, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-927954-10-1 .
  • Jürgen Meyer: Acoustics of the guitar in individual representations . Volume 42: The musical instrument . Erwin Bochinsky publishing house, 1985, ISBN 3-923639-66-X .
  • Johannes Monno: Die Barockgitarre: The history, composers, music and playing technique of the Baroque guitar . Tree Edition, Lübeck 1995.
  • Frederick Noad: The Frederick Noad Guitar Anthology. 4 volumes. Ariel Publications, New York 1974; Reprints (with CD): Amsco Publications, New York / London / Sydney 1992 and 2002, UK ISBN 0-7119-0958-X , US ISBN 0-8256-9950-9 .
    • Frederick Noad: The Renaissance Guitar (= The Frederick Noad Guitar Anthology. Part 1).
    • Frederick Noad: The Baroque Guitar (= The Frederick Noad Guitar Anthology. Part 2). New edition: Hal Leonard, Milwaukee, ISBN 978-0-8256-1811-6 .
    • Frederick Noad: The Classical Guitar (= The Frederick Noad Guitar Anthology. Part 3).
    • Frederick Noad: The Romantic Guitar (= The Frederick Noad Guitar Anthology. Part 4).
  • Herbert Nobis , Tadashi Sasaki: Harmony for guitarists. Moeck, Celle, 1983.
  • Peter Päffgen: The guitar - history, playing technique, repertoire, basics of its development. Schott Music, Mainz 1988, ISBN 3-7957-2355-8 ; 2nd, expanded edition, ibid. 2002.
  • Hugo Pinksterboer: Pocket-Info: Acoustic guitar . Schott Music, Mainz 2002, ISBN 3-7957-5126-8 .
  • Józef Powroźniak: Guitar Lexicon. Transl. [From Leksykon gitary ] from d. Polish. by Bernd Haag. Employee at d. exp. u. revised German-language edition: A. Quadt […]. 1979; 4th edition. Verlag Neue Musik, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-7333-0029-7 ; New edition: Guitar Lexicon. Composers, guitarists, technology, history. Nikol Verlagsgesellschaft, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-930656-45-0 .
  • Konrad Ragossnig : Manual of the guitar and lute . Schott Music, Mainz 2002, ISBN 3-7957-8725-4 .
  • Conny Restle , Christopher Li: Fascination guitar . Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-89479-637-2 .
  • Fritz Rössel: Taschenlexikon E-Guitar . Press-Projekt-Verlag MEDIEN, Bergkirchen 2003, ISBN 3-932275-41-1 .
  • Kathleen Schlesinger: Guitar . In: Encyclopædia Britannica . 11th edition. tape 12 : Gichtel - harmonium . London 1910, p. 703 (English, full text [ Wikisource ]).
  • Alexander Schmitz: The guitar book. History, instruments, performers. Krüger, Frankfurt am Main 1982.
  • Michael Schneider: Guitar Basics - The ultimate hardware guide for guitarists . Press-Projekt-Verlag MEDIEN, Bergkirchen 2008, ISBN 978-3-937841-56-4 .
  • Stefan Sell: The guitar - discovering musical instruments . Schott Music, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-7957-0177-2 .
  • Gerken Teja, Michael Simmons: Acoustic guitars - all about construction and history . Carstensen Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-910098-24-X .
  • James Tyler: The Early Guitar: A History and Handbook.
  • James Tyler, Paul Sparks: The Guitar and Its Music from the Renaissance to the Classical Era. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002, ISBN 978-0-19-816713-6 ; Reprint ibid 2007 (= Oxford Early Music Series ), ISBN 978-0-19-921477-8 .
  • Norbert Waldy: E-guitar construction by practitioners for practitioners. Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8495-6733-0 .

Web links

Commons : Guitar  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Guitar  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikibooks: Guitar  - Learning and Teaching Materials

Individual evidence

  1. The similar-sounding name from the Hindi , sitar , is derived from the Persian setār ("three-string").
  2. .
  4. ^ Tony Bacon, Paul Day: The Ultimate Guitar Book. Edited by Nigel Osborne. Dorling Kindersley, London / New York / Stuttgart 1991. (Reprint 1993, ISBN 0-86318-640-8 , p. 188)
  5. In the English-speaking world and in many popular guitar books, the English "B" is used instead of the German "H", and the English "Bb" is used for the German "B"
  6. ^ Adalbert Quadt : Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1-4. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970 ff .; 2nd edition ibid 1975–1984, foreword (1970).
  7. The guitar family ., Schott Music; accessed on July 15, 2016.
  8. FRISIA-TONE: Children guitars. (No longer available online.) FRISIA-TOENE guitar storage, archived from the original on August 1, 2015 ; accessed on May 27, 2015 .
  9. Michael Koch: Children's guitars, school guitars . Mainz can be found under EGTA on the Internet.
  10. Flamenco Guitar Negra and Blanca. Flamenco guitars, accessed May 27, 2015 .
  11. a b Questions about the guitar., accessed May 27, 2015 .
  12. Reinhard Pietsch and Alexandre Lagoya : "I found an old guitar ... and immediately fell in love with it". Interview with Alexandre Lagoya (Stuttgart, September 19, 1982). In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 5, Issue 1, 1983, p. 13 f.
  13. Józef Powroźniak: The guitar in Russia. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 1, Issue 6, 1979, pp. 19-22.
  14. Józef Powroźniak: The guitar in the Soviet Union. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 5, 1980, pp. 28-31.
  15. Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, Volume 12, p. 704.
  16. ^ Adalbert Quadt : Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1-4. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970 ff .; 2nd edition ibid 1975–1984, foreword (1970).
  17. Heinz Nickel: Guitar tablatures. Part II: The four-course guitar. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 1, Issue 3, 1979, pp. 42-44.
  18. ^ Frederic V. Grunfeld: The Art and Times of the Guitar: An illustrated History of Guitars and Guitarists. Collier-Macmillan Canada, Toronto 1969, 6.
  19. ^ Trois Frères. In: Encyclopædia Britannica. (January 28, 2009).
  20. Past No. 29 , The Prehistoric Society, January 28, 2009.
  21. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911, Volume 12, pp. 704 ff.
  22. History of the Guitar . Website
  23. History of the guitar: The development of the guitar in the European Middle Ages , on . Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  24. ^ Frederic V. Grunfeld: The Art and Times of the Guitar: An illustrated History of Guitars and Guitarists. Collier-Macmillan, Toronto 1969, p. 31.
  25. History of the Guitar . Website
  26. James Tyler, Paul Sparks: The Guitar and Its Music from the Renaissance to the Classica Era. Oxford University Press, New York 2002, p. 3.
  27. ^ The Baroque Guitar in Spain and the New World. Mel Bay Publications, Pacific / Missouri 2006, p. 1.
  28. ^ Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. 1970.
  29. a b Johannes Tinctoris. In: Willi Apel: The Harvard Dictionary of Music . Harvard University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-674-01163-2 , pp. 368 .
  30. Tabazar: History of the Guitar : The Renaissance .
  31. ^ Juan Bermudo : El libro llamodo declaracion de instrumentos musicales. Osuna 1555; Facsimile reprint Bärenreiter, Kassel 1957, here: chapter 65, sheet 96.
  32. ^ Fray Juan Bermudo: Declaración de Instrumentos Musicales. 1555.
  33. Frederick Cock: The Vihuela: large or small scale length? In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 3, 1980, p. 14 f.
  34. Heinz Nickel: Guitar tablatures. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 1, Issue 1, 1979, pp. 48-51, and Issue 3, pp. 42-44.
  35. ^ Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. 1970.
  36. Frederick Cook: The "Batteries" on the Spanish baroque guitar after Marin Mersenne. In: Guitar & Lute. 1, 5, 1979, pp. 34-38.
  37. James Tyler: A Guide to Playing the Baroque Guitar. Indiana University Press, Bloomington / Indianapolis 2011, ISBN 978-0-253-22289-3 , p. 3.
  38. Jerry Willard (Ed.): The complete works of Gaspar Sanz. 2 volumes. Amsco Publications, New York 2006 (translation of the original manuscript by Marko Miletich), ISBN 978-0-8256-1695-2 , Volume 1, p. 15.
  39. Wolf Moser : Vihuela, guitar and lute in Spain during the 16th century. Part II: The Guitar. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 3, Issue 5, 1981, p. 15.
  40. ^ Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. 1970.
  41. Reinhard Pietsch: “Prendi la mia chitarra…” guitar and mandolin in operas of the 18th and 19th centuries . Part 2. In: Guitar & Lute , Volume 5, Issue 4, 1983, pp. 266 and 275.
  42. ^ Frank Bormann: For sale: Barock guitar after Joachim Tielke 1684. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 7, Issue 3, 1985, p. 7.
  43. Fritz Buek: The guitar and its masters. Robert Lienau (Schlesinger'sche Buch- und Musikhandlung) , Berlin-Lichterfelde 1926, p. 8 f.
  44. James Tyler (2011), p. 101.
  45. See for example Joseph Weidlich: Battuto Performance in Early Italian Guitar Music (1607–1637). In: Journal of the Lute Society of America. Volume 11, 1978, pp. 63-86.
  46. See “ Chitarra battente ”.
  47. James Tyler (2011), pp. 13-15 ( The Fundamentals of Battuto (Strumming) Technique ).
  48. James Tyler: A Guide to Playing the Baroque Guitar. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis 2011, ISBN 978-0-253-22289-3 , p. 24.
  49. ^ Frank Koonce: The Baroque Guitar in Spain and the New World. Mel Bay Publications, Pacific, Mon. 2006, ISBN 978-078-667-525-8 , pp. 5 and 19.
  50. also e '- h - g - d'd - a and e' - h - g - d'd - aA; see. James Tyler (2011), p. 4 f.
  51. See also Frank Koonce: The Baroque Guitar in Spain and the New World: Gaspar Sanz, Antonio de Santa Cruz, Francisco Guerau, Santiago de Murcia. Mel Bay Publications, Pacific, Mon. 2006, ISBN 978-078-667-525-8 , pp. 3-5 on Spanish, French, and Italian tunings.
  52. James Tyler (2011), p. 25 f.
  53. ^ Cf. Monica Hall: The Five-Course Guitar as a Continuo Instrument. In: Lute News. The Lute Society Magazine. No. 52, December 1999, pp. 11-15.
  54. On the guitar as a chordal accompanying instrument cf. also James Tyler: The Role of the Guitar in the Rise of Monody: The Earliest Manuscripts. In: Journal of Seventeenth-Century Music. Volume 9, No. 1, 2004. Online: Example from the 16th century .
  55. Jerry Willard (Ed.): The complete works of Gaspar Sanz. 2 volumes. Amsco Publications, New York 2006 (translation of the original manuscript by Marko Miletich), ISBN 978-0-8256-1695-2 , Volume 1, pp. 80-93.
  56. James Tyler (2011), pp. 27-29.
  57. Jerry Willard (Ed.): The complete works of Gaspar Sanz. 2 volumes. Amsco Publications, New York 2006 (translation of the original manuscript by Marko Miletich), ISBN 978-0-8256-1695-2 , Volume 1, p. 9.
  58. See Thomas Schmitt (ed.): Francisco Guerau, Poema Harmónico compuerto de varias cifras per al temple de la guitarra española. Editorial Alpuero, Madrid 2000.
  59. ^ Craig H. Russell: François Le Cocq: Belgian Master of the Baroque Guitar. In: Soundboard. Volume 15, No. 4, (Winter) 1988/1989, pp. 288-293.
  60. James Tyler (2011), pp. 70 f.
  61. Adalbert Quadt (ed.): Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. Volume 1-4. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970 ff .; 2nd edition ibid 1975–1984, foreword (1970).
  62. See also Frank Koonce: The Baroque Guitar in Spain and the New World: Gaspar Sanz, Antonio de Santa Cruz, Francisco Guerau, Santiago de Murcia. Mel Bay Publications, Pacific, Mon. 2006, ISBN 978-078-667-525-8 .
  63. ^ Wolf Moser: Collection of historical sources: Arte de tocar la Guitarra Española por Música. Translated and edited. by Wolf Moser. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 5, 1983, issue 5, p. 331 f. (Part 1), Issue 6, pp. 425-427 (Part 2), and Volume 6, 1984, Issue 1, pp. 55-58 (Part 3.)
  64. James Tyler (2011), pp. 3–5 and 23.
  65. ^ Hermann Leeb: The guitar. Considerations by Hermann Leeb. Part 1. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 2, 1980, p. 37 f.
  66. ^ Hector Berlioz : Grande traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modern. Paris 1843.
  67. ^ [Peter Päffgen]: Collection of historical sources: Hector Berlioz. In: Guitar & Lute. 2, 3, 1980, pp. 22-24.
  68. See: Antonio de Torres; Section: The Torres Guitar .
  69. ↑ Side lights. In: Guitar & Lute. 9, No. 5, 1987, p. 64.
  70. Matanya Ophee: The emergence of the "modern" guitar notation in a new light. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 5, 1983, Issue 4, p. 249.
  71. Matanya Ophee: Hommage au Beau Sexe. In: Guitar & Lute. 10, 2, 1988, p. 21 (on the history of the lyre guitar, on the Harpo lyre ).
  73. Angela Lehner-Wieterik: The use of the little finger of the right hand - still a taboo? In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 10, 1988, No. 5, pp. 18-21.
  74. ^ Wieland Harms: The Unplugged Guitar Book. 20 of the most beautiful songs for acoustic guitar. Gerig Music, ISBN 3-87252-249-3 , p. 112.
  75. ^ Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. 1970.
  76. ^ Hermann Leeb: The guitar. Part 3. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 2, Issue 4, 1980, p. 36 f. ( The notation ).
  77. ^ Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. 1970.
  78. Matanya Ophee: The emergence of the "modern" guitar notation in a new light. In: Guitar & Lute. 5, No. 4, 1983, pp. 247-253.
  79. Angela Lehner-Wieterik: New playing techniques - new forms of notation. In: Guitar & Lute. Volume 10, Issue 6, pp. 68-72.
  80. ^ Ken Achard: The History and Development of the American Guitar . Bold Strummer, 1996, ISBN 0-933224-18-4 , pp. 9 ( ).