Mandora , French Mandore luthée (Italian mandola ), is the name of a number of different historical lute instruments .
The mandora is an originally four-stringed instrument that has been documented in Provence since 1235. In the Renaissance period , the name denotes a small, four- or five-course lute ( treble lute ). Michael Praetorius called them in his work Syntagma musicum (1615-1619) Mandürchen (largely corresponds to the quintern ), also Mandörgen . It may have been the forerunner of the mandolin . The mandola , which has been built since the 18th century, is also related in name and shape .
After 1700, at the transition to the Rococo period , the Mandora or Gallichon describes a lute instrument with a length of approx. 70 cm and six choirs . Instruments with seven, eight or nine choirs have also been preserved. The mandora was mostly tuned similar to the guitar tuning in E (e '- h - g - d - A - G) or in D (d' - a - e - c - G - F). The name of the instrument varies, however: Mandora, Mandore, Gallichone, Colascione, etc. Ä.
- Bass instrument
The bass version of the instrument was called Gallichon or Colachon or Calichon (was and is often confused with another lute instrument, the Colascione ), was significantly larger with lengths between 85 and 93 cm, covered with single strings and tuned in A (a - e - c - G - D - C, also: a - e - c - G - D - A,).
While the mandora was a popular solo instrument, the calichon was used as a figured bass instrument, for example by Georg Philipp Telemann (called Colchedon or Chalcedon there) or Johann Sigismund Kusser (in his opera Erindo , Hamburg 1694). Johann Mattheson mentions it as an accompanying instrument in chamber music ("Das neu -openen Orchester", 1713, p. 277.279).
Shortly before 1800 there was a ring exchange between mandora and guitar . The guitar took over the sixth string and the tuning of the mandora (e '- h - g - d - A - G, later also e' - h - g - d - A - E). The mandora took over from the guitar the now introduced stringing with individual strings instead of choirs.
A later legacy of this development on the part of the Mandora was the guitar lute .
Music for the mandora, mostly by anonymous authors, was notated in the form of tablature .
16th and 17th centuries
Written for the mandora of the 18th century: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger , Peter August (1726–1787), Giuseppe Antonio Brescianello (18 partitas for Gallichone solo, 1730, Sächsische Landesbibliothek Dresden), Johann Friedrich Daube ., Johann Paul Schiffelholz a . a., including anonymous authors.
- Dieter Kirsch: The Mandora in Austria. To determine a type of lute from the 18th century . Neues vom Pasqualatihaus 4 (1994), pp. 63-81.
- Dieter Kirsch: Music for Mandora in the Eichstätt University Library ; Collective sheet Historischer Verein Eichstätt 86 (1993), pp. 14-19.
- Dieter Kirsch, Lenz Meierott (eds.): Berlin lute tablatures in Krakow . Mainz, 1992.
- Josef Klima: guitar and mandora, the lute instruments of folk music . In: Österreichische Musikzeitschrift , Volume 18, Issue 2, 1963, pp. 72–78.
- A. Koczirz: On the history of the mandor lute . In: The guitar. Volume 2, 1920/1921, pp. 21-36.
- Leipzig Mandora Book. (Manuscript around 1730) Tree Edition, Lübeck 2007.
- Rudolf Lück: On the history of the bass lute instruments Colascione and Calichon . DJbM 5 (1960), pp. 67-75.
- Ernst Pohlmann: Lute, Theorbo, Chitarrone . Bremen, 1968 (1982).
- Pietro Prosser: Calichon e mandora nel Settecento: Con un catalogo tematico del repertorio solistico . Diss. University of Pavia, 1996.
- Pietro Prosser: Uno sconosciuto metodo manoscritto (1756) Considerazioni sull'identificazione della mandora nell XVIII secolo ; in: M. Tiella, R. Romano (eds.): Strumenti per Mozart ; Rovereto, 1991; Pp. 293-335.
- Davide Rebuffa: Calichon e mandora. In: Il Liuto. L'Epos, Palermo 2012, pp. 397-423.
- James Tyler: The mandore in the 16th and 17th centuries. In: Early Music. Volume 9, No. 1, (Oxford University Press) 1981, pp. 22-31 and 416.
- Federico Marincola in: LuteBot5, 1999 ( ZIP ; 118 kB) About Calichon and Mandora
- Mandora / Galizona / Colascione (Andreas Schlegel)
- Adalbert Quadt : Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1-4. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970 ff., Volume 2: based on tablatures for Colascione, Mandora and Angelica. 3rd edition in 1972 (foreword 1971).
- Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. 1971.
- Dirk Möller: Plucked instruments in GF Handel's dramatic works. In: Guitar & Laute Volume 7, 1985, Heft 6, pp. 24–27, here: p. 25.
- Helmuth Christian Wolff: The Baroque Opera in Hamburg (1678-1738). Habilitation thesis, Wolfenbüttel 1957, Volume 1, p. 237.
- Sonatina per il Gallichone, in: Adalbert Quadt: Guitar music of the 16th-18th centuries Century. According to tablature ed. by Adalbert Quadt. Volume 1-4. Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig 1970 ff., Volume 2: based on tablatures for Colascione, Mandora and Angelica, 3rd edition ibid. 1972, p. 65 f. ( Minuet by Prince Anton von Sachsen or his musical teacher Peter August from Sonatina per il Gallichone ). Also in: https://imslp.org/wiki/Colascione_Sonatina_(August%2C_Peter)
- Cf. for example Ruggero Chiesa (ed.): Diciotto partite per chitarra dagli originali per colascione. Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, Milan.
- Brescianello, 18 partitas
- Adalbert Quadt (ed.): Guitar music from the 16th to 18th centuries Century. Volume 2. 1971.
- Adalbert Quadt (ed.): Guitar music of the 16-18. Century. Volume 2. 1971, pp. 40–42 (pieces from a tablature for Mandora around 1700).