Lute instrument

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As a lute instrument is any string instruments , the European and sounds from a sound box and a inextricably associated strings carrier mostly as neck extends beyond the body, are composed and their strings parallel to the ceiling lie. With the exception of harps and zithers, lute instruments include all plucked and stringed instruments .


Systematics of the lute instruments

According to the Hornbostel-Sachs system , the lute instruments can be divided into:

  • Bow lutes , also called pluriarc , in which a string is attached to the end of several curved strings.
  • Yoke sounds ( lyres ) in which the strings are attached to a resonance box at one end and to a yoke suspended between two arms at the other end. Ancient lyres: kithara , lyre . East African lyres: Krar , Beganna , Endongo , Nyatiti , Tom . Arabic lyres: tanbura , simsimiyya .
  • Stem lutes , in which a skewer or neck is attached to a body .

The stem lutes are the largest and most diverse group and are divided into:

Another classification takes into account the ratio of the lengths of the body and neck:

With the kink neck lute (European lute, oud) the pegbox is bent backwards.


  • Eric Charry: Plucked Lutes in West Africa: an Historical Overview. In: The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 49, March 1996, pp. 3-37 ( JSTOR 842390 ).
  • Andreas Schlegel, Joachim Lüdtke: Die Lute in Europa 2 / The Lute in Europe 2: Lutes, Guitars, Mandolins and Cistern / Lutes, Guitars, Mandolins, and Citterns. 2nd Edition. The Lute Corner, Menziken 2011, ISBN 978-3-9523232-1-2 .
  • Harvey Turnbull: The Origin of the Long-Necked Lute. In: The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 25, July 1972, pp. 58-66 ( JSTOR 841337 ).
  • Ulrich Wegner: African string instruments (= publications of the Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin . New part 41, Department of Music Ethnology , V). Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-88609-117-1 , pp. 82–158 and 230–264.

Web links

Individual evidence