As a lute instrument is any string instruments , the European and sounds from a sound box and a inextricably associated strings carrier mostly as neck extends beyond the body, are composed and their strings parallel to the ceiling lie. With the exception of harps and zithers, lute instruments include all plucked and stringed instruments .
According to the Hornbostel-Sachs system , the lute instruments can be divided into:
- Bow lutes , also called pluriarc , in which a string is attached to the end of several curved strings.
- Yoke sounds ( lyres ) in which the strings are attached to a resonance box at one end and to a yoke suspended between two arms at the other end. Ancient lyres: kithara , lyre . East African lyres: Krar , Beganna , Endongo , Nyatiti , Tom . Arabic lyres: tanbura , simsimiyya .
- Stem lutes , in which a skewer or neck is attached to a body .
The stem lutes are the largest and most diverse group and are divided into:
Pike sounds , in which a skewer or handle is inserted through the body. The body can be shell-shaped (boat-shaped or round, Ravanahattha ), tubular or cylindrical ( Banjo , Endingidi , Sanxian , Tschuniri ) or box-shaped ( Masenqo , Mongolian horse head violin ).
- Stachel vielles also sting violins , rare mandrel vielles where the neck passes through the body and at the lower end protrudes ( Rabab , Rebab , Kamancheh ). Spike fiddles are usually played in a vertical position.
- Inland skewer sounds in West Africa where the skewer ends inside the body. The strings are passed through a sound hole behind the bridge and attached to the inside of the skewer ( Ngoni , Tidinit , Tahardent )
Neck lutes in which a neck is attached (or carved) to the body and does not go through the body. The neck sounds, in turn, can be divided according to the shape of the body into:
- Shell-neck lutes are lutes in which the body is shaped like a bowl and hollowed out of a block of wood or is created by the composition of chips (body made of chips: e.g. tanbur , oud , (European) lute , buckle-necked lute , theorbo , colascione , angelica , Neapolitan mandolin , Mandola , mandora , balalaika , bouzouki , biwa , guitar lute , chonguri . Solid body: traditional charango , gambus , panduri ).
- Box necked lutes are Zargeninstrumente in which the body is built box-shaped with floor, ceiling and door frames (eg. As guitar , cavaquinho , cittern , violin , fiddle , viola da gamba since , vihuela , Bandola , Tarawangsa , flat mandolin, ukulele , yueqin and mixed forms as the loud noise ).
Another classification takes into account the ratio of the lengths of the body and neck:
- Short-necked lutes : These include Chinese pipa , yueqin and Arabic oud .
- Long-necked lutes : Tanbur , Theorbo , Colascione , Greek bouzouki , Central Asian dombra , Russian domra and balalaika , Turkish saz , Persian and Caucasian tar , Persian setar , Indian sitar , North American banjo , Albanian Çiftelia , Chinese sanxian . Early instruments of this group are in the 2nd millennium BC. Sumerian and ancient Egyptian shell skewers depicted in BC.
With the kink neck lute (European lute, oud) the pegbox is bent backwards.
- Eric Charry: Plucked Lutes in West Africa: an Historical Overview. In: The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 49, March 1996, pp. 3-37 ( JSTOR 842390 ).
- Andreas Schlegel, Joachim Lüdtke: Die Lute in Europa 2 / The Lute in Europe 2: Lutes, Guitars, Mandolins and Cistern / Lutes, Guitars, Mandolins, and Citterns. 2nd Edition. The Lute Corner, Menziken 2011, ISBN 978-3-9523232-1-2 .
- Harvey Turnbull: The Origin of the Long-Necked Lute. In: The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 25, July 1972, pp. 58-66 ( JSTOR 841337 ).
- Ulrich Wegner: African string instruments (= publications of the Museum für Völkerkunde Berlin . New part 41, Department of Music Ethnology , V). Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-88609-117-1 , pp. 82–158 and 230–264.